Five Steps to Mindfulness

Seven Minute Mindfulness

Seven Minute Mindfulness is an audio targeted at using the most natural way to maintain a good focus and the mindfulness people need for their daily activities. It combines the various religious methods to reach a balance in ensuring the users reach the highest point of mindfulness they can ever attain. To help them reach this height, the program had been prepared to take only seven minutes of your time. Pending the time of its usage, the users will not have to spend a lot of time dealing with it. The Seven Minute Mindfulness was designed to be used on any device. Getting started is simple and will take just a few minutes after ordering. It comes with various bonuses like The Seven Minute Mindfulness Guidebook (A digital manual that comes along with the audio version); Your Little Book Of Mindfulness Exercises (A digital guide to some exercises that can be practised in the house)The product is in a digital format of Audio messages and has been created at a very affordable price. In case it does not meet their demands or desires, the users have the right to ask for a refund of their money within three months. The implication is that they are given the chance to try it at home and if they suddenly become sceptical or grow cold feet, they will get a 100% refund. Read more...

Seven Minute Mindfulness Summary

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Author: Greg Thurston
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The Mindful Reset

The mindful reset enables you to determine environmental causes although reaping benefits for you towards the fullest extent. It's guaranteed that your life high quality could be enhanced within a couple days of this program purchase. This course is very good for helping to deal with anxiety and many people find that it reduces its impact. If you have regular panic attacks, it is also very good for you .this program is scientifically tested and gives you quality amount of strategies to help you get a moment out of your stressful schedule. This program is easy to use and comprehend, it saves your income, and it has specialized features. The mindful reset also offers 24/7 support in the event of any difficulty or complaint. Although mindfulness was originally practiced by Buddhists, it is more of a life practice. This course is completely secular and does not require you to believe anything specific nor will it ask you not to believe anything that you already believe. Almost everyone can benefit from this course. If you feel stressed or not stressed, if you feel low or happy. We can all benefit from learning to be more present and to find new ways of being in this world that are more helpful to ourselves and others. Read more...

The Mindful Reset Summary

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Creator: Jess Bigogno
Official Website: courses.theresetbutton.co.uk
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Primitive Functioning Primary Process

The id functions according to the purely instinctive and unsocialized primary process. Primary process is as blind and inflexible as the instinctive impulses that draw a moth to a candle flame, and its consequences can be as deadly. Primary process ignores time, recognizing no past and no future, only the present moment. It demands immediate gratification it cannot wait or plan. If reality does not satisfy its urges, it may resort to hallucinatory wish fulfillment, that is, simply imagine that its needs are met. As a sexually aroused dreamer conjures up a lover, a psychotic individual might hallucinate a boat in a stormy sea. This, of course, is not adaptive in the real world.

Additional Resources And Advanced Material

In Part II, we introduce you to additional resources and advanced research on Raynaud's phenomenon. All too often, patients who conduct their own research are overwhelmed by the difficulty in finding and organizing information. The purpose of the following chapters is to provide you an organized and structured format to help you find additional information resources on Raynaud's phenomenon. In Part II, as in Part I, our objective is not to interpret the latest advances on Raynaud's phenomenon or render an opinion. Rather, our goal is to give you access to original research and to increase your awareness of sources you may not have already considered. In this way, you will come across the advanced materials often referred to in pamphlets, books, or other general works. Once again, some of this material is technical in nature, so consultation with a professional familiar with Raynaud's phenomenon is suggested.

Why study single neurons

Vallbo and colleagues (see Valbo, 1989) demonstrated that human subjects (actually, the experimenters themselves) can detect the occurrence of a single impulse in a single sensory fiber. They inserted a fine metal microelectrode, insulated up to its tip, into the nerve that runs from the hand to the spinal cord and then connects to the brain. With fortunate placement of the electrode it is possible to record the activity of just one fiber, and in such a case a certain region on the hand or finger may be found that, when touched, causes a succession of brief, equal-sized pulses to appear on the oscilloscope screen and to be heard through the loudspeaker as a volley of brief clicks. These action potentials come from a single sensory fiber, and one can reduce the intensity of the mechanical stimulus until it only causes, on average, a single action potential. Will this minimal response ever be felt For some types of touch receptors at the fingertip, it can it is felt as a brief and very...

Experimental Studies of Judgments

The personal unconscious contains material repressed during individual experience. The collective unconscious contains transpersonal, inherited material, including several archetypes that serve as patterns for experience. Jung encouraged people to encounter the unconscious through symbols in dreams, myths, religion, and cultural rituals. Modern myths, as well as ancient ones, are valuable and should continue to be developed by individuals leading a creative symbolic life. Jung discussed mystical, paranormal phenomena in his concept of synchronicity, or meaningful coincidence. He developed a Word Association Test. He interpreted dreams as compensatory to conscious awareness.

Attention The Spotlight of Consciousness

Self-organizing microtubule networks inside dendrites do have the actor status needed to deliberately direct attention and consciousness. Because mi-crotubules can polymerize and depolymerize, they can search for and activate particular subsynaptic sites. Although release of glutamate, acetylcholine and monoamines is obligatory for full conscious awareness, this behavioral state must also rely on the biophysical state of the microtubule network. Just as phosphorylation of MAP2 and its subsequent binding can affect the biophys

The Contents Question

There are two sets of questions about our conscious awareness. One is what might be called the objective scientific question What are we entitled to conclude about perception from certain perceptual experiences we have The other, logically prior question is what the content of our perceptual experience is What is the thing about which questions of interpretation can be raised This question is independent of methodological issues concerned with how one should interpret reports of ''how something looks.'' The question even applies to one's understanding of the content of one's own conscious experiences. The question what do I experience when I look at this stimulus is fraught with problems. One might reasonably take the position that to ask what we experience is already to take a theoretical stand, namely that the content of the experience is transparent to the person who experiences it it is part of what Sellars (1956) called ''the given.'' There has been a considerable amount of...

Synapses and action potentials

From the debate concerning the origins of subjectivity, several schools of thought - from quantum mechanical arguments to agent environment interaction approaches - have emerged. Most of those arguments have some relevance to the consciousness debate, but it is surprising how few hypotheses concerning specifically the problem of subjectivity have been developed with neuron physiology (as distinct from brain circuitry) as the focus of the argument. While many appear to believe that a particularly cleverly-designed circuit might produce subjective awareness and while others argue that the topic of subjectivity can be resolved at a strictly philosophical, psychological or even quantum mechanical level, here I argue that the key to understanding the emergent property of subjectivity exhibited by multicellular nervous systems lies at the single-neuron level. The argument that I develop in this chapter is that there are cellular-level protophenomena (MacLennan 1996) whose explication allows...

Ability to Share Knowledge

IMPLEMENT AN EFFECTIVE TRAINING PROGRAM AND NETWORKING OPPORTUNITIES. An effective training program, along with appropriate testing, is essential for proactive establishment of emotional awareness. Departments or teams can use one of many tests, including the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso, 2002) and those provided by Weisinger (1998) and Bar-On (2000). Benner's (1984) novice to expert model, which models nursing competency at five levels, might also be applied to development of emotional awareness.

The neurons two modes of contact with the external world

Scandal or otherwise, it is clear that, with a few notable exceptions (Eccles 1990 Pribram 1991 MacLennan 1996), the properties of neurons have not been a major point of discussion in consciousness studies. Without necessarily being able to defend an explicit argument about the relevant neuronal wiring, the view that awareness is a property that emerges full-blown without a neuronlevel analog from large brain systems is tacitly held by many. The unfortunate consequence of proceeding directly to the complex network level without first getting the unit processes into proper focus has meant that problems that are perhaps easily resolved at the cellular level are left to fester into nightmares of entangled issues where cellular, organismic and philosophical problems are jumbled together. Let us therefore return once more to the single-cell level to see if a self-consistent view of the big problems of consciousness studies can then be achieved.

Cellularlevel and organismlevel definitions

By its very nature, the focus of sensitivity needs to be contrasted with a larger context. In other words, foreground objects are in the foreground because they stand out from a background it is the presence of the background that makes the foreground more than a lone stimulus. In this view, the reptilian brain that can respond with the coordinated activity of a large number of motor neurons arguably lacks awareness in so far as the motor response cannot be suppressed. But the mammal capable of suppressing the motor response arguably has the neural mechanisms necessary for awareness - an ability to see the forest while responding to the trees. Finally, human consciousness denotes a capacity not only to suppress motor responses - and thus take the delaying action that can allow one to plan and make decisions, but also to simulate the decision mechanisms before or after the event. In order for a psychological process to be simulated, however, there must...

Impairments Of Metacognition

The term metacognition has been applied to different processes. Some theorists (Flavell, 1981 Flavell et al., 1970 Metcalfe & Shimamura, 1996) have used the word to mean conscious awareness of one's cognitive abilities, in other words, what we know about what we know. A different use of the term metacognition is a product of the information-processing approach to theoretical models of cognition, which assume a system whose activities and resources are monitored by a central executive. In these models, metacognition refers to the self-regulatory activities of the cognitive system (Brown, 1978 Brown & Deloache, 1978). This aspect might be conceptualized as what we do about what we know. As has been alluded to above, successful memorial performance involves more than the passive registration and retrieval of information. It can also involve strategic manipulation of information, assessment of ongoing processes, monitoring of performance or appraisal of feedback. There is a rich tradition...

Monadological Implications of Non Hermitean Dual Mode QBD

Imagine that each brain is a windowless monad 19 , rather than a wet computer. Weighted possibilities are interpenetrated in the monad's fluctuating attunement. Actualities are continually unfolded within each monad in the match between the brain monad's situatedness and input from reality. World-thrownness is continually disclosed in the conjugate match between dual modes during waking and in dreaming too 8 . Monads with by and large the same attunement learned through local socialization practices, and by and large the same input, will constitute by and large the same world. There is no world-in-common transcendent to our consciousnesses but parallel monadic world-thrownnesses, hoisted by scattered monads that are entranced

Cognitive Neuroscience Theory of Aesthetics

Throughout this book, I have been searching for visual truth with one fundamental question How are things in the physical world (such as Mona Lisa and all her friends) represented in the mind of man I hope you are convinced by now, as I am, that the neurological processes in all humans are approximately the same that the historical development of art and the emergence of conscious AWAREness were concurrent and interactive (with consciousness an antecedent to art) that internally represented impressions are not the same as events in the real world that perception and cognition evolved for purposes of survival and procreation that all art (as well as all perception) is distorted by the eye and brain and that we see the world of art (and all other percepts) through individual and collective prisms which are consensu-ally agreed to represent truth.

Repression Inhibition and Defense Mechanisms

The results showed that the combined ratmgs from the three judges were significantly and positively associated with the time it took for a stimulus to be consciously perceived. Moreover, the objectively-scored Hysteroid-Obsessoid Questionnaire confirmed the result. In other words, the more repressive style people have, the longer it takes them to consciously perceive a stimulus. Neither age nor IQ was related to the length of time it takes for the stimulus to be perceived. As the authors acknowledge, this finding is but a first step in demonstrating how repression might operate to keep tilings out of conscious awareness, but it is the first study to report the neurophysiological underpinnings of repression.

Relaxation Techniques

You can also incorporate mindfulness, the practice of being aware of your thoughts and feelings, in everyday life. Try the following 4. If the present moment involves stress perhaps you're about to speak in public or undergo a medical test observe your thoughts and emotions and how they affect your body.

Biography of Carl Jung

He reported several personal experiences of psychic phenomena, which he understood as manifestations of a broad, transpersonal collective unconscious. For example, Jung is said to have dreamt of Winston Churchill whenever the English politician came near Switzerland, even though Jung had no conscious awareness of his arrival (G. Wehr, 1987, p. 357). Understanding this collective unconscious was Jung's major life task. Indeed, legend has it that many of Jung's students had nightmares before learning of his death in 1961. Jung's development of his own archetypal psychology was something he portrayed in the language of a hero, confronting great threats in order to accomplish good. This portrayal can be understood as a personal myth that Jung developed, describing escape from historical time to a timeless and more glamorous alternative (Pietikainen, 1999).

About the Sense of Symbolic Immortality Scale

Drolet was interested in the concept of existential anxiety. People who suffer from existential anxiety experience despair and emptiness. They do not find meaning in their day-to-day activities and they feel lost. According to Drolet, these people have not come to terms with their mortality. Death, he has written, is the ultimate given of our existence. While we may push thoughts of our eventual death out of our conscious awareness, the knowledge that we are mortal is always with us. We must achieve, Dro-let argues, a personal and authentic awareness of death if we are to live to the fullest and to achieve our human potential. The prospect of our death is a deadening image, and if we are to find meaning in our life, we must accept its reality, which will then enable us to experience vitalizing images images that energize us and enable us to experience the joy of life.

Overview of the Contributions

Formation processing in the brain, with the level of relevant detail varying among philosophical stances. Hameroff strongly disagrees that all-or-none firings of axonal action potentials (spikes) could alone account for higher brain functions. Moreover, these simple binary states are comparable to unitary information states and switches in classical computers, which may not suffice in recapitulating consciousness given that consciousness presumably emerges from nonlinear dynamics of neuronal networks. Hameroff further argues that conscious states are sculpted by the modulation of electrochemical synapses and form metastable patterns identified with conscious experience (e.g. 16, 55 ). Hameroff applies his analogy to a nonliving robot, and argues that if a robot were precisely constructed to mimic the brain activities, which modern neuroscience assumes to be relevant to consciousness, then the robot would be conscious regardless of its material basis. Lastly, Hameroff presents an...

Decubitus ulcer See bedsore

Defense mechanism A term originating in psychoanalysis, widely used in psychology and psychiatry, for a pattern of feeling, thought, or behavior that arises in response to perceptions of psychic danger, thus enabling a person to avoid conscious awareness of conflicts or anxiety-arousing stressors. Among the most common defense mechanisms are denial, displacement, intellectualization, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, and repression.

Psychoanalytic Therapy Techniques

Psychoanalytic treatment produces insight, that is, understanding of true motives, which are unconscious conflicts. To be therapeutic, insight must be accompanied by emotional awareness. While the insight into unconscious motivations, even if accompanied by emotional catharsis, is a major step toward overcoming the symptoms produced by the unconscious, it does not provide a magical, once-and-for-all cure. In addition to this dramatic recall, modern psychoanalysis recognizes that unconscious conflicts must be confronted again and again in a psychoanalytic treatment. The patient must work through the conflict, discovering the many circumstances that have been influenced by it and essentially reconstructing personality to replace these unconscious irrational determinants with more reasonable and mature motivations.

Stages of Therapeutic Change

People at Stage 6 experience dramatic growth and an irreversible movement toward becoming fully functioning or self-actualizing. They freely allow into awareness those experiences that they had previously denied or distorted. They become more congruent and are able to match their present experiences with awareness and with open expression. They no longer evaluate their own behavior from an external viewpoint but rely on their organismic self as the criterion for evaluating experiences. They begin to develop unconditional self-regard, which means that they have a feeling of genuine caring and affection for the person they are becoming.

Rigte 73 Religious Orientation as a Predictor of Religious Fundamentalism Wand Prejudice against Racial Minorities Gays

The dimension of immanence is a religious orientation that involves motivation to transcend boundaries such as the boundaries among various religious groups , awareness and acceptance of experience, and emphasis on the present moment (Burris & Tarpley, 1998, p. 55). A measure of religious immanence gives points for agreeing with statements such as these Learning to appreciate one's dark or 'sinful' side is essential to spiritual growth, and What my religious tradition labels falsehood is often misunderstood truth (Burris & Tarpley, 1998, p. 63)- Religious immanence is proposed to be another route to low levels of prejudice. It is positively associated with other religious orientations that eschew traditional orthodoxy extrinsic religious orientation and religion as a quest (Burris, Jackson, Tarpley, & Smith, 1996 Burris & Tarpley, 1998). Researchers continue to analyze religious attitudes and prejudice to understand the inconsistent relationship between these two aspects of...

Representing and accenting the bodyself

Once the child achieves basic body awareness, it is helpful to have the child represent himself or herself and others in drawings. Teaching children to represent themselves and others helps the child to conceptualize himself or herself as a separate being in relation to others. To make progress with representation and in the ability to shift to the other's perspective the children need to first be able to discriminate body parts and distinguish them from those of another person. They must also have sufficient command of the marker to draw a circle and put dots in the circle, as well as draw vertical and horizontal lines.

The Most Important Ingredients of Nurse Training

One skill that is becoming important in nursing is critical thinking. Along with the evolution in the scope of nursing practice, there has been greater autonomy for nurses and a growing demand for expanded critical thinking abilities and the ability to solve problems and make decisions, says Cheryl Martin (2002) of the specific theory related to nursing practice. Martin cites the evolution of the profession into one that requires cognitive and relational skills and one in which nurses have moved from task orientation to skilled professionalism. She says that changes in teaching are imperative to develop nurses' critical thinking skills early in their careers. Mindfulness, says Epstein (2003), is that state of mind that allows us to reflect and have insight and presence it applies to the cognitive, interpersonal, and technical aspects of health care. Exemplary practitioners will display this mindfulness, which involves paying attention to physical and...

Models of the Global MolecularQuantum Interface

They thus envisage tubulin acting as a quantum cellular automation, interleaving between classical and quantum computational states. However, microtubules are extensively involved in transport of essential molecules and whole organelles, as well as cytoskeletal architecture and synaptic growth and it is unclear wether they have a direct role in the fast forms of excitation of the electrochemical states we associate with conscious awareness. Generally, when a single cellular system serves two critical, yet differing functions, evolution by gene duplication is likely to occur, so that both characteristics can be selected for independently. It is hard to see how the microtubules can be both involved in active transport and at the same time performing quantum calculations essential to the organism without potential conflicts of interest. These considerations do not apply to membrane excitation and synaptic transduction, which are already directly connected to excitability. In the...

The Timing of Conscious Experience

Jeffrey Gray 81 observes that in tennis The speed of the ball after a serve is so great, and the distance over which it has to travel so short, that the player who receives the serve must strike it back before he has had time consciously to see the ball leave the server's racket. Conscious awareness comes too late to affect his stroke . John McCrone 157 for tennis players. facing a fast serve even if awareness were actually instant, it would still not be fast enough

Synchronization and cognitive binding

What this synchronization-based interpretation of subjectivity achieves is the separation of the core topics of awareness and cognition in terms of proto-phenomena at the neuronal level. Synaptic communications lead ultimately to the cognition of multicellular nervous systems, and the transmembrane flow of ions leads ultimately to the direct feeling of an external world, i.e., subjective awareness. Questions about the relationship between animal awareness and human consciousness, and questions about animal cognition and human, symbolic cogitation are not addressed by this synchronization argument, but by identifying the relevant cellular mechanisms the construction of strictly neuronal theories of both awareness and cognition may be possible - and obviate the need for introducing other-worldly philosophical or quantum mechanical postulates.

Quantum Processing by Microtubules and Neurocognition

That the most likely mechanism for general anesthetics acting upon micro-tubules is inhibition of electron movement within the hydrophobic pockets of tubulin dimers 23 . These oil-based hydrophobic pockets occupy approximately 1 30th to 1 250th the total volume of the protein, which works out to be less than one half of a cubic nanometer nonetheless, these pockets control the overall protein conformation of tubulin. Moreover, the properties of these hydrophobic pockets create a suitable environment to support electron delocalization 26 . Electron motion or motility may well be the critical site of action for anesthetic gases. In the presence of an anesthetic gas, electron mobility that is required for protein conformation and quantum superposition is inhibited. Hence we should expect to see a loss of consciousness. Conversely, instead of inhibiting electron movement, hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD appear to be potent electron donors 59 . Thus, actions of both anesthetics and...

Cognitive Illusions Twisting Truth

What the eye distorts, the brain corrupts. This neglected characteristic of the perceptual-cognitive sequence is important in the psychology of art and the appreciation of conscious AWAREness. Perception and cognition in humans is shared with other members ofthe species in species-specific empathic perspicuity (SSEP), which is simply the tendency for one member to tune in to the thoughts of another by reason of having similar perceptual-cognitive experiences. All people are bound by an invisible thread that connects us in a web of humanity. Your percepts are universal your reactions to art are the same as your neighbor's your thoughts are the same as mine. Naturally, as world experience colors perception, individual differences in interpreting basic sensory signals emerge -just as hockey fans interpret events differently, although they share basic perceptual-cognitive experiences. Even though hockey fans and art critics may arrive at different conclusions, the vehicle through which...

Conclusions

A number of authors in this book propose that quantum computing plays a role in human consciousness, although the counterview is also represented. A large number of contributors provide various arguments for microtubules being pivotal to consciousness, in particular, because they may well form the central nervous system of the cell. Quantum computations in microtubules, or in other brain proteins, may be a viable tenet, but how does the scientific community proceed to prove or disprove such an idea Secondly, how does one extrapolate from essentially biophysical studies on brain proteins to assessments of higher cognitive functions in individuals alone or in groups Within a single brain or mind, one might imagine that nonlocal quantum interactions occur in relation to neural connections or electromagnetic waves linking different neurons or brain areas. Considering small groups of individuals or large societies, we again have classical communication of information between individuals...

Suggestibility

Perhaps no other concept in contemporary memory science is more controversial than recovered memory. Recovered memory refers to the recall of a previously repressed memory. Repression is a psychological defense mechanism that forces a highly disturbing event out of conscious awareness in order to protect a person from anxiety. When a repressed memory emerges into consciousness, it is said to be a recovered memory. Recovered memories are most often cited in cases of early childhood trauma in which the victim was assumed to have unconsciously repressed a horrific experience, keeping it locked away from conscious awareness for years. Proponents of recovered memory believe that the experience of the traumatic memory is provoked, either gradually or abruptly, by an event or another stimulus that the person consciously or unconsciously associates with the trauma. Sigmund Freud believed that repressed memory formed the basis for neurosis. Some psychotherapists facilitate...

Persistence

Most people worry about forgetting things, but sometimes you remember things that you wish you could forget. Persistence is the tendency to continually revisit a memory it can be something mildly annoying like a song that sticks in your head or it can be a troubling or a traumatic event. Persistence often has an intrusive quality in the sense that you experience the disturbing recollection as a thought or an image that is forced into your awareness. As for people without psychiatric disorders, what's the best way to eliminate a persistent memory Don't try to ignore it. Research shows that willing yourself to avoid thinking about something makes you think of it all the more. It's better to let a persistent memory run its course. Eventually, it will intrude upon your consciousness less and less until it finally recedes altogether.

About Part Ii

In Part II, we introduce you to additional resources and advanced research on seizures and epilepsy. All too often, patients who conduct their own research are overwhelmed by the difficulty in finding and organizing information. The purpose of the following chapters is to provide you an organized and structured format to help you find additional information resources on seizures and epilepsy. In Part II, as in Part I, our objective is not to interpret the latest advances on seizures and epilepsy or render an opinion. Rather, our goal is to give you access to original research and to increase your awareness of sources you may not have already considered. In this way, you will come across the advanced materials often referred to in pamphlets, books, or other general works. Once again, some of this material is technical in nature, so consultation with a professional familiar with seizures and epilepsy is suggested.

Concluding Comments

- Is it possible to provide a credible explanation of human consciousness without resorting to Cartesian dualism Although the answer to the second question is less clear, I have these comments. Accepting physicalism and rejecting substance dualism (as I do) does not require me to accept reductionsim indeed, the burden of proof lies with the reductionist. In other words, reductionism is not a conclusion of science but a belief of many scientists, leaving the door open to a property dualism that is rooted in physicalism. As well as substance dualism, this property dualism may allow the phenomena of human consciousness to emerge from interactions among myriad positive feedback networks that engage many levels of both the biological and the cognitive hierarchy. Acknowledgement. It is a pleasure to thank the organizers and participants of the (October 2003) conference on Reductionism and Emergence Implications for the Science Theology Dialogue at the University of San Francisco for...

Sensory area

Sensory integration The process of absorbing sensory information, organizing this information in the central nervous system, and using the information to function smoothly in daily life. sensory experiences include touch, movement, body awareness, sight, sound, and the pull of gravity as the brain organizes and interprets this information, it provides a crucial foundation for later, more complex learning and behavior. This critical function of the brain is responsible for producing a composite picture of a person's existence, so that

The duality of mind

The unity of sensory experience and the continuous interaction of the hemispheres via the cerebral commissures mean that the potential duality of mind is greatly attenuated and that both hemispheres in the waking organism normally attend to the same topic. For this reason, the issue of two different consciousnesses in one head that may arise in the split-brain condition will not be addressed here. Our main concern is with the nature of the linked or complementary cognition found in the normal, callosally-connected brain.

Dreams

Dreams have also been investigated from a biological viewpoint, and the relationship between psychological meaning and biological brain mechanisms presents a modern version of the philosophical mind-body problem. Dreams seem to occur when lower brain centers, especially the pons, and possibly a curiosity-interest-expectancy area in the ventromedial forebrain, stimulate activity in higher cortical areas (Hobson, 1988 Hobson & McCarley, 1977 Reiser, 2001). While some influential neuroscientists deny that dreams have any significance (Crick & Mitchison, 1986), other psychologists have proposed models for understanding dreams that draw on modern cognitive theory, an enhanced understanding of neurology, and the suggestion that emotion may bridge the mind-body process in dreaming (Antrobus, 1991 Cicogna, Cavallero, & Bosinelli, 1991 Hobson, 1988 Hobson & Stickgold, 1994 Reiser, 2001). Dreams could be expressions of a more primitive, emotional-narrative mode of functioning that has only been...

Concept of Humanity

The first of these is determinism versus free choice. On this dimension Freud's views on the nature of human nature would easily fall toward determinism. Freud believed that most of our behavior is determined by past events rather than molded by present goals. Humans have little control over their present actions because many of their behaviors are rooted in unconscious strivings that lie beyond present awareness. Although people usually believe that they are in control of their own lives, Freud insisted that such beliefs are illusions.

Formative Tendency

Rogers (1978, 1980) believed that there is a tendency for all matter, both organic and inorganic, to evolve from shnpler to more complex forms. For the entire universe, a creative process, rather than a dishitegrative one, is hi operation. Rogers called this process the formative tendency and pohited to many examples from nature. For instance, complex galaxies of stars form from a less well-organized mass crystals such as snowflakes emerge from formless vapor complex organisms develop from single cells and human consciousness evolves from a primitive unconsciousness to a highly organized awareness.

Counselor Congruence

Like most other people, they are constantly exposed to new organismic experiences, but unlike most people, they accept these experiences into awareness, which contributes to then psychological growth. They wear no mask, do not attempt to fake a pleasant facade, and avoid any pretense of friendliness and affection when these emotions are not truly felt. Also, they do not fake anger, toughness, or ignorance, nor do they cover up feelings of joy, elation, or happiness. In addition, they are able to match feelings with awareness and both with honest expression.

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