the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) linking them to the cortical actin cytoskeleton. EBP50 has two PDZ domains; CFTR binds with high affinity to the first and Yes-associated protein (YAP65) binds with high affinity to the second.

EBV See Epstein-Barr virus.

EC50 Effective concentration; concentration at which the substance concerned produces a specified effect in 50% of the organisms treated.

EC cells 1. Embryonal carcinoma cells. 2. Endocrine cells.

E classification Classification of enzymes based on the recommendations of the Committee on Enzyme Nomenclature of the International Union of Biochemistry. The first number indicates the broad type of enzyme (1 = oxidoreductase; 2 = transferase; 3 = hydrolase; 4 = lyase; 5 = isomerase; 6 = ligase (synthetase)). The second and third numbers indicate subsidiary groupings, and the last number, which is unique, is assigned arbitrarily in numerical order by the Committee.

EC number See E classification for enzymes eccrine Type of gland in which the secretory product is excreted from the cells.

ecdysis Moulting of the outer layers of the integument, as in arthropods. Regulated by ecdysone and juvenile hormone.

ecdysone Family of steroid hormones found in insects, crustaceans and plants. In insects, a-ecdysone stimulates moulting (ecdysis). The steadily maturing character of the moults is affected by steadily decreasing levels of juvenile hormone. (-Ecdysone (ecdysterone) has a slightly different structure and is also found widely. Phytoecdysones are synthesized by some plants.

ECG Electrocardiograph; electrocardiogram A recording of the electrical activity of the heart.

Echinacea North American perennial plants of the genus Echinacea (e.g. purple coneflower). Herbal remedies prepared from these plants are extensively used and are claimed to boost the immune system.

echinocandins A class of antifungal agents, large lipopeptide molecules, that act on the fungal cell wall by way of non-competitive inhibition of the synthesis of 1,3-beta-glucans. Examples include Caspofungin, Micafungin. Used in clinical treatment of candidiasis and aspergillosis.

echinocytes Erythrocytes that have shrunk (in hypertonic medium) so that the surface is spiky.

Echinodermata Phylum of exclusively marine animals. The phylum is divided into five classes: the Asteroidea (starfish), the Echinoidea (sea urchins), the Ophiuroidea (brittle stars and basket stars), the Holothuroidea (the sea cucumbers) and the Crinoidea (sea lilies and feather stars).

Echinoidea Class of echinoderms (Echinodermata ), commonly known as sea urchins.

echinoidin A multimeric lectin (subunits 147 kDa) from the coelomic fluid of the sea urchin Anthocidaris cras-sispina. The C-terminal sequence is highly homologous to C-terminal carbohydrate-recognition portions of rat liver mannose-binding protein and several other hepatic lectins.

Echinosphaerium Previously Actinosphaerium. A Heliozoan protozoan. The organisms are multinucleate and have a starburst of radiating axopodia, the microtubules of which have been much studied.

echistatin Disintegrin found in the venom of the saw-scaled viper, Echis carinatus.

Echiuroidea A phylum of sedentary marine worm-like animals.

Echoviruses A group of human Picornaviruses. Echo is derived from 'enteric cytopathic human orphan', where orphan implies that they are not associated with any disease, though some are now known to cause aseptic meningitis or other disorders.

ECL 1. Electrochemiluminescence: production of light during an electrochemical reaction, now being applied to various bioassay systems. 2. Enhanced chemiluminescence. Method for enhancing detection of proteins on blots. Involves the use of luminol that is oxidized by peroxidase-coupled antibody used to detect the protein of interest, and the light produced is then detected on film.

eclampsia Rare condition in which one or more convulsions occur during or immediately after pregnancy, probably as a result of impaired cerebral blood flow. Few cases of pre-eclampsia culminate in eclampsia.

eclosion Emergence of an insect from its old cuticle at a moult, particularly from pupa to adult, but also from the egg.

ecm Common abbreviation for extracellular matrix.

E. coli See Escherichia coli.

Eco RI Probably the most commonly used type II restriction endonuclease isolated from E. coli. It cuts the sequence GAATTC between G and A, thus generating 5' sticky ends.

Eco RII Type II restriction endonuclease isolated from E. coli. It cuts the sequence CC(T/A)GG in front of the first C, giving 5' sticky ends.

ecotropic virus Retrovirus which can only replicate in its original host species, cf. amphotropic.

Ecstasy Colloquial name for 3,4 methylenedioxy-metham-phetamine (MDMA), a synthetic drug similar to metham-phetamine (a stimulant) and mescaline (a hallucinogen).

ectoderm The outer of the three germ layers of the embryo (the other two being mesoderm and endoderm). Ectoderm gives rise to epidermis and neural tissue.

ectoenzyme Enzyme that is secreted from a cell or located on the outer surface of the plasma membrane and therefore able to act on extracellular substrates.

ectomycorrhiza Ectotrophic mycorrhiza Mycorrhiza with a well-developed layer of fungal mycelium on the outside of the root interconnected with hyphae both within the root cortex and also ramifying through the soil. Fungus is often a basidiomycete. See endomycorrhiza, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza.

ectopic Misplaced, not in the normal location.

ectoplasm Granule-free cytoplasm of amoeba lying immediately below the plasma membrane.

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