CapG See gCap39

capillary The small blood vessels that link arterioles with venules. Lumen may be formed within a single endothelial cell, and have a diameter less than that of an erythrocyte, which must deform to pass through. Blood flow through capillaries can be regulated by precapillary sphincters, and each capillary probably only carries blood for part of the time.

capillary electrophoresis High resolution elec-trophoretic method for separating compounds, such as peptides, by electro-osmotic flow through long (~100 cm), narrow (<100 |i,m) silica columns. With sensitive detectors, attomolar concentrations can be detected.

capnine 2-Amino-3-hydroxy-15-methylhexadecane-1-sul-fonic acid Sulphonolipid, a sulphonic acid derivative of ceramide, isolated from the envelope of the Cytophaga/Flexibacter group of Gram-negative bacteria. The acetylated form of capnine seems to be necessary for gliding motility.

capnophilic Organisms that grow best at concentrations of carbon dioxide higher than in air.

capping 1. Movement of cross-linked cell-surface material to the posterior region of a moving cell or to the perinu-clear region. 2. The intracellular accumulation of intermediate filament protein in the pericentriolar region following microtubule disruption by colchicine. 3. The blocking of further addition of subunits by binding of a cap protein to the free end of a linear polymer such as actin. See also cap-binding protein.

capping protein Cap32/34 Capping protein from the Z-disc of muscle, CapZ.

cappuccino 1. Actin-nucleation factor that regulates the onset of ooplasmic streaming in Drosophila. Like spire, a maternal-effect locus that participates in pattern formation in both the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes of the early embryo. 2. Product of a gene mutated in mouse Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome model, co-assembles with pallidin and muted proteins in the BLOC-1 complex. Maps to mouse chromosome 5 and syntenic human chromosome 4p.

capsaicin 8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide Molecule in chilli peppers that makes them hot and will stimulate release of neurogenic peptides (Substance P, neurokinins) from sensory neurons. Acts on the vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1). Can be used to desensitize nociceptors to which it binds -and which may eventually be killed.

capsazepine Competitive capsaicin antagonist.

Capsicum Genus that includes red peppers, pimentoes and green peppers. See capsaicin.

capsid A protein coat that covers the nucleoprotein core or nucleic acid of a virion. Commonly shows icosahedral symmetry and may itself be enclosed in an envelope (as in the Togaviridae). The capsid is built up of subunits (some integer multiple of 60, the number required to give strict icosahedral symmetry) that self-assemble in a pattern typical of a particular virus. The subunits are often packed, in smaller capsids, into five- or six-membered rings (pen-tamers or hexamers) that constitute the morphological unit (capsomere). The packing of subunits is not perfectly symmetrical in most cases, and some units may have strained interactions and are said to have quasi-equivalence of bonding to adjacent units.

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