Mushrooms Ebook

Mushroom Growing 4 You

This ebook from Jake White, Certified Mushroom Grower, teaches you how to grow your own mushrooms in your backyard! Since you were a kid, you have probably been told to never eat wild mushrooms But what if you had a way to grow your own wonderful-tasting mushrooms? Wouldn't that taste so much better than bland, grocery store mushrooms? Food that you grow in your own backyard tastes so much better than food from the store. Mushrooms from the store can actually be very dangerous They are as absorbent as sponges. When farmers spray pesticides all over them, they absorb every little drop. Eating store-bought mushrooms is like buying a box full of poison. Jake White can teach you how to easily grow all of the mushrooms that you want, of any kind! Learn how to grow amazing tasting mushrooms that do not have any of the bad drugs on them that store bought ones will! More here...

Mushroom Growing 4 You Summary


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I've really worked on the chapters in this ebook and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

My opinion on this e-book is, if you do not have this e-book in your collection, your collection is incomplete. I have no regrets for purchasing this.

Mushrooms Producing Gyrometrin

Gyrometrin toxin is produced by the false morel (Gyromitra esculenta), a short-stalked mushroom with a brain-like cap of dark brown color. Fruiting bodies of this mushroom appear mostly in spring and are valued as edible, even as delicacies. While many people consume the mushroom without any troubles, others become ill, some of them severely. It has been shown that the toxin content may vary with growth conditions, such as altitude and temperature. More probably, however, the variation is caused by differences in handling or cooking as the toxic components are volatile. The toxin has been detected in cooked, frozen, and dried specimens.

Mushrooms producing Psilocybin and Psilocin

Mushrooms containing hallucinogenic indole derivatives (for a recent review see Wurst et al., 2002) were known in the 16th Century in the Mayan culture of ancient Mexico (teonanacatel). They comprise mainly four genera, Psilocybe, Conocybe, Panaeolus, and Gymnopilus. Most common are Psilocybe semilanceata (liberty cap), and Psilocybe cubensis (golden tops), small brown and cone-shaped mushrooms with slender stalks. They contain psilocybin, the main hallucinogenic component, in amounts of 2 to 16 mg g dry weight, and a second hallucinogenic component, psilocin, in amounts of 0 to 10 mg g dry weight. In dry form, but also as a supplement in honey (Bogusz et al., 1998), the mushrooms are available on the black market, particularly in England, the U.S., and the Netherlands. According to recent reports, use of Psilocybe is increasing in France (Pierrot et al., 2000), Denmark (Lassen et al., 1990), Japan (Musha et al., 1986), and in Thailand (where the mushrooms are consumed in omelettes by...

Mushrooms Producing Ibotenic Acid and Muscimol

These toxins, which target the CNS, are mainly found in two Amanita species, A. muscaria and A. pantherina, and to a lesser extent in A. gemmata and some other Amanitas. The fly agaric (A. muscaria) is frequent in coniferous and deciduous forests, growing singly or in groups. With its bright red cap (which, however, may also be orange or yellow) and the white warts, it is one of the most impressive forest mushrooms. A. pantherina has a greyish-brown cap with creamy-white warts and is frequently found under fir trees in autumn (fall). Toxic doses of ibotenic acid (30 to 60 mg) and muscimol (6 mg) can be found in single specimens of A. muscaria other authors estimated the total amount of the two toxins in dry mushroom tissue of A. muscaria and A. pantherina as 2 and 4 mg g, respectively. Commonly, two to four mushrooms of A. muscaria are ingested to produce mind-altering effects.

Fungal toxins toxic toadstools and magic mushrooms

There are many toxins produced by fungi of many different kinds, such as aflatoxin, a potent carcinogen which can contaminate food. (Some of these will be discussed in Chapter 10.) Fungi in the form of mushrooms can be eaten, but many fungi, including mushrooms and toadstools, produce potent toxins. Some of these are or have been used as drugs. Probably the most poisonous mushroom in Britain is the death cap mushroom (Amanita phalloides), which is also found in other parts of the world (see Figure 19). It may occasionally be eaten by mistake, although poisoning with this mushroom is rare. The mushroom contains a number of toxins several phallotoxins and several amatoxins. The phallotoxins produce violent gastroenteritis four to eight hours after the mushroom is eaten. The amatoxins have a delayed toxic effect, targeting the liver and kidneys, and causing destruction of the cells of both. After eating the mushroom one may experience few if any symptoms, apart from nonspecific effects...

Mushrooms Causing Gastrointestinal Disorders

This large group of mushrooms accounts by far for the largest number of mushroom poisonings, but fatalities are very rare, possibly absent. In the great majority of cases the toxins involved remain unidentified, and may differ from species to species. This mushroom was originally classified in the genus Lepiota, and is also known as Lepiota morgani or Lepiota molybditis (false parasol). It is a species often involved in poisonings in the U.S. and throughout the world, but apparently not in Europe. The attractive mushroom grows in grassland and can be distinguished from edible lepiotas by its greenish spores and greenish gills. The toxin was suggested to be a protein of high molecular weight, composed of monomers of 40 to 60 kDa. Symptoms typically start within one to two hours after ingestion, with profuse vomiting and nausea, followed by diarrhea, intestinal cramps, and sweating. In severe cases symptoms may last up to two to three days. Vomiting and diarrhea can cause significant...

Mushrooms Producing Orellanine

Orellanine is exclusively found in mushrooms of the genus Cortinarius (C. orellanus, C. speciocissimus). Orellanine is absent from C. splendens, although in a few cases of intoxication from this mushroom the symptoms developed were typical for orellanine poisoning (renal failure). The content of orellanine was determined as ca. 14 mg g dry weight in C. orellanus, and 9 mg g dry weight in C. speciocissimus. Toxicity of the medium-sized, fox-colored Cortinarius mushrooms remained undetected until 1952, when in Bydgosz (Poland) 102 persons fell ill after ingestion of C. orellanus, with 11 of them dying from renal failure 4 to 16 days after the meal (Grzymala, 1965). Remarkably, a similar collective poisoning with C. orellanus was reported from France, with 26 persons involved but no fatalities (due to timely intermittent dialysis) (Bouget et al., 1990). Lethal doses of orellanine are known for the mouse only, corresponding to 15 to 20 mg kg body weight for intraperitoneal, and 33 to 90...

Toxins In Food The Past And The Present

As well as being used for intentional poisonings, toxic substances present in plants or spoiled foods have been the causes of accidental poisonings, frequently epidemic and leading to death. Medieval examples include ergot poisonings, known as ignis sacer (holy fire) or ignis Sancti Antonii (St. Anthony's fire) (a French outbreak in 994 A.D. led to over 40000 deaths), while contemporary poisonings may be caused by, for example, preserves containing Clostridium botulinum spores, poisonous mushrooms being mistaken for edible Agaricus campestris, or fish contaminated with mercury compounds (the Minamata disease outbreak in Japan in 1958).

Sexual Natural Artificial

However, whereas natural and artificial selection can apply equally well to mushrooms, lemon trees, and oysters, Darwin believed that sexual selection acts most strongly in the higher animals. This is because courtship behavior and selective mate choice behavior are best carried out by mobile animals with eyes, ears, and nervous systems. The mate choice mechanisms that drive sexual selection are much more similar to artificial selection by humans than to blind forms of natural selection by physical or ecological environments. Darwin understood that sexual selection's dependence on active choice might create distinct evolutionary patterns such as fashion cycles and rapid divergence between closely related species.

Chemistry and Action

Gyrometrin is the formyl-methylhydrazone of acetaldehyde (Figure 3.3a), a volatile and unstable compound. By hydrolysis, which occurs in the cooking process as well as in the GI tract, gyrometrin is cleaved into formyl-methylhydrazine (Figure 3.3b), and further into monomethylhydrazine, MMH (Figure 3.3c), representing the real poison. Both reaction products are volatile, therefore intoxications may also occur by inhalation of the fumes emitted during cooking. However, insufficient cooking, or cooking in a covered pot, may increase toxicity by leaving too much of the toxin in the meal. Fresh mushrooms contain 0 to 1.5 mg g of the poison. The estimated lethal dose for humans has been estimated as 20 to 50 mg kg body weight, less for children, i.e., 10 to 30 mg kg body weight. Formyl-methylhydrazine and methylhydra-zine are reported to be cancerogenic, possibly by methylating guanine moieties in DNA (Bergman and Hellenas, 1992).

Symptoms and Treatment

Only one death out of 24 mushroom poisoning fatalities recorded in the literature before 1961. Separation and quantitation of the toxic components of A. muscaria and related mushrooms can be achieved by HPLC, or by TLC using ninhydrine and heating for detection. With ninhydrine, muscimol develops a yellow spot and has a limit of detection of 0.1 mg.

Biofilm Structure

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). SEM has been used extensively to study the surface architecture of biofilms. The resulting images reveal an uneven outer surface topography, with the high resolution achieved by this method allowing individual cells to be clearly distinguished among a condensed matrix. Although this technique provides valuable information regarding the nature of biofilms, it is not entirely useful because it is well-known that the dehydration stages of sample preparation for SEM can destroy the EPS matrix. CSLM allows nondestructive in situ analysis of hydrated biofilms in combination with a wide range of fluorescent compounds. This technique can be used to form 3-D computer reconstructions of biofilms. These show a variable distribution of biomass with bacteria aggregating at different horizontal and vertical sites, with the highest cell densities at the biofilm base or at the top of the biofilm, forming mushroom,...

Clostridium Botulinum in Food

Cucumbers and cabbage fermented by lactobacilli are popular dishes in the central and eastern Europe. Sauerkraut is frequently consumed by low-income communities, especially in winter. Surprisingly, no cases of botulism have been linked to consumption of such products. This observation may be explained based on the results of studies carried out by Braconnier et al. (2003). The authors analyzed germination of spores of C. botulinum type A and B, as well as changes in spore counts, in mushroom, broccoli, and potato purees. The addition of mixtures containing L-cysteine, L-alanine, and sodium lactate to Canned mushrooms were involved in many cases of botulism. It is suggested that Agaricus bisporus may induce C. botulinum spore germination due to oxygen consumption (Sugiyama and Yang, 1975). It is believed that C. botulinum does not grow at pH lower than 4.5, yet botulin toxins were detected in sour home-canned foods. In Poland, toxins are sometimes detected in home-canned...

Multiple drugresistant tuberculosis MDRTB

Mushrooms Any of various fleshy fungi, including the toadstools, puffballs, coral fungi, and morels. The subject of immune potentiators and antivirals from medicinal fungi is, as one might expect, very large. Within the context of HIV AIDS, commercial product literature and reports have been published that discuss both the potential of different varieties of mushrooms as immune modulation agents and their mechanisms. Shiitake is an edible mushroom traditionally cultivated in japan and now used as a delicacy in cooking throughout the world. Traditionally, shiitake has been used as a folk remedy in Japan. Lentinan, a substance found in shiitake, has important effects on the immune system, and is well accepted by physicians in Japan to increase t-cells for cancer treatment. Japanese scientists have found that the drug can be used orally and that it has very little toxicity. It has immune potentiating effects and may also be antiviral against HIV. It is not known how much lentinan is in...

USDA Pesticide Data Program

In total, 12,264 samples were collected and analyzed for pesticide residues in the 2001 PDP (USDA, 2003). Specific fruits and vegetables analyzed in the 2001 PDP included apples, bananas, broccoli, carrots, celery, cherries, grapes, green beans, lettuce, mushrooms, nectarines, oranges, peaches, pineapples, potatoes, canned sweet corn, canned sweet peas, and canned tomato paste. Fruits and vegetable samples were taken most commonly (9903 samples), followed by beef (911 samples), enriched milled rice (689 samples), poultry (464

Muscular Dystrophy Association

Mushroom poisoning Since the 1970s, the United States has seen a marked increase in mushroom poisoning due to an increase in the popularity of natural foods, the use of mushrooms as recreational hallucinogens, and the gourmet qualities of wild mushrooms. About 90 percent of the deaths due to mushroom poisoning in the United States and western Europe result from eating a type of mushroom known as the Amanita phal-loides. Higher death rates of more than 50 percent occur in children less than 10 years of age. Out of the more than 5,000 varieties of mushrooms found in the United States, about 100 are toxic and most of these cause only mild stomach problems. A few, however, can cause fatal reactions. Most of the toxic symptoms are caused by the stomach irritants that lead to the vomiting and diarrhea common in mushroom poisoning. In most cases onset of symptoms is rapid, but if the onset is delayed past six to 12 hours, the more serious toxins may be suspected. Although only an expert can...

Mycoplasma pneumonia 353

Lowing list outlines what to do if a child accidentally ingests a toxic mushroom 1. An adult should collect the mushrooms the child was eating if possible, a few should be dug up so that even the underground parts can be saved for identification. If there are several kinds of mushrooms around the child, all of the different kinds that the child might have eaten should be collected. 2. An adult should check with the child's doctor, the local poison control center, or the hospital emergency room. If directed to go to the emergency room, the adult should bring the child and the mushrooms. 5. The doctor will check the child's vital signs and consult a local mushroom expert to determine whether or not the mushroom is poisonous and whether any other treatment is necessary. In the United States, early removal of mushroom poison by using dialysis and correcting any electrolyte imbalance has become part of the treatment program. An enzyme called thioctic acid and corticosteroids also appear to...

Heat Production Of Myosin And Actin

Reversible Therma Denaturation

It is well known that F-actin interacts specifically with a cyclic heptapeptide phalloidin - one of the principal toxins of a toxic mushroom Amanita phalloides. Phalloidin binds to F-actin with very high affinity and causes a substantial stabilization of the actin filaments, preventing depolymerization of F-actin and protecting it from proteolytic cleavage. Therefore actin filaments stabilized by phalloidin are often used for many experiments, e. g. for in vitro motility assays. It was shown by Le Bihan and Gicquaud 70 that the binding of phalloidin to F-actin significantly increases the temperature of F-actin thermal denaturation shifting the thermal transition by 14oC to a higher temperature. We also observed a similar effect of phalloidin in our DSC experiments 37 . This effect of phalloidin (Fig. 6) is very useful for DSC studies on the F-actin complexes with other proteins (see, for example, pages 136-141, 149-152), and therefore we often use the phalloidin-stabilized F-actin to...

Potassium the essential deadly poison

That the need for potassium salts in the diet is much greater than for sodium salts. The recommended daily intake is 3.5 g, whereas for sodium it is 1.5 g. Vegetarians take in a lot more potassium than non-vegetarians because potassium is abundant in all plant foods. We must have a regular supply of dietary potassium because we have no mechanism for storing it in the body, yet few people are affected by a deficiency of this metal because almost all we eat contains potassium. Some foods are particularly rich in it, such as raisins, almonds, peanuts, and bananas one banana will provide a quarter of our daily requirement. Other common foods with lots of potassium are potatoes, bacon, bran, mushrooms, chocolate, and fruit juices.

Arsenic in plants and food

Mushrooms can absorb a lot of arsenic and one species in particular Sarcosphaera coronaria was discovered to contain 2000 ppm which is 0.2 (dry weight), but ordinary mushrooms have an arsenic content a thousand times less than this. Some arsenic used to enter the body via the lungs, or at least the lungs of smokers. Lead arsenate was widely sprayed on the tobacco crop to protect it against leaf-eating insects and the average American cigarette contained around 40 mg of arsenic, a good deal of which was volatilized when the cigarette was smoked. Copper arsenite was also used as an insecticide to control the Colorado beetle in Mississippi and indeed by 1900 this was being so widely applied that state legislation was introduced to restrict its use. In 1912 calcium arsenate was introduced as an agricultural insecticide and this was found to be particularly effective against the boll weevil that infested cotton crops. Vineyards in France used arsenical pesticides sometimes to the extent...

Trivalent Chromium Supplementation Syndrome X And Weight Loss

Combinations of niacin-bound chromium along with other natural ingredients such as Maitake mushroom, Garcinia cambogia extract, and Gymnema sylvestre extract have also been evaluated 44, 59, 60 . Studies have demonstrated Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) has been shown to reduce appetite, improve serum lipid profiles, and enhance fat oxidation and decrease body weight without stimulating the central nervous system, while Gymnema sylvestre extract has been shown to regulate weight loss and blood sugar levels 59, 60 . In a study using a combination of niacin-bound chromium, Maitake mushroom, and HCA, results demonstrated that diabetic Zucker fatty rats had a lower maintenance of body weight compared to control animals 44 . Four groups of eight aged rats were gavaged daily with niacin-bound chromium (40 g elemental chromium day), Maitake mushroom (100mg day), and 60 (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX, 200 mg day) from Garcinia cambogia, while control group received only...

Gene transfer to yeast and fungi

Shown to efficiently deliver DNA to fungal protoplasts and fungal conidia and hyphal tissue. This discovery extends well beyond academic interest because the simplicity and high efficiency make this gene delivery system an extremely useful tool for the genetic manipulation and characterization of fungi. This DNA transfer system is especially valuable for species such as the mushroom Agaricus bisporus which are recalcitrant to transformation by other methods. It is also of interest to consider that both A. tumefaciens and many fungal species exist in the same soil environment, raising the possibility that A. tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer to fungi may not be restricted solely to the laboratory bench.

Alternative treatment

Among the most common alternative agents are plants and plant extracts, derived from natural products or medicinal herbs. These are used for their possible antiviral properties and antibacterial and antifungal activity in the treatment of opportunistic infections. They include acemannan, astragalus, bitter melon, blue-green algae, burdock, garlic extract, glycyrrhizin, hypericin, iscador, maitake mushroom, mulberry roots and seeds, pine cone extracts, red marine algae, shiitake mushrooms, Siberian ginseng, traditional medicinal herbs, trichosanthin, and woundwaret.

The Organization Corollary

Superordinate constructs, which apply broadly to several lower-order constructs, are more abstract. The superordinate concept vegetables encompasses several lower-order concepts carrots, beans, corn, and so on. If some things are true of all vegetables (e.g., they provide vitamins and little fat), it is more convenient to have a superordinate concept than to have only more limited constructs. Conversely, adding subordinate categories to break down a larger concept can lead to more correct anticipations. Consider mushrooms developing subcategories of edible mushrooms and poisonous mushrooms is adaptive and potentially lifesaving. Similarly, constructs about people may need to be elaborated on in such a hierarchical arrangement to improve adaptation. For example, we distinguish between trustworthy people and con artists. This sort of cognitive elaboration can be an important goal of therapy.

Ancient Times

No one knows what the first historical instance of deliberate poisoning for murderous purposes was however, by the time of Rome, poisoners were very busy and regularly employed by those in power. The emperor Sulla proclaimed the Lex Cornelia in 81 B.C. By its provisions, a noble person who was guilty of poisoning would be exiled. A low-born poisoner would be given to wild beasts in the Coliseum. Locusta was a famous poisoner of antiquity. Among her many victims was the emperor Claudius. Locusta dispatched Claudius with arsenic or mushrooms, the exact nature of the poison not being clear from surviving historical documents. Locusta also poisoned Nero's stepbrother, Brittanicus, as part of an effort to control succession to the throne. The emperors were not fools and knew that death by poison was a constant occupational threat to anyone who aspired to such a high position. One way to minimize this threat was to employ tasters who sampled the food before the emperor. In the case of...

Heinz Faulstich

3.2.1 Mushrooms Producing Amatoxins 3.2.6 Other Toxins in Amanita Mushrooms 3.3.1 Mushrooms Producing Orellanine 3.4.1 Mushrooms Producing Gyrometrin 3.5.1 Mushrooms Producing Coprine 3.6 Psilocybin, Psilocin 3.6.1 Mushrooms Producing Psilocybin and Psilocin 3.7.1 Mushrooms Producing Ibotenic Acid and Muscimol 3.8.1 Mushrooms Producing Muscarine 3.9 Mushrooms Causing Gastrointestinal Disorders


3.2.1 Mushrooms Producing Amatoxins By far the largest number of fatalities due to ingestion of mushrooms are caused by amatoxins. At the top of the list of amatoxin-containing mushrooms is the green death cap, Amanita phalloides, because of its wide distribution and the high content of amatoxins (5 to 8 mg per 25 g fresh tissue, corresponding to 2.5 to 4.0 mg g dry weight). This mushroom is common all over Europe and also increasingly found in North America. Given the estimated lethal dose for humans (0.1 mg kg body weight), a full-grown mushroom (25 g) will be sufficient to kill a human. The olive green cap of this mushroom may appear as pale or even white, prompting the classification as a separate species, A. verna, which, however, is nowadays regarded as a subspecies, A. phalloides var. verna. In the few specimens of this subspecies tested so far, the amatoxin content was lower than in A. phalloides (1 to 6 mg per 25 g fresh tissue). The white species, A. virosa, the destroying...

Herbal medicines

A significant number of drugs in use today, or which have been used, have been derived from plants. Apart from cocaine and heroin, perhaps the most well known is digitalis, derived from the foxglove, and the pure drugs developed from this digoxin and digitoxin. There are many other drugs derived, directly or indirectly, from plants, a number of which have been used recreationally such as mescaline, LSD, psilocybin, hyoscine, and cannabis.


3.8.1 Mushrooms Producing Muscarine Muscarine is found in mushrooms of the genera Inocybe and Clitocybe (I. patouillardi, I. fastigiata, I. geophylla, and C. dealbata), in which it accounts for 1 to 3 mg g of dry weight. Both genera occur commonly and have a worldwide distribution. While Inocybe mushrooms are mycorrhizal on conifers or broad-leafed trees, Clitocybe mushrooms are saprophytic and grow on forest litter or grassland humus. Confusion with edible mushrooms most commonly occurs with the species growing on grassland.


Because Wilson's disease is invariably fatal if untreated and because effective treatment resolves most problems and allows prolonged survival, every patient with Wilson's disease must begin uninterrupted lifelong therapy. A low copper diet is most important during the first year of therapy, with avoidance of such foods as shellfish, nuts, mushrooms, legumes, and organ meats such as liver. The mainstay of therapy is chelation of copper and the drug D-penicillamine is usually started first. Dosing of 250-500 mg day is escalated in 250-mg increments every 4-7 days to a total of 1-1.5 g day in divided doses given 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. The drug chelates hepatic copper and allows rapid urinary excretion. Although most patients tolerate D-penicillamine, it often has hypersensitivity-type side effects, some of which are too serious to allow its continued use. In such cases another effective chelating agent, trientine, can be used. A third orally active chelating agent,...

Cameras And Ratchets

For many years geneticists concentrated on good mutations and viewed sex as a way of distributing them among the population, like the cross-fertilization of good ideas in universities and industries Just as technology needs sex to bring in innovations from outside, so an animal or plant that relies on only its own inventions will be slow to innovate The solution is to beg, borrow, or steal the inventions of other animals and plants, to get hold of their genes in the way that companies copy one another s inventions. Plant breeders who try to combine high yield, short stems, and disease resistance in rice plants are acting like manufacturers with access to many different inventors. Breeders of asexual plants must wait for the inventions to accumulate slowly within the same lineage One of the reasons the common mushroom has changed very little over the three centuries that it has been in cultivation is that mushrooms are asexual, and so no selective breeding has been possible.


With one possible exception, all luminous fungi are basidiomycetes, and most are in the mushroom family both the mycelium and fruiting body are luminous (Fig. 14.10). Such fungi occur in the many diverse habitats in which fungi occur, with the luminescence being visible most readily in dark forests both tropical and temperate. The most striking reports describe luminescence from the interior or an infested tree split open by lightning. FIGURE 14.10 Bioluminescent mushroom photographed by its own light (photograph by Dr. Dan Perlman) (Plate 5). FIGURE 14.10 Bioluminescent mushroom photographed by its own light (photograph by Dr. Dan Perlman) (Plate 5).

Fungal Diversity

Cause Dutch elm disease and chestnut blight, are Ascomycetes. The Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes or club fungi) include about 30,000 known species. Among these are the smuts, rusts, shelf fungi, stinkhorns, puffballs, toadstools, mushrooms, and bird's nest fungi. The human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, which causes cryptococcosis, is also a Basidiomycete, as are the important plant pathogens, the smuts and rusts. The Zygomycota (Zygomycetes) include about 600 known species. Among these are the common bread molds and a few species parasitic on plants and animals. The Deuteromycota (Deuteromycetes or fungi imperfecti) include all species for which a sexual reproductive phase has not been observed about 30,000 known species. Several human pathogens, including the organisms causing ringworm, athlete's foot, and histoplasmosis, are included in this group. The aflatoxin-producing species Aspergillis flavus and A. parasiticus, important organisms in fungal food poisonings, are also in...

Cadmium accumulates

Cadmium can never be totally excluded from our diet it is present in foods like liver, shell-fish, and rice. Some plants have an ability to absorb cadmium, such as lettuce, spinach, cabbage, and turnip, while the mushroom Amanita muscaria can absorb cadmium in large amounts. Plants growing on contaminated land, such as that around old zinc mines, can have high levels of the metal, and food that is grown on such soil should not be eaten. Even when such land is turned over to sheep grazing they too have been shown to accumulate cadmium in their kidneys and livers.

Copper can kill

It is not difficult to boost the intake of copper by choosing to eat copper-rich foods, and particularly meat, especially that of lamb, pork, and beef, where it is present as easily digested copper-protein. Among poultry, duck has the highest level, but most copper is to be found in seafoods like oysters, crab, and lobster. The plant foods with most copper are almonds, walnuts, Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds, mushrooms, and bran. Eat lots of these foods and you could take in as much as 6 mg of copper a day. At one time food processing companies used copper salts to enhance the greenness of canned vegetables such as peas but regulations now prevent them from doing so.


In order to sell products and services, advertisers slant their communications in ways that appeal to potential customers. Maslow's need hierarchy provides a framework for reaching potential customers (Kahle & Chiagouris, 1997). Many products can be considered from various need levels. Food, for example, fulfills physiological needs, but also is relevant to esteem needs, as a friend of mine recognized when choosing a gourmet brand of bottled mushrooms instead of a less expensive, but equally nutritious, store brand of mushroom stems and pieces.

The Liver

Is hepatotoxic in overdoses, a fact that should be kept in mind by health food fans who drink large amounts of carrot juice. Other hepatotoxins include toxins in hormones, tea (germander), and drinking water infested with the photosynthetic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa. Each year people are killed by eating toxic mushrooms, especially the appropriately named death cap mushroom, Amanita phalloides. This fungus produces a mycotoxin consisting of seven amino acid residues, a heptapeptide called phalloidin.


Schedule 1 drugs On the basis of the Controlled Substances Act, which the U.S. Congress passed in 1970, controlled substances are classified into five schedules. Schedule 1 drugs have a high potential for abuse and no current accepted medical use in the united States or are not safe to use even under medical supervision. It is not legal to possess these substances under any circumstances. Drugs in this class include opium and heroin, hallucinogenic substances (including LSD, marijuana, MDA, mdma, GHB, mescaline, peyote, and psilocybin), Quaaludes, cocaine (including crack), and a few other substances. use of these substances has been linked to increased risk for infection with HIV. Pharmacies, other than those in facilities that are registered for investigative or research uses, should not have any Schedule 1 controlled substances in inventory. Further, physicians are not authorized to prescribe Schedule 1 controlled substances unless registered to perform investigations or research...

Vital Signs

Toxicants may have three effects on pulse rate bradycardia (decreased rate), tachycardia (increased rate), and arrhythmia (irregular pulse). Alcohols may cause either bradycardia or tachycardia. Amphetamines, belladonna alkaloids, cocaine, and tricyclic antidepressants (see imi-primine hydrochloride in Figure 6.12) may cause either tachycardia or arrhythmia. Toxic doses of digitalis may result in bradycardia or arrhythmia. The pulse rate is decreased by toxic exposure to carbamates, organophosphates, local anesthetics, barbiturates, clonidine, muscaric mushroom toxins, and opiates. In addition to the substances mentioned above, those that cause arrhythmia are arsenic, caffeine, belladonna alkaloids, phenothizine, theophylline, and some kinds of solvents.


Mushrooms such as Amanita muscaria, Clitocybe dealbata, C. illudens, and others. Muscarinic effects on the autonomic nervous system are similar to effects produced from nicotine and are summarized by the acronym SLUD salivation, lacrimation, urination, and defecation. Because muscarine is a quaternary ammonium compound it does not cross the blood-brain barrier and effects are more peripheral than central for this reason.


Fortunately, of the vast number of mushroom species that exists, only a few produce secondary metabolites that cause fatal poisonings. If toxins causing benign symptoms, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, hallucinations, or alcohol incompatibility, are disregarded, the most significant mushroom toxins are the extremely hazardous compounds of amatoxins, orellanine, and, to a lesser extent, methylhydrazine and its derivatives. Consequently, there is only a handful of mushroom species that one should strictly keep away from, or at least avoid ingesting. Studying to identify these few species seems more profitable than learning to identify all the edible mushrooms, of which there are so many. Moreover, considering that more than 90 of all fatal cases of mushroom poisoning in Europe are due solely to Amanita phalloides, the abilility to discern Amanita phalloides infallably in all its varieties and stages of development would save nine lives of ten otherwise lost by mushroom poisoning....


3.5.1 Mushrooms Producing Coprine During autumn (fall), mushrooms with egg-shaped, grey-white fruiting bodies occasionally appear, very often on road-sides, which after a few days deliquesce into an ink-colored liquid. The mushroom, Coprinus atramentarius, or inky cap, is edible when young, but can cause alcohol incompatability when consumed before, or together with, ethanol. 3.6 psilocybin and psilocin

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