In addition to sibling position, many particular aspects of the family environment may modify these outcomes. Children whose talents are quite different from those of their siblings are in a far different situation from those who compete more directly. The spacing between children is significant. If many years pass between the birth of various children, they will all have some characteristics of an only child. The number of boys and girls also influences the encouragement of masculinity or femininity in each child.
The division of labor required by the new industrial economy redefined the ideals of masculinity and femininity (33). The separation of work from home life cemented the division between the roles of men and women, mainly in the middle classes (49). In this newly defined role, women were confined to the home and thought to be frail, passive, and passionless (50-52). By the middle of the 19th century, men were thought of as producers whereas women were considered to be reproducers. This growing sexual division of labor was underscored by medico-scientific theories that posited the naturalness of this divide by arguing that women's passive nature left them ill-equipped for the competitive world of education, work, and politics. Women's delicate nervous system, monthly illness, smaller brain, and specific reproductive organs all made them unhealthy to vote, work, go to college, or participate in the public arena (53). The Victorian ideal of a woman as nurturing, affectionate, intuitive,...
S gradually began to view treatment as less stigmatizing and more helpful. This was partially accomplished by the therapist's successfully reducing Mr. S's resistance to admitting that he had lost control of his drinking without impugning his manhood. The therapist guided Mr. S in refocusing on the fact that by seeking assistance and acknowledging his problems, Mr. S was also helping his family to get through this difficult period. The therapist was able to successfully appeal to Mr. S's sense of machismo by promoting the reality that by abstaining from alcohol, Mr. S was actually reinforcing his position as the head of the family.
The prevailing view among psychologists used to be that women who worked and had professions suffered personality disturbances (labeled penis envy or otherwise) and that traditionally feminine women were psychologically healthier than less traditional women. Research does not support this view (Helson & Picano, 1990 Yogev, 1983). A review of the research relating sex roles to mental health indicated that psychological masculinity (as measured on sex-typing instruments such as the Bern Sex Role Inventory) is associated with better mental health, in both men and women femininity is not consistently related to mental health (Bassoff & Glass, 1982 Taylor & Hall, 1982 Whitley, 1984). It is not the presence of feminine characteristics, such as empathy and nurturance, but rather the absence of masculine qualities, such as assertiveness, that interferes with healthy adaptation for women and, equally, for men, at least in the United States and similar cultures.
In his descriptions of the father archetype, Jung contrasted instinctive qualities, which he claimed were more feminine, with the spiritual qualities of the archetypal father. The association of spirituality with masculinity did not originate with Jung it has a long history in the Judeo-Christian tradition (Daly, 1978 Lacks, 1980 Patai, 1967), which has traditionally portrayed God and spiritual leaders as masculine. Sometimes even classroom teachers may be perceived to have more wisdom than they
For a variety of cultural, social, and genetic reasons, men are more likely than women to develop substance use disorders. For example, consuming alcohol is commonly held to be more compatible with masculinity than femininity, drinking to intoxication has become an adolescent male rite of passage in colleges and other settings, and sex differences in the amount and activity of alcohol dehydrogenase enable males to tolerate higher doses of alcohol without intoxication. Such factors increase the likelihood that males will get more repeated exposures to alcohol than will females.
Maslow (1954 1987) encouraged women, as well as men, to live up to their full potential. Self-actualized people are not constrained by rigid sex roles. Both men and women can be both active and passive, in lovemaking and in life (p. 153), a challenge to traditional gender assumptions that was embraced by feminist Betty Friedan (Nicholson, 2001). Nonetheless, Maslow believed that there are inherent, biologically based sex differences. (It seems unlikely that a psychologist whose doctoral work was based on the observation of sexual behavior in monkeys would give up this concept.) There is evidence that the Personal Orientation Inventory, a measure of self-actualization, may be biased in favor of the masculine role at any rate, scores are correlated positively with masculinity and negatively with femininity on the Bern Sex-Role Inventory (Faulkender, 1991). Maslow envisioned men and women achieving self-actualization along different routes or paths, a concept accepted by some feminist...
Horney agreed with Adler that many women possess a masculine protest that is, they have a pathological belief that men are superior to women. This perception easily leads to the neurotic desire to be a man. The desire, however, is not an expression of penis envy but rather a wish for all those qualities or privileges which in our culture are regarded as masculine (Horney, 1939, p. 108). (This view is nearly identical to that expressed by Erikson and discussed in Chapter 9). once and for all we should stop bothering about what is feminine and what is not. Such concerns only undermine our energies. Standards of masculinity and femininity are artificial standards. All that we definitely know at present about sex differences is that we do not know what they are. Scientific differences between the two sexes certainly exist, but we shall never be able to discover what they are until we have first developed our potentialities as human beings. Paradoxical as it
People consciously reject not only qualities that are evil or inconsistent with their persona (the shadow) but also qualities they consider incompatible with their identity as males or females. These sex-inappropriate qualities, traditionally exemplified by traits such as emotionality for males and power for females, constitute the anima (a man's repressed or undeveloped feminine-typed qualities) and the animus (a woman's repressed or undeveloped masculine-typed qualities). Jung referred to the anima as a man's inner woman. The animus is a woman's inner man. Sometimes a person becomes possessed by his anima or her animus, which is Jung's way of describing a condition in which unconscious qualities control behavior without being integrated into consciousness. Jung interpreted the anima to represent Eros, the principle of relatedness. Men possessed by their anima act moody and emotional. Jung referred to the animus as the paternal Logos, claiming that logic and reason (Logos) are...