Effect of Occlusion

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Semi-occlusive conditions attenuated the erythematous response to all materials (Fig. 5, upper arm, 48 hours). Notably, SLS-induced erythema was reduced almost six-fold (mean scores of 0.6 + 0.1 vs. 3.4 + 0.14, semi- and full-occlusion, respectively). Pretreatment of the upper arm with emollient prevented menses-induced skin irritation, regardless of the degree of occlusion.

Taken together, these observations suggest that the vulva (labia majora) is adapted to be less sensitive to menses-induced skin irritation and that pretreat-ment with a petrolatum-based emollient attenuates potential skin irritation from menses.

These findings suggest that vulvar skin may have unique properties relative to skin at other sites. This investigative approach may have clinical utility in addressing women's complaints about vulvar irritation. For example, similar methods may be used to assess the responsiveness of prepubertal and

Figure 4 Skin erythema of the labia majora and upper arm, following the application of test materials under occlusive patch for 24 and 48 hours. (A) 24-hour exposure. (B) 48hour exposure. Note: *, significantly different from other test materials applied to that anatomical site. #, significantly different from the nonirritant control (saline) applied to that anatomical site. Test materials, Saline (nonirritant control); Abbreviations: MF, menses fluid; VB, venous blood; SLS, 0.6% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate (irritant control). Source: Adapted from Ref. 24.

Figure 4 Skin erythema of the labia majora and upper arm, following the application of test materials under occlusive patch for 24 and 48 hours. (A) 24-hour exposure. (B) 48hour exposure. Note: *, significantly different from other test materials applied to that anatomical site. #, significantly different from the nonirritant control (saline) applied to that anatomical site. Test materials, Saline (nonirritant control); Abbreviations: MF, menses fluid; VB, venous blood; SLS, 0.6% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate (irritant control). Source: Adapted from Ref. 24.

Figure 5 Skin erythema of the upper arm induced by test materials applied for 48 cumulative hours under semi-occlusive or occlusive patch. Note: f, significantly different from the non-irritant control (saline) under semi-occlusive conditions. #, significantly different from the non-irritant control (saline) under occlusive conditions. *, significantly different from other test materials under occlusive conditions. Test materials, Saline (non-irritant control); Abbreviations: MF, menses fluid; MF + emollient, menses fluid applied to emollient-treated skin, VB, venous blood; SLS = 0.6% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate (irritant control). Source: Adapted from Ref. 24.

Figure 5 Skin erythema of the upper arm induced by test materials applied for 48 cumulative hours under semi-occlusive or occlusive patch. Note: f, significantly different from the non-irritant control (saline) under semi-occlusive conditions. #, significantly different from the non-irritant control (saline) under occlusive conditions. *, significantly different from other test materials under occlusive conditions. Test materials, Saline (non-irritant control); Abbreviations: MF, menses fluid; MF + emollient, menses fluid applied to emollient-treated skin, VB, venous blood; SLS = 0.6% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate (irritant control). Source: Adapted from Ref. 24.

postmenopausal skin to vaginal bleeding, or to investigate the response of vulvar skin to menses in the presence or absence of pathological conditions such as candidal vulvitis, lichen sclerosus, or vulvar ulcers associated with herpes simplex infection. The pursuit of such questions will add to our knowledge of vulvar reactions in health and disease.

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How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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