Biochemical Mechanisms Of Cellular Dysfunction During Angiogenesis In Dm

DM is a complex metabolic state with hyperglycemia considered to be a key causal factor in the development of diabetic vascular complications by causing divergent cellular dysfunction [67]. Hyperglycemia occurs as a result of an impaired glucose utilization by tissues due to either whole-body insulin resistance in DM type 2 or lack of sufficient availability of insulin in DM type 1 [146]. Generally, lack of physiological effects of insulin on the cells and related hyperglycemia-induced cellular biochemical alterations are two major factors resulting in cellular dysfunction in DM. In the following, we are discussing major biochemical pathways through which elevated glucose levels can lead to cellular dysfunction: increased polyol pathway flux; increased advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation; activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms; and increased hexosamine pathway flux; increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other products of abundant oxidative stress, e.g. LPO. The abovementioned mechanisms, their interaction and adverse effects on cellular physiology are summarized in Figure 2. The resulting cellular dysfunction involves unspecific cellular activation by oxidative stress and impaired gene and protein expression (growth factors, their receptors and ECM). This leads to an attenuation of the angiogenic stimulus and impairs and delays the angiogenic process.

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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