Whereas in diagnostic efforts a histopathological diagnosis can generally be made easily by using HE, cytokeratin staining, carcinoid markers (chro-mogranin A), and immunohistochemical lympho ma markers (limited only when the biopsies are too small), diagnosis by cytopathology is more limited, because the significant material needed for diagnosis is often scarce, often with only a few smears of different quality available. This means that the possibility of extending the spectrum of immunohistochemical evaluations is limited in many cases.
Figures 8-10 show a series of cytology smears demonstrating the different diagnoses. The next series (Figs. 11-14) shows cytopathological pictures of FNAC smears of small-cell lung cancer (Giemsa and immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins 8, 18, 19). This nonaggressive (nonin-vasive) method in connection with other clinical results (imaging investigations) helps to define whether the search for SLNs is indicated and whether the cancer is operable.
Figures 15-17 demonstrate carcinoids with different degrees of differentiation and malignancy as seen on histological investigation (Figs. 15-17).
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