A premenstrual exacerbation of the cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythema-tosus (LE) was described in 25% of patients with systemic LE (34) and in 13% to 16% of patients with discoid LE (34,35). There are several indications that estrogen is an important cofactor for the development or exacerbation of LE. This is corroborated by the facts that the disorder affects females predominantly, that it is well known that estrogen-containing oral contraceptives may cause an exacerbation, as well as by the described association of LE with Klinefelter syndrome. In an in vitro study, the administration of estrogen was shown to lead to an upregulation of the binding capacity of antiRo/SSA antibodies to keratinocytes (34).
It is hypothesized that in patients with LE, a changed estrogen metabolism with increased estrogen and decreased androgen levels acts as an etiopathogenetic cofactor. In conjunction with these suggestions, the physiologically increased premenstrual estrogen levels would lead to a perimenstrual exacerbation of LE (34).
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Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.