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application [75]. Interestingly, even though similar amounts of recruited cells are achived by antegrade application, infarct size did not benefit from this application mode, potentially due to microthrombi. In contrast, retroinfusion of the same number of eEPCs improved regional myocardial function at 24h and at 7d [75]. Of note, neonatal endothelial cells which in vitro were similarly efficient in preventing hypoxic cardiomyocyte death, had not effect in vivo (Figure 4).

In summary, the delivery of angiogenic substrates by selective retroinfusion is a very promising approach, capable of enhancing efficacy of regional targeting of ischemic tissue, which may be viewed as one crucial issue with regard to the bench - to - bedside gap in therapeutic neovascularization.

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