Corneocyte Variability

Three studies investigated corneocyte desquamation in black, white, and Asian subjects (Table 3) (10,14,15). All the studies had statistically significant—yet

Table 1 Transepidermal Water Loss

References

Technique

Subjects

Site

Results

(3)

In vitro

Blacks 10 (mean age 38.6); Caucasians 12 (mean age 41.1)

Inner thigh

• TEWL blacks 1.1 x > Caucasians (mean corrected log TEWL 2.79 and 2.61 |xg/cm2/hr, respectively) (P < 0.01, for both values)

(4)

In vivo with

Black men 10 (age 29.9 ± 7.2);

Back

• No significant difference in TEWL between

topical

white men 9 (age 30.6 ± 8.8)

blacks and whites at baseline

application

After SLS stress:

of SLS

• TEWL blacks (untreated, pre-occluded,

(irritant)

and predelipidized) > whites but only statistically significant (2.7 x greater) for the 0.5% SLS applied in the pre-occluded area (P < 0.04)

(5)

In vivo with

Hispanic men 7 (age 27.8 + 4.5);

Upper back

• No significant differences in TEWL

topical

white men 9 (age 30.6 ± 8.8)

between Hispanics and whites at baseline

application

After SLS stress:

of SLS

• TEWL Hispanics (untreated, pre-occluded,

(irritant)

and predelipidized) > whites, but not statistically significant

(6)

In vivo

Blacks 15 (mean age 46.7 ± 2.4);

Volar and dorsal

• No significant difference in TEWL between

whites 12 (mean age 49.8 + 2);

forearm

sites or races at baseline

Hispanics 12 (mean age 48.8 + 2)

(7)

In vivo with

Blacks 7; Caucasians 8;

Volar forearm

Vasodilator given:

topical

Asians 6 (ages 23 to 32)

• Before tape stripping: TEWL blacks and

application

Asians 1.3 x > Caucasians (P < 0.01);

of MN—

no difference between blacks and Asians

vasodilator

{Continued)

Table 1 Transepidermal Water Loss (Continued)

References Technique

Subjects

Site

Results

(8) In vivo Blacks, Caucasians,

Hispanics, Asians (number of subjects, ages not specified)

African American 4 Filipino 2 Hispanic 1 Skin type II/III: Asian 6; Caucasian 8 (ages 22 to 38)

(10) In vivo Black women 30;

Caucasian women 30 (ages 18 to 45)

(11) In vivo Black women 8;

Not documented

Volar forearm

Left and right medial cheeks, midvolar forearms, lateral mid-lower legs Midvolar forearm

After eight and twelve tape strips:

• TEWL Asians > blacks > Caucasians (P < 0.05) (Asians 1.7 x > Caucasians)

• Baseline TEWL blacks > Caucasians > Hispanics > Asians

• Skin type V/VI required more tape strippings (66.7 ± 6.9) compared to skin type II/III (29.6 + 2.4) to achieve the same TEWL, i.e., skin type V/VI had increased water barrier strength (integrity)

• Barrier function in skin type V/VI recovered more quickly

• TEWL blacks < whites on cheeks (20% less) & legs (17% less) at baseline

(P < 0.05); also lower on forearm but not statistically significant

After tape stripping:

• TEWL blacks 1.2 x> Caucasians after 3 (P < 0.05) & 6 tape strips (P < 0.03)

Note: Ages reported in years.

Abbreviations: TEWL, transepidermal water loss; SLS, sodium lauryl sulfate; MN, methyl nicotinate. Source: Adapted from Ref. 2.

Table 2 Water Content

References Technique

Subjects

Site

Results

(13)

In vivo—resistance

St. Louis (ages 83 to 92 mo):

First and third

• Skin resistance blacks > whites at

black boys (22), black girls

fingers of right

baseline (P < 0.01); i.e., blacks

(32); white boys (65), white

hand

have lower water content

girls (55)

San Diego (mean age 23 yr):

black men (16), black women

(5); white men (16), white

women (5)

(4)

In vivo with topical

Black men (10)

Back

• No significant differences between

application of SLS

(age 29.9 ± 7.2);

blacks and whites at baseline or

(irritant)—capacitance

white men (9); (age 30.6 ± 8.8)

after SLS stress

(5)

In vivo with topical

Hispanic men (7);

Upper back

• No significant differences between

application of SLS

(age 27.8 ± 4.5);

Hispanics and whites at baseline

(irritant)—capacitance

white men (9); (age 30.6 ± 8.8)

• Hispanics > whites when negative visual score was given for irritation (P < 0.01) (large standard deviations)

(6)

In vivo—conductance

Blacks (15) (mean age

Volar and dorsal

• Blacks (13% less) volar < dorsal

46.7 ± 2.4); whites (12)

forearm

forearm (P < 0.02)

(mean age 49.8 ± 2);

Whites (22% less) dorsal < volar

Hispanics (12) (mean age

forearm (P < 0.001)

48.8 ± 2)

Hispanics (11% less) dorsal < volar forearm (P < 0.05)

('Continued)

('Continued)

Table 2 Water Content (Continued)

References

Technique

Subjects

Site

Results

(10) In vivo—capacitance

(14) In vivo-capacitance

Blacks, Caucasians, Hispanics, Asians (number of subjects, ages not specified) Black women (30); white women (30) (ages 18 to 45)

Black women (7), white women (5) (mean age 25.8 ± 4.2, both); black women (5), white women (5) (mean age 64.7 ± 3.8, both)

Not documented

Left and right medial « cheeks, midvolar forearms, lateral < midlower legs Preauricle, post neck, « dorsal upper arm, dorsal forearm, volar forearm, lower back, abdomen, thigh, lower leg

Black and Hispanics > whites on dorsal forearm at baseline

Hispanics > blacks and whites on volar forearm at baseline

Asians > Caucasians, blacks and

Hispanics

Blacks > whites on cheeks at baseline (P < 0.05)

No significant difference between races on the forearms and legs No significant differences between blacks and whites at baseline

Note: Ages reported in years unless specified otherwise. Abbreviation: SLS, sodium lauryl sulfate. Source: Adapted from Ref. 2.

Table 3 Corneocyte Variability

References

Subjects

Site

Results

(15)

Black (mean agea 33.5 ± 7.5);

Upper outer arm

• No difference in corneocyte surface area

Caucasian (mean age 31 + 7);

• Spontaneous desquamation (corneocyte

Asian (mean age 26.5 + 7.5)

count) blacks 2.5 x > Caucasians and

(18 to 25 subjects per group)

Asians (P < 0.001)

(10)

Black women (30);

Left and right medial cheeks, midvolar

• Desquamation index blacks < whites on

white women (30)

forearms, lateral midlower legs

cheeks (18% less) and forearms

(ages 18 to 45)

(20% less) (P < 0.05); but no significant

differences on the legs

(14)

Black women (7),

Preauricle, post neck, dorsal upper arm,

• No difference in desquamation index

white women (5)

dorsal forearm, volar forearm, lower

between blacks and whites except at

(mean age 25.8 ± 4.2, both);

back, abdomen, thigh, lower leg

preauricular area (P = 0.02) (which race

black women (5),

greater is not specified)

white women (5),

(mean age 64.7 ± 3.8, both)

aAges reported in years. Source: Adapted from Ref. 2.

aAges reported in years. Source: Adapted from Ref. 2.

conflicting—results. Corcuff et al. (15) reported that spontaneous desquamation measured on the upper outer arm was 2.5 times greater in blacks than in whites and Asians (P < 0.001); Warrier et al. (10) found desquamation to be less in blacks and Manuskiatti et al. (14) detected a difference only at the preauricular measurement site. Again, variation in the anatomic site may cause variable results, as well as the environmental conditions when the tests were conducted. Racial differences in corneocyte desquamation are inconclusive. The most clinically provocative observation is that of Corcuff, et al. who found a 2.5 times greater spontaneous desquamation rate in blacks compared to Caucasians and Asians.

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