Recently, a different rationale for female genital surgeries has begun to emerge. Triggered by standards of genital beauty established by the pornographic industry, fearing the aging of genitalia, and seeking the ultimate orgasm, women are both demanding and being tempted to undergo surgical alterations for cosmetic reasons (90,91). This practice seems to have escaped the scholarly literature, although the medical establishment has begun to enjoy its financial benefits. As documented in the popular press, genital plastic surgery appears as a growth area within the field of cosmetic surgery (92). Procedures once aimed at therapeutic interventions to correct incontinence, congenital malformations, and injuries sustained during childbirth are now sold as elements in the architectural redesigning of the vulva (93). The old procedures now carry new names, such as elective vaginal enhancement, vaginal rejuvenation, female genital aesthetics, vaginoplasty (tightening of the vagina), hoodectomy (unhooding of the clitoris), labiaplasty (reduction of the labia minora or labia majora), reduction of the mons pubis, hymenaplasty (reconstruction of the hymen), and raising the aging pubis (94).d
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