In summary, of all the Cr3+ dietary supplements that have been tested for genotoxic-ity and mutagenicity to date, CrPic is the most active. The dietary supplement CrPic is genotoxic, clastogenic, and mutagenic in short-term assays, and thus far the only studies attempting to refute the published reports on genotoxicity were funded by the supplement manufacturer. In vivo testing, including the results of the NTP's long-term carcinogenicity studies in rodents, will offer further information for risk assessment; however, further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind the biochemistry of CrPic will also be needed to evaluate the data as a whole.
Lastly, negative results in standard in vitro assays do not guarantee the safety of Cr3+ supplements. For example, chromic chloride is often negative in vitro, yet in animals it is a preconceptional and transgenerational carcinogen that acts through epigenetic mechanisms. Other Cr3+ compounds have not been tested for epigenetic activity. In light of growing evidence of epigenetic Cr3+ toxicity, in vivo testing of other forms of Cr3+ dietary supplements is also necessary before supraphysiological doses of Cr3+ compounds should be recommended for weight loss or diabetes treatment.
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