This book is about humankind's recent attempts, using recombinant DNA technologies, to modify the genetic makeup of living organisms. It describes how scientists have learned to isolate and transfer DNA from one species to another, generate clonal (genetically identical) copies of individual genes and sometimes whole organisms, and otherwise exercise godlike influences over the hereditary material of microbes, plants, and animals, including humans.
In this book I speak of genetic determinism, but not in the pejorative sense often associated with the nature nurture debate. The sharp divisions drawn in this debate too often miss the point that all organismal features result from an interaction between genetic makeup and environment. Every suite of genes requires some suitable range of environmental conditions for proper expression, and every environment will suit some genotypes better than others. When things go awry and genetic disorders appear, these may be interpreted as an incongruence or an improper match, between genes and the environment. True, certain traits tend to appear across a wider range of environmental conditions than others. Yet, for any genotype, some environments will be entirely inhospitable.
Why do researchers compare identical twins (formed when one sperm fertilizes one egg and then the embryo splits to form two embryos) to fraternal twins (formed when two different sperm fertilize two different eggs) instead of comparing identical twins to brothers and sisters born at separate times Because whenever the siblings are twins, they have something in common besides their genetic makeup they have also shared the same environment in the uterus for the whole nine months. If siblings were conceived and born at different times, the differences between them might include not only their genetic differences, but also differences in their pregnant mother's nutrition, exposure to smoke, encounter with physical trauma, or consumption of medications. Twin studies that compare identical to fraternal twins are often used to try to determine how much of a characteristic can be attributed to genetics and how much can be attributed to environmental causes.
Assays of genes and their protein products have provided overwhelming empirical support for Garrod's proposition that each human (barring a monozygotic twin) is distinct from all others in molecular makeup. Thousands of genes have been identified, some with scores of alternative DNA forms (alleles), such that the collective probability of a perfect match between the genomes of any two individuals is vanishingly small.2 Assays of molecular variation at even small numbers of highly polymorphic genes (usually 5-10 in most courtroom applications, such as the O. J. Simpson trial) produce what are referred to as DNA fingerprints. Just as conventional fingerprints are person-specific, so too are the genetic bar codes now scanned routinely in molecular forensics laboratories to identify the individual source of a blood, semen, or tissue sample.
Two criticisms can be raised against this definition one is quite general, the other relates to its application in EM. The first criticism (Di Francia, 1955) concerns an information-theoretical aspect of the experiment if it is known a priori that the object consists of two points, then measurement of their mutual distance in the image is essentially a pattern-recognition problem, which is limited by noise, not by the size of d. (For instance, if the image of a single point, i.e., the point spread function, is a circularly symmetric function, the image of two points with nonzero distance will no longer be rotationally symmetric, and the exact distance could be simply obtained by fitting, even when the distance is much less than the diameter of the point-spread function.) The other criticism is that the resolution criterion formulated above does not lend itself to a suitable experiment when applied to high-resolution EM. On the nanometer scale, any test object, as well as the support...
Cells and tissues met in biological organisms are unquestionably quantum mechanical in their makeup. Nonetheless, the deciphering of their functions has mainly been practiced in terms of the language of cellular and molecular biology instead of that of quantum dynamics. This observation alone seems to suggest that there might be a possibility for exploring quantum dynamics further in order to accommodate to itself an essence of what cellular and molecular biology would
Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 A major overhaul of the basic food and drug legislation occurred in 1938 with the passage of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic (FDC) Act of 1938. Signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 25, 1938, this act broadened the original legislation by extending the regulatory power of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to cover cosmetics and medical devices requiring predistribution approval of new drugs requiring that tolerance levels be set for unavoidable poisonous substances authorizing standards of identity, quality, and fill levels for containers for foods authorizing inspections of factories where regulated products are manufactured and adding court injunctions to FDA enforcement powers. The FDC has been amended several times since its passage. Examples
RF artifacts can also be caused by improper shielding of electrical cables running through the wall from the control room into the scanner room, and even by the use of hair products and makeup that contain ferrous material (not uncommon ). The closer a metallic object is to the patient's head, the greater the potential for artifacts. Jewelry, watches, and credit cards should never be taken into the MR environment (electronics are likely to be destroyed). Small metallic objects far from the participant's head, such as buttons on jeans, haven't presented a problem in our experience.
F1 hybrid1 rodents have far fewer strain-specific pathologies than their parental strains but retain the benefit that all individuals in the population are genetically identical. Hybrid rodents tend to be more robust and longer-lived than either parental strain. For example, approximate mean survival is 800 days for Fischer 344 (F344) rats and 900 days for Brown Norway (BN) rats, but for F344xBN F1 hybrid rats, mean survival is about 950 days (Turturro et al., 1999). Genetically heterogeneous (HET) rodents are mixtures of defined laboratory strains (usually four or eight strains). Because no individual animal is identical to any other, the population begins to resemble the mixed genetic makeup of humans but is still defined by the limited genetic variability of the parental strains. Larger sample sizes are needed because of the genetic diversity between individuals and the resultant greater phenotypic variability. Mice from a four-way cross, for example, would share approximately 50...
Global workspace describes a horizontal layer of interconnected cortical neurons sandwiched between ascending, bottom-up inputs from thalamus and basal forebrain, and top-down executive functions from prefrontal cortex.15 Bottom-up inputs convey sensory information, as well as general arousal and highlighted saliency such as emotional context from basal fore-brain inputs 261, 263 . Top-down influences categorize and manipulate unexpected features 129 , e.g. those associated with danger, reward, etc. Acting together, bottom-up and top-down activations select a neural assembly -a specific subset of cortical-cortical projections - for attention and consciousness, prompting sufficient activity for the assembly to become the NCC. Over time, the NCC and its contents change with dynamically shifting, temporary alliances of neurons and assembly makeup. Global workspace models demonstrate a functional architecture that could accommodate consciousness.
This chapter introduces some concepts of population genetics that are used in various places later in the book. In addition it allows us to expand our knowledge of R functions and to practice conditional probability arguments, which are used here to analyze the genetic makeup of the present generation by conditioning on that of the parental generation. The reader who has a working knowledge of R may wish to skip Sect. 3.1 and the latter part of Sect. 3.2 that refers to Sect. 3.1. The first part of Sect. 3.2 (including the programs meiosis.rec and cross.rec ) introduces the concept of recombination, which plays a very important role throughout the book. It can be read independently of Sect. 3.1. Sections 3.3 and 3.4 are important for the third part of the book that deals with human genetics. This chapter contains some relatively difficult mathematical material, which is marked by an asterisk (*) and can be omitted.
In this extended-phenotype view, bipedalism freed our hands for making not just tools, but sexual ornaments and works of art. Some of our ornaments are worn on the body, while others may be quite distant, connected to us only by memory and reputation. We ornament the skin directly with ocher, other pigments, tattoos, or scars. We apply makeup to the face. We braid, dye, or cut our hair. We drape the body with jewelry and clothing. We even borrow the sexual ornamentation of other species, killing birds for their feathers, mammals for their hides, and plants for their flowers. At a greater distance, we ornament our residences, be they caves, huts, or palaces. We make our useful objects with as much style and ornament as we can afford, and make useless objects with purely aesthetic appeal.
Some of the finest examples of early Roman Hellenistic art are found in Egypt as mummy masks. The mask of this very attractive and noble Roman woman was completed in about 170 A.D. Characteristic of the very skillful portraits of the time were the slightly exaggerated eyes, the fair complexion, and subtle use of cosmetics and jewelry. Her simple, direct expression evokes a calm feeling. (British Museum, London.)
As a consequence, using NMR simultaneously with MS can provide complementary data and can combine the power of LC-MS and LC-NMR to identify components specifically. Stopped flow achieves better detection while parallel arrangements enables either the NMR or the MS to be used as the intelligent detector in finding eluting peaks of inter-est.23 As an example of the current combined approach, a computer-controlled post-LC-column splitter may create the NMR-MS interface. It directs 90 to 95 of the flow to the NMR and provides appropriate dilution and makeup flow for optimal MS ionization. The system has been enhanced by a loop storage mode, where portions of the sample can be stored in a delay loop before transfer to NMR. Chromatographic peaks can be trapped on line, in multiple-loop cassettes, stored, and then automatically transferred to for later NMR-MS analyses under computer automation.23 The system provides a versatile analytical platform for complex mixture analysis and can benefit...
About 10 percent of prion diseases are hereditary that is, the gene for PrP mutates, which leads to substitutions or alterations among the 253 amino acids that make up PrP. Somehow, these slight differences induce the protein to switch its shape. Different diseases will result depending on the makeup of the rest of the gene.
For centuries people have been using microbes to their advantage, turning grapes into wine, milk into cheese, and cabbage into sauerkraut. People benefit from what microbes do naturally They eat. They digest organic compounds, changing the chemical makeup of one product and turning it into a completely different yet tasty food or drink.
Use of Genomic Microarray Data with Standard Short Term Toxicology Studies to Guide Study Design or Species Selection
Workshop participants concluded that results from genomic studies are not mature enough to have predictive utility, especially when considering species selection for long-term toxicology studies. The main concerns were that genomic approaches are primarily used to evaluate toxicity in selected tissues, primarily liver and kidney. In addition, whereas the human, rat, and mouse genomes are fairly well characterized, the genomes for monkey or dog, two species that are vital in traditional preclinical safety studies, are not. However, genomic technologies may be useful in understanding the genomic makeup of new species such as in animal knockout models and may eventually provide a scientific rationale for not selecting rats or dogs under certain circumstances as the conventional target species in traditional toxicology studies.
Several studies have investigated racial blood vessel reactivity as an assessment of skin physiology, irritation, evaluation of dermatologie pathology treatments, effects and delivery of drugs, and wound healing. Earlier evaluation of cutaneous microcirculation depended on visual scoring to assess erythema or pallor (blanching), which has been proven to be unreliable. Two techniques, laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and photoplethysmography (PPG), can measure cutaneous blood flow. LDV has been utilized in skin physiology research, diagnostics, predictive testing of irritancy of substances (cosmetics, cleansing agents, topical medications, etc.), and cutaneous effects of drugs. PPG has been applied to skin physiology studies, dermatological disorders, and systemic diseases (16,17).
One of the major thrusts of Eysenck's theory is that personality dimensions are not arbitrary creations of culture but rather result from the basic genetic and neurophys-iological makeup of the human species. If there were a biological basis to personality, two key assumptions should hold true. First, neurophysiological differences should exist between people high on one end of a dimension (e.g., introverts) and those high on the other end of that dimension (e.g., extraverts). Second, the basic personality dimensions should be universal and not lhnited to a given culture.
This group of chemicals, which are found naturally in many fruits, are used as preservatives, a function that they also perform within fruit. Ben-zoic acid itself may be used, or more commonly sodium benzoate (a salt) or ethyl or methyl para-hydroxybenzoate, also known as parabens. They have sometimes associated with adverse effects. Anaphylaxis-like reactions have been reported as well as urticaria. About 4 per cent of people who suffer from asthma may experience breathlessness and wheezing when exposed to benzoates. Parabens are often used as preservatives in cosmetics.
Major functions of the service are to stimulate and assist states and communities with the development of local health resources and to further the development of education for the health professions to assist with improvement of the delivery of health services to all Americans to conduct and support research in the medical and related sciences and to disseminate scientific information to protect the health of the nation against impure and unsafe foods, drugs, cosmetics, and other potential hazards and to provide national leadership for the prevention and control of communicable disease and for other public health functions. The PHS has its origin in an act of July 16, 1798, authorizing marine hospitals for the care of u.S. merchant seamen. Subsequent legislation has vastly broadened the scope of its activities. The Public Health Service Act of July 1, 1944, consolidated and revised substantially all existing legislation relating to the Public Health Service. The basic PHS legal...
It is not clear to what extent parents should be allowed to externally control the genetic makeup of their own children (American Medical Association, 1994).Within genetic counselling practice it is considered best practice to offer a 'non-directive' service where clients are not told what to do nor directed to make certain decisions. Therefore, it should be possible for a d Deaf couple to have a pre-natal genetic test with selective termination of pregnancy for the absence of the gene faults for deafness (i.e. if the foetus is likely to be hearing). Offering preimplantation genetic diagnosis with active selection for embryos that have the gene faults for deafness, could also be possible. However, it is debatable whether hearing geneticists and genetic counsellors would feel comfortable with such a use of genetic technology.
Chemicals that are liable to come into contact with our skin are tested in the appropriate cells, as human skin is readily obtained and used in vitro. The test, which can indicate whether a chemical is likely to be directly damaging to the skin, has now replaced experiments in living animals for some substances, including cosmetics. Human volunteers are also sometimes used to gain information about the effect of chemicals on the skin.
Tant to know where water could reliably be found for immediate needs, but also important to explore new sources for future needs. These inquisitive tendencies seem to be part of the genetic makeup of man and other species and to lay the biological foundation for our attraction to representational art (see the picture of a Russian soldier in the color montage of plate 14) as well as our curiosity for abstract art (a picture of a women with nose, eye, and mouth displaced, as in Picasso's Weeping Woman in figure 5.4). It is suggested that the same tendencies apply to our sense of proportions, symmetry, and balance. Of course, there are many layers of socialized learning and other forces that influence our interpretation ofrepresentational and abstract art pieces, but at the core is our attraction to both central and peripheral objects.
Whether treatment is necessary hinges largely on how much the tremor interferes with the patients activities of daily living (ADLs). Can the person write use a computer mouse button clothing use eating utensils eat soup apply makeup fasten jewelry shave put toothpaste on the toothbrush When these and similar activities are compromised, treatment is indicated. An occasional patient with little functional impairment will want treatment because of embarrassment, which in some cases can be as limiting as the physical effects of ET. At the outset, the physician should advise the patient that no medication will cure the tremor. The goal of treatment is to reduce the tremor and improve functioning. The effectiveness of treatment is judged by assessing the ADLs at each visit.
Eyelids What is the blink rate Do the lids close completely with each blink Are the lid margins smooth Is exophthalmus present Are the lids and lashes clean, or is there crusting and evidence of infection How does the female patient wear eye makeup (heavy mascara, liner on the lid margins, etc)
It should be obvious from the preceding list of substrates and common drugs that knowledge of 2D6 allele status may be important in directing therapy with such common drugs as antidepressants and opiates. This patient had decreased CYP2D6 activity and might be at a greater risk for toxicity, since he could not metabolize tramadol as efficiently as someone who was an extensive metabolizer. This was clearly evident by the steady-state concentrations (Css) of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol. Typically, a patient receiving 200-400 mg day of tramadol has an average Css of 365 mg L.5 However, this patient was taking only one-fourth to one-half of that dosage (100 mg day), but had a similar Css (340 mg L). Therefore, insight into the patient's genetic makeup provided a better understanding and rationale for the insufficient pain relief that he experienced with the attempted therapeutic measures. It also supports the frequent incidents of side effects he reported.
As evidence at trial showed, the whole process of human development is 'set in motion by the genes.' There is not a single organic system of the human body not influenced by an individual's underlying genetic makeup. Genes determine the way physiological components of the human body, such as the heart, liver, or blood vessels operate. Also, according to the expert testimony received at trial, it is now thought that genes influence tastes, preferences, personality styles, manners of speech and mannerisms. This same line of reasoning was applied in Belsito v. Clark, where the judge also noted that proof of giving birth used to be an acceptable proof of being a 'natural' parent because 'for millennia, giving birth was synonymous with providing the genetic makeup of the child that was born' (Belsito v. Clark 67 Ohio Misc. 2d 59), that is, giving birth was proof of the existence of the more fundamental genetic relationship. In this case, the court ruled in no uncertain terms that 'the law...
Various other crop plants naturally produce diverse fatty acids, oils, and waxes that genetic engineers are aiming to improve for consumer health benefits or other commercial applications. The castor plant (Ricinus communis), from which castor oil derives, illustrates both goals. Approximately 90 of castor oil is ricinoleic acid, a useful compound in lubricants, paints, cosmetics, and as a cathartic (bowel purgative), but the seed coat of the bean itself is rich in ricin, an allergenic and potentially fatal protein. Using genetic engineering technologies, scientists are trying to alter the ricin to a less harmful form. They are also trying to modify the plants to produce, instead of ricino-leic acid, a closely related epoxy oil that would be useful in the manufacture of premium oil-based paints.
Common habits can cause mucocutaneous irritation, and behavior modifications are necessary to reduce risk of vulvar irritation and ensure successful management. Modifications include, but are not limited to, use of cotton underwear, lubrication with sexual contact, washing with mild soap, keeping the vulva clean and dry, and avoidance of cosmetics, perfumes, or other caustic substances in this sensitive area. Aluminum acetate in water (e.g., Burow's solution), topical creams (such as Sorbolene or aqueous cream), sitz baths with mild soap, and lubricants (such as petroleum jelly) are helpful in some cases. Secondary bacterial or Candida infections require specific treatment.
There are several genetic variants of drug-metabolizing enzymes that affect how active they are. For example, approximately 5-10 percent of most Caucasian populations have a variant of CYP2D6 that is either inactive or poorly functional. This means that these people poorly metabolize drugs that are substrates for this enzyme. For example, the activation of codeine to the active morphine metabolite is carried out by CYP2D6. Therefore people with an enzyme that functions poorly do not activate codeine well and do not receive the analgesic benefits of codeine when they take it. The older antidepressants such as amitripty-line and nortriptyline are also metabolized by CYP2D6, but in this case they are inactivated. Therefore people with the inactive enzyme have higher blood levels of these antidepressants and are more likely to have side effects if they are given standard doses of the drugs. The ability to predict how an individual will respond to a drug based on his or her genetic makeup,...
Ternal environment, nothing in the environment can influence them to transmit specific traits preferentially to the next generation. The germ cells are coselected as mute passengers, in the vehicle of an organism made up of somatic cells with the same genetic makeup as they have. The only selection that can take place is the survival and reproductive success of the entire individual derived from a fertilized egg. A principal biological advantage for sequestering germ cells from the soma may be to assure that they reflect only the success of the whole individual, instead of the success of any selfish somatic lineage of cells within the individual that could most influence them. Weismann added to Darwinian evolution the cell-biological evidence that nullified the concept of the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
Lead has been mined for more than 6000 years, and it was certainly known to the Ancient Egyptians who used lead pigments as well as casting the metal itself into small figurines. Cosmetics made from lead ores have been found in tombs of the second millennium bc, and these consisted of the Romans - including the adulterating of wine - they also poisoned their food with lead-glazed pottery and their drink with lead crystal and lead pewter. They took lead-based medicines, used hair dyes and cosmetics made from lead compounds. They ate canned foods which were sealed with lead solder and they covered many things with paints consisting mainly of white lead. Lead was also present in the water collected from leaded roofs, and in pubs beer was pumped through lead pipes from the cellar to the taps in the bar. In all these ways lead was in their diet and a comparison of the two empires shows just how exposed to lead their respective citizens were. Cosmetics
Impurities, such as those from the media or HCPs. The dose and route of administration also play a role, with subcutaneous routes generally more immunogenic than intramuscular or intravenous routes. The genetic makeup of the patient population also determines if the protein would be immunogenic115 thus, adverse effects may be race dependent. Thus, the immunogenicity of a protein cannot easily be predicted and is controlled by a complex multitude of factors and not a simple consideration of self versus nonself.
You would benefit from modifying your anger level. It is never easy to change lifelong patterns, but the evidence is clear that anger management programs work. It is true that some of us are predisposed by our biological makeup to respond more strongly than others, but the experience of anger is strongly influenced by learning. If we observed our parents becoming angry frequently, we learned that anger is an expected reaction in such situations. And remember, patterns that are learned can be unlearned.
The new term better reflected the relationship between the index and what were then called articulation tests. Articulation tests were speech tests in which listeners were asked to identify speech sounds spoken by a caller under conditions of interest to the experimenter. The exact makeup of the articulation tests varied, but they usually consisted of a carrier sentence with a nonsense syllable test item at the end. Several callers would in turn utter the sentences via the test circuit to crews of six to eight listeners. The listeners would record what they heard phonetically. The circuit articulation was equal to the average proportion of the sounds (or syllables) heard correctly by the listeners. The articulation index was devised as an alternative to this procedure.
The discussion in this chapter so far has focused on the toxicological implications of damage to DNA by toxic agents. However, the genetic implications of toxicology are much broader than damage to DNA because of the strong influence of genetic makeup on susceptibility and resistance to toxicants. It is known that susceptibility to certain kinds of cancers is influenced by genetic makeup. In Section 8.2, mention was made of oncogenes, associated with the development of cancer, and tumor suppressor genes, which confer resistance to cancer. Susceptibility to certain kinds of cancers, some of which are potentially initiated by toxicants, clearly have a genetic component. Breast cancer is a prime example in that women whose close relatives (mother, sisters) have developed breast cancer have a much higher susceptibility to this disease, to the extent that some women have had prophylactic removal of breast tissue based on the occurrence of this disease in close relatives. It is now possible...
The problem, they thought, could be approached analytically or synthetically. That is, investigators could start with compounds already in use in chemotherapy and try to determine what it was about their chemical makeup that made them work. Or researchers could begin with a relatively simple molecule and study the therapeutic consequences of variations in its constituents or structure. Walker and Sweeney chose the latter course, laying down the requirement that the simple compound chosen be capable of extensive chemical modification without destruction of its fundamental structure and that it contain a definite bactericidal group. As their starting molecule, Walker and Sweeney chose the benzene ring, with an atom of mercury substituted for one of the carbons. They produced variations on this mercurated benzene by substituting other elements or radicals for other carbons on the ring or by joining other elements or radicals to the mercury. They held the mercury content constant in the...
On the basis of these studies, Cattell (1973) estimated the heritability (H) of various traits. Heritability is the fraction of the total measured variance of the trait X in the population that is due to hereditary differences in individual makeup (p. 145). The highest heritability among the primary source traits in Q-data is for intelligence, with an H of about 0.75. Other factors with heritabilities of 0.50 or higher are surgency (Factor F), affectia (Factor A), premsia-harria (Factor I), and protension (Factor L). Considering factors of particular interest to clinicians, Cattell reported a high level of heritability for Factor C (ego strength) and other aspects of personality related to neurosis (Cattell, Rao, & Schuerger, 1985 Cattell, Schuerger, & Klein, 1982). He recommended that people who are highly prone to anxiety because of their genetic endowment should be treated with particular care in family and school situations (Cattell, Vaughan, Schuerger, & Rao, 1982).
Fowler's solution was recommended for other ailments, such as asthma and common neuroses. It was also found to be successful in the treatment of malaria, and was used to destroy nerves in teeth in dentistry. It was still being described for such purposes in a textbook of Materia Medica and Therapeutics published in i92i.4 Arsenic was also used in cosmetics because it was believed to improve the complexion, imparting to it a 'milk rose' appearance.
Micronutrient An essential nutrient, as a trace mineral, that is required in minute amounts. Micronutrients are essential to the body in small amounts because they either are components of enzymes or act as coenzymes in managing chemical reactions. Micronutrient supplementation has been found to strengthen immune defenses however, some studies have found that the genetic makeup of the virus plays a role in whether or not micronutri-ents actually strengthen the immune system, in effect countering years of reports concerning micronutrient deficiencies in people living with HIV.
Researchers also are working to identify genes that may influence epilepsy in some way. Identifying these genes can reveal the underlying chemical processes that influence epilepsy and point to new ways of preventing or treating this disorder. Researchers also can study rats and mice that have missing or abnormal copies of certain genes to determine how these genes affect normal brain development and resistance to damage from disease and other environmental factors. Researchers may soon be able to use devices called gene chips to determine each person's genetic makeup or to learn which genes are active. This information may allow doctors to prevent epilepsy or to predict which treatments will be most beneficial.
The complex makeup of humans invalidates any simple or one-sided description. According to Jung, each person is a composition of opposing forces. No one is completely introverted or totally extraverted all male or all female solely a thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuitive person and no one proceeds invariably in the direction of either progression or regression.
White lead was widely used in cosmetics in the 1700s and 1800s, when to be white skinned was to be beautiful. In the USA one particular product, called Bloom of Youth, occasionally led to its users dying of lead poisoning. Yet such cosmetic uses of white lead stretched back to ancient times in both
There are numerous other historical design flaws in the physiological and mechanical makeup of human beings, such as a metabolic inability to manufacture vitamin C the absence of a reserve second heart (unlike our paired lungs, kidneys, eyes, and opposable thumbs) a birth canal too narrow to permit comfortable passage of an infant the retention of wisdom teeth in a jaw that is too short and the prevalence of problems that accompany upright bipedalism, ranging from pains in the lower back, leg joints, and feet, to abdominal hernias, varicose veins, and hemorrhoids.17 Such imperfections of design, all too familiar especially to those of us of advancing age, are as understandable in the light of evolutionary history as they are unfathomable as the workings of a loving interventionist god.
Paley compared the complexity of the watch, which he could understand, with the complexity of life, which in 1802 he could not, as a measure of their creators. However, such comparisons look different today. Where he would have seen an earthworm and a skylark each as a unique and complex design, we now see underlying similarities they have the same system of heredity, the same genetic code, the same cellular makeup, the same subcellular components, largely the same metabolism, and many of the same processes of embryonic development. Paley was on a firm footing in distinguishing the stone and the watch, but not in comparing the watch and the skylark, the worm, or the eye. He had every reason to see each as an independent act of creation. All he saw in common was their complexity, not the nature of the complexity, and it is that nature that tips the balance between acceptance of evolution and the alternative deism that Paley chose.
As with all other areas of the life sciences, toxicology is strongly affected by the remarkable ongoing advances in the area of mapping and understanding the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that directs the reproduction and metabolism of all living things. This includes the human genome, as well as those of other organisms. It is known that certain genetic characteristics result in a predisposition for certain kinds of diseases and cancers. The action of toxic substances and the susceptibility of organisms to their effects have to be strongly influenced by the genetic makeup of organisms. The term chemical idiosyncrasy has been applied to the abnormal reaction of individuals to chemical exposure. An example of chemical idiosyncrasy occurs with some individuals who are affected very strongly by exposure to nitrite ion, which oxidizes the iron(II) in hemoglobin to iron(III), producing methemoglobin, which does not carry oxygen to tissues. These individuals have a low activity of the...
One more representative case of contextual dynamics comes from thermodynamics (Matsuno, 2001). What is unique to thermodynamics is that it introduces macroscopic variables such as volume, pressure, temperature and entropy without detailing their atomistic makeup at the outset. These macroscopic variables are about the context in which the underlying microscopic elements, whatever they may be, are eventually situated. The contextual dynamics specifying the values of the macroscopic variables is constantly operative there. Even if the fundamental dynamics of microscopic elements is left unspecified, the contextual specification is to proceed. A molecule in the gas is subject to the temperature of the gas while at the same time the molecule is part of the gas substantiating the same temperature. Thus, any contextual element constituting the context comes to materialize and share the same contextual specification. Thermodynamics is unique in emphasizing the priority of contextual...
Genomes of higher organisms represent the descendants of bacterial ancestors that much earlier in evolution entered into endosymbi-otic18 relationships with proto-eukaryotic host cells bearing precursors of the nuclear genome.19 Over evolutionary time, some of the genes originally carried by the bacterial invaders were transferred to the nucleus,20 whereas others were retained by the mitochondrion. These remarkable findings give a whole new slant on human makeup. Literally, our cells are coinhabited by a now well-integrated amalgamation of genes that originated in completely separate presymbiotic microbes.
Ehrlich's compound was called a magic bullet because, like other antibiotic agents, it specifically targeted the syphilis spirochete. Antibiotics are simply chemicals that react with other chemicals. Every cell, whether it is human or bacterium, is also made up of chemicals. The cell's membranes are covered with receptor sites that allow the cell to react with or take in other chemicals. In order for an antibiotic to work, it must have the right chemical makeup, or key, to fit the chemical makeup, or lock, at the receptor site on the bacterium. But the antibiotic's chemical key must not fit
Patients would be able to utilize these cloned embryos to generate tissue matching their genetic makeup, which could be used in regenerative medical treatments. The impact of this new discovery, if it could be made commercially feasible, would transform society as much as the Internet, the transistor, or the atom bomb had done.
Host factors Factors intrinsic to the HIV-infected individual that influence the rate at which HIV replicates in the person's body and how rapidly the patient will develop AIDS. These factors include the specific immune response to the virus, nonspecific factors, and the individual's genetic makeup. Such factors are as important, or in some cases even more important, to the HIV disease process than the intrinsic virulence of the virus itself. Host factors, together with viral factors, determine the pathogenesis of HIV disease, the complex events which lead to the destruction of an HIV-infected person's immune system.
The wisdom of a microbe lies in its ability to change. They are able to reproduce much faster than their human competitors. A new generation can come along as quickly as every fifteen minutes, and each time a bacterium divides, there is a chance for error. A random change in the genetic makeup of a cell that becomes a permanent inherited characteristic is called a mutation. And a mutation that increases a microbe's chance of survival is passed on to the next generation.
Therapeutic cloning has great potential for generating stem cell lines that are genetically matched to the donor's genetic makeup. These stem cells lines in turn have the potential to provide amazing therapies for illnesses and injuries that have no cure today. Therapies to remedy damage due to disease or genetic abnormality and eventually, even physical injury are part of the quickly expanding field of regenerative medicine.
Preconscious tubulin superpositions reach threshold for Penrose OR (e. g. after 25 ms) according to E K t in which E is the gravitational self-energy of the superpositioned mass (e. g. the number of tubulins in superposition), K is Planck's constant over 2 , and t is the time until OR. Larger superpositions (more intense experience) reach threshold faster. For t 25ms (i.e. 40Hz) E is roughly 1011 tubulins, requiring a hyperneuron of minimally 104 neurons per conscious event (Hameroff and Penrose 89 ). The makeup of the hyperneuron (and content of consciousness) evolves with subsequent events.
Throughout pregnancy, this brain development is vulnerable to disruptions. If the disruption occurs early, the fetus may die, or the infant may be born with widespread disabilities and possibly mental retardation. If the disruption occurs later, when the cells are becoming specialized and moving into place, it may leave errors in the cell makeup, location, or connections. Some scientists believe that these errors may later show up as learning disorders.
Previous generations found it to be an essential part of civilized living pipes, pewter, pottery, paints, and even potions were made with it. Toy soldiers were cast from it, port wine protected by it grey hair was disguised with it, church roofs covered with it cosmetics contained it, and cans of food were sealed with it.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the building block of human genetic material and is found in all cells of the body which have nuclei. Differences in the makeup of DNA of various persons make it possible to distinguish the DNA of one person from that of another. The results of DNA analysis has been called the DNA fingerprint, implying that the genetic composition is similar to our fingerprint in that it is unique to an individual. This is not quite true identical DNA patterns are found in identical twins. However, excluding the existence of an identical twin, the DNA of an individual is unique. DNA testing is commonly performed in all states and its validity has been accepted by the scientific and legal communities.
Knowledge of the genetic makeup of the gramnegative anaerobic pathogens lags far behind their aerobic counterparts. Sequence for only a few hundred nonredundant genes have been deposited in the databases for all these genera combined. An accurate understanding of the genetic makeup of these organisms awaits complete genome sequencing.
Parabens, sensitivity to The parabens (methyl-, propyl-, and butyl-) are the most common preservatives used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics, but they can cause a severe redness, swelling, itching, and pain. They can also cause anaphylactic shock in susceptible individuals. Parabens can be found in mayonnaise, salad dressings, spiced sauces, mustard, processed vegetables, frozen dairy products, some baked goods, jellies and jams, soft drinks, fruit juices, syrups, and candies. In medications, they are used in many dermatologic creams eye, ear, and nose drops rectal and vaginal medications bandages and local anesthetics. Cosmetics containing parabens include foundations, powders, cover-up sticks, bronzers, makeup removers, blushes, highlighters, lipsticks, quick-dry nail products, mascaras, eye shadows, and eyeliners. However, considering how widespread the use of parabens is, sensitivity to this preservative is low. (See also allergies.)
Crick's target was deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA, known by then to be the medium of heredity. At Cambridge he joined a team with James D. Watson, an American encouraged to study genetics by Muller and X-ray crystallogra-phers Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin. At first, the makeup of DNA made it seem too simple a molecule to encode inheritance, which many thought would more likely reside in the proteins also found in cell nuclei. But the computer age had started, and the simplicity of binary code systems made DNA a more attractive candidate.
Somatic cell gene therapy A genetic treatment that involves the insertion of genes into somatic cells for therapeutic purposes, for example, to induce the treated cells to produce a protein that the body is missing. It has been used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Inserting a particular gene into somatic cells affects only the patient being treated. It does not affect the genetic makeup of a patient's offspring and generally does not change all, or even most, cells in the patient. Therefore, it is considered an extension of normal medical care and does not generally fall under the moral and legal controls of other genetic engineering. It is being studied for potential use in the treatment of HIV.
In 1864 there were reports in the press of children actually dying as a result of the vapours given off by mouldy green wallpaper, and the medical journal Lancet warned of the dangers of arsenic pigments. A typical wallpaper would contain around 700 mg m2 so that an average-sized living room would hold around 30000 mg of arsenic, in theory enough to kill more than a hundred people. Most of this arsenic would remain on the walls of the room unless they became damp. The nature of the aerial poison was unknown at the time but this did not stop concerned individuals launching campaigns against the use of arsenic-based pigments even though these flew in the face of most medical opinion which regarded arsenic as a potent medicine and good for treating all kinds of afflictions of the human body. In addition the general public had discovered that when arsenic-based papers were used on bedroom walls there was a noticeable disappearance of bed bugs, a major benefit that led to increased sales....
Genetic engineering can be a misleading term if taken to imply undue analogies to physical engineering. When geneticists tinker with the genetic makeup of plants, animals, or microbes, the outcomes can be far less predictable than when a mechanical engineer builds a house, a bridge, or a dam. Each individual organism changes continually during its development, thus posing an ever-shifting physiological milieu for genetic manipulation. At the population level also, nothing remains static, but rather evolves, often in partial response to any genetic alterations themselves. So, too, will other species evolve with whom GMOs interact. The net results are ever-changing and varied responses to genetic manipulations and levels of temporal unpredictability that far surpass what physical engineers encounter.
What is it like to have a peak experience Maslow (1964) described several guidelines that may help answer this question. Fhst, peak experiences are quite natural and are part of human makeup. Second, people having a peak experience see the whole universe as unified or all in one piece, and they see clearly their place in that universe. Also, during this mystical time, peakers feel both more humble and more powerful at the same tune. They feel passive, receptive, more desirous of listening, and more capable of hearing. Simultaneously, they feel more responsible for then activities and perceptions, more active, and more self-determined. Peakers experience a loss of fear, anxiety, and conflict and become more loving, accepting, and spontaneous. Although peakers often report such emotions as awe, wonder, rapture, ecstasy, reverence, humility, and surrender, they are not likely to want to get something practical from the experience. They often experience a disorientation in time and space,...
Adler (1956) acknowledged the importance of heredity and environment hi forming personality. Except for identical twhis, every child is born with a unique genetic makeup and soon comes to have social experiences different from those of any other human. People, however, are much more than a product of heredity and environment. They are creative beings who not only react to their environment but also act on it and cause it to react to them.
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