Even though the scare died down after the Kinsey Report of 1948, which normalized masturbation and even considered it a healthy release or an expression of self-love, genital surgeries for medical reasons did not end completely (15). Female circumcision was continued to be encouraged in the postwar years for cleanliness, hygiene (18), frigidity, cancer, urinary tract infections, prevention of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS and HIV (35), and genital anomalies. One gauge of the latter is that approximately 2% or approximately 80,000 live births in the United States annually are subjected to modifications of genitalia to define the sexuality (7,86,87). These operations (sex reassignment surgeries) are performed on infants whom the medical literature calls intersex children (88,89). In general, these rationales for female genital surgeries are less prominent than those of the preceding century.
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