Neural And Vascular Cellfate Specification

Neuronal and vascular cell subtypes are adapted to perform specialized functions. In both networks, genetic programs determine the developmental timing of their appearance and the positional identity of these subtypes. In this section, we will focus on the mechanisms that are shared by both systems in common. Neurons and glial cells arise from neuroectodermal stem cells (NSCs). Their differentiation occurs in three steps the initial decision to commit to a neural cell phenotype, the...

Impaired Angiogenic Signaling in Models of Regional Ischemia

The long-term existence of a diabetic milieu leads to the impairment of several cellular and molecular processes in angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. These aberrations were extensively studied in several animal models of DM. Animal models of angiogenesis showed an altered expression of several angiogenic growth factors and their receptors in the presence of DM, which was associated with an impairment of ischemia-driven angiogenesis and arteriogenesis 68, 80, 81 . The adverse contribution of...

Alternative Revascularization

In spite of the success of primary revascularization, a fair number of patients still suffer from areas in the heart or legs that remain under perfused. These areas are usually supplied by heavily diseased arteries that are too small for stenting or bypass surgery. The ongoing debate on the benefits of complete versus incomplete revascularization is likely to end in favor of complete revascularization as the need for repeat PCI, adjunct coronary bypass surgery or the increased mortality seem to...

Through Manipulation Of Hif Activity

Elucidation of the key role of HIF in the induction of vascular growth in response to hypoxia has led to several approaches to manipulate HIF as a therapeutic strategy which include the administration of modified, hypoxia-independent versions of HIF, as well as alternate strategies that target prevention of proteosomal degradation of HIF-1 a. These approaches are validated by clinical observations such as a correlation of HIF-1a genotype with the extent of collateral vessel development in...

Therapeutic Potential Of Vefg In Neural Disorders

Cerebral and Peripheral Nerve Ischemia After stroke, VEGF expression is promptly induced as early as few hours after the onset of ischemia, with a peak of expression in the penumbra of the infarct (a region of ischemic tissue surrounding the infarct, which is dysfunctional but can still be rescued) 179, 180 . It has been shown that intravenous infusion of VEGF within 2 days after the occurrence of the ischemic insult enhances angio-genesis in the penumbra and improves neural recovery 181 ....

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Impaired cellular motility & growth Impaired cellular motility & growth Activation of multiple signalling cascades Activation of multiple signalling cascades - Loss of physiological response to stimuli Figure 2. Biochemical mechanisms of cellular (endothelial) dysfunction in DM. Elevated extracellular glucose levels (hyperglycemia) result in an increased intracellular glucose transport. Elevated intracellular glucose can be utilized via a set of biochemical pathways. This abnormal and...

Organism And The Role Of Neovasculogenesis

The adult endothelium is quiescent and the majority of endothelial cells do not undergo cell division in postnatal life with the exception of physiological, pro-angiogenic activity during the female reproductive cycle. Postnatal angiogenesis is activated primarily during pathological conditions like wound healing, tissue ischemia or tumor growth 3, 19 . The vascular remodeling in the adult was thought to undergo expansion of mature endothelial cells through angiogenesis. Within the last years,...

On Collateral Development In Diabetes Mellitus Dm Angiogenesis And Collateral Growth

Angiogenesis in its broader sense describes the growth of new blood vessels, which is a compensatory process in response to either the limitation or cessation of regional blood supply secondary to advanced atherosclerotic disease. Angiogenesis can be observed in various vascular beds leading to coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease (PAD), or can be the response to local inflammation as observed in wound healing. Angiogenesis in its broader sense comprises two independently...