PH Gradient

Berardesca et al. (11) and Warrier et al. (10) (Table 7) also explored the differences in pH between the skin of Caucasian and black women. At baseline, no significant differences were found. After tape stripping, a lower pH in black

Table 6 Skin Extensibility

Reference Technique




(6) In vivo

Blacks (15) (mean age

Volar and

• Significant dorsal <

46.7 + 2.4); whites


volar extensibility

(12) (mean age


within whites and

49.8 + 2); Hispanics

Hispanics (P < 0.001

(12) (mean age

and P < 0.002,

48.8 + 2)

• Black > white extensibility dorsal forearm (P < 0.01)

• Black < white extensibility volar forearm (P < 0.01)

Table 7 pH Gradient





Black women (8); Caucasian women (10) (mean age 42.3 + 5, both)

Midvolar forearm

Left and right medial cheeks, midvolar forearms, lateral midlower legs

• No significant difference in pH at baseline

After tape stripping:

• pH significantly decreased in blacks after three tape strips, i.e., superficial SC layers

• No differences between races after 9, 12, and 15 tape strips, i.e., deeper SC layers

(pH = 5.15) < whites (pH = 5.52) on cheeks at baseline (P < 0.05)

• No significant difference in pH on the legs at baseline

Abbreviation: SC, stratum corneum. Source: Adapted from Ref. 2.

skin compared to white skin was recorded in the superficial layers of the stratum corneum, but not in the deeper layers.

However, the studies differed in anatomic testing sites and one study did not test after tape stripping. Although the results suggest that there may be some difference in the pH of stratum corneum between these races, the factors responsible for this remain unknown.

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