Therapeutic neovascularization for cardiovascular ischemia is a promising avenue in spite of disappointing early clinical trial results [1]. Targeted therapeutic intervention of a chronic ischemic musculature - either myocardium or peripheral tissue - is hampered by the cause of ischemia itself: the antegrade perfusion of tissue is by definition severely impaired [2]. Several recent developments have been focussing on overcoming this problem, including direct injection of therapeutic agents into the heart as well as percutaneous intramyocardial injection, e.g. via the NOGA catheter.

Correspondence to: Peter Boekstegers, MD, Internal Medicine I, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistr.

15, 81371 Munich, Germany, E-mail: [email protected]

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