Hematopathologists draw on an extensive array of techniques to examine a specimen. These specialists are experts in diseases of the lymph nodes and bone marrow, such as leukemias and lymphomas. They examine bone marrow samples from patients and review abnormal blood smears for malignancy, infection, and anemia. They integrate gross and microscopic examinations with information derived from clinical hematology, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, cytoge-


Residency programs in pathology vary in length, depending on whether one chooses to complete training in anatomic pathology (3 years), clinical pathology (3 years), or both (4 years). There are currently 155 accredited programs, mainly in combined anatomic and clinical pathology. Pathology does not require a medical or transitional internship year. During residency, physicians do not take in-house call, but rather go home every night and return to the hospital during the night if needed. Much of the training emphasizes reading and self-study. Typical anatomic pathology rotations include surgical pathology, cytopathology, autopsy, and forensic pathology. Typical clinical pathology rotations include clinical chemistry, microbiology, transfusion medicine, coagulation medicine, and immunology. Fellowships in pathology last 1 to 2 additional years and lead to a special qualifications certificate.


netics, and molecular laboratories. Hematopathologists work closely with their colleagues in medical hematology-oncology. Together, they integrate laboratory testing and clinical data in the evaluation of patients with leukemias, lymphomas, and bleeding disorders.

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