Confabulation often occurs in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (Benson et al., 1996; Berlyne, 1972; Mercer et al., 1977; Kopelman, 1987; Kopelman et al., 1997; Korsakoff, 1955; Talland, 1965; Victor et al., 1971). It is also commonly found in a subgroup of patients who survived aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA; Alexander & Freedman, 1984; Baddeley&Wilson, 1988;Damasioetal., 1985;DeLuca, 1993;DeLuca& Cicerone, 1991; DeLuca & Diamond, 1995; Fischer et al., 1995; Kapur & Coughlan, 1980; Lindqvist & Norlen, 1966; Moscovitch, 1989; Talland et al., 1967; Vilkki, 1985). This subset of patients suffers from what has been termed "ACoA syndrome" (Alexander & Freedman, 1984; Damasio et al., 1985; DeLuca, 1993; Vilkki, 1985), which includes personality changes, an amnesic syndrome and confabulation. However, as pointed out by DeLuca (1993; DeLuca & Diamond, 1995), these symptoms may occur independently of each other, so that confabulation can appear in the absence of personality change, although memory dysfunction is considered a prerequisite for its appearance (see discussion below).
Confabulation also has been reported in association with other etiologies, such as traumatic brain injury (Baddeley& Wilson, 1988;Berlyne, 1972; Box etal., 1999; Moscovitch & Melo, 1997), multiple sclerosis (Feinstein et al., 2000), rupture of a PCoA aneurysm (Dalla Barba et al., 1997a; Mercer et al., 1977), fronto-temporal dementia (Nedjam et al., 2000; Moscovitch & Melo, 1997), herpes simplex encephalitis (Moscovitch & Melo, 1997) and other disorders. Some have reported confabulation in dementia of the Alzheimer type (Nedjam et al., 2000; Kern et al., 1992; Kopelman, 1987; Tallberg & Almkvist, 2001; Dalla-Barba et al., 1999). However, at least in the early stages of the disease, these reports seem to stretch the definition of confabulation to include various types of intrusions, and only rarely is a full-blown confabulatory syndrome seen in these patients (DeLuca, 2000a).
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