No accepted curative therapy for VVS exists and current approaches to management lack clear etiologic foundations. A dearth of rigorous, randomized prospective trials exists for most therapies; evidence for their efficacy derives largely from single case studies or case series, in which each patient was her own control. Studies also differed in the definition of success criteria, including the endpoints assessed (e.g., pain, dyspareunia, sexual function), the extent of recovery (e.g., partial or significant improvement, complete remission), and the duration of follow-up.
Interventions include symptom relief, biofeedback, pharmacologic treatment of putative infectious causes, psychosocial and supportive therapies, and surgery to remove afflicted vestibular tissue.
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