Urology is a surgical subspecialty focusing on the urinary tract of men and women, as well as the reproductive system of men. A common perception of urologists is that they operate on men's "private parts" and, well, that's about it. Although urologists do in fact operate on the male genitalia (penis, testicles, and scrotum), there is much more to the practice of urology than the penis. They are experts on the diagnosis and management of diseases involving the kidney, ureters, prostate, bladder, urethra, and male genitalia.
Urologists are masters of everything that has to do with the passage of urine, from its production in the kidney to its release through the urethra. They surgically correct problems such as obstructing posterior urethral valves in newborn boys or bladder outlet obstruction caused by benign prostatic hypertrophy in elderly men. Urinary tract infections, which affect every age group and can be quite destructive, make up a large proportion of cases seen by urologists, especially if it progresses to a worrisome infection of the kidney itself (pyelonephritis). These UTIs could actually represent serious underlying problems of the urinary system. Urologists, therefore, make use of sophisticated testing (laboratory urine analysis,
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