Longevity Health and Wellness Protocol

Younger Tomorrow

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Achievement And Disappointment

The health of the American people at the beginning of the twenty-first century would astonish those living in 1900. By every measure, we are healthier, live longer, and enjoy lives that are less likely to be marked by injuries, ill health, or premature death. In the past century, infant mortality declined and life expectancy increased (DHHS, 2002). Vaccines and antibiotics made once life-threatening ailments preventable or less serious and homes, workplaces, roads, and automobiles became safer. In addition to the many health achievements facilitated by public health1 efforts such as sanitation and immunization, unparalleled medical advances and national investment in health care also have contributed to improvements in health outcomes. Roughly 13 percent of our gross domestic product about 1.3 trillion in 2000, which represents a higher percentage than that of any other major industrialized nation goes toward health-related expenditures (DHHS, 2001 Levit et al., 2002). Despite the...

Present And Future Changes Needed For A Healthy Nation

The committee's findings call attention to the fact that achieving the vision of healthy people in healthy communities is a difficult and complex task that cannot be accomplished through a single plan of action or by a single governmental agency or nongovernmental entity. Rather, broad societal action is required at every level and such action needs to be better coordinated by all individuals, families and community members, businesses and workers, and health care providers and policy makers. Furthermore, responding to this vision requires a long-term public and political commitment to ensure that the policies, financial and organizational resources, and political and public wills are in place to assure the presence of the conditions necessary for all Americans to live longer, healthier lives. To support the creation of an effective intersectoral public health system, the committee identified six areas of action and change. These are reflected in the recommendations made to the...

Symptomatic Relief Left Ventricular Assist Devices Versus Resynchronization Therapy

Class IV end-stage left ventricular failure who are not candidates for cardiac transplantation and who have received optimal medical therapy for at least 60 of the last 90 days. To receive this LVAS, patients must also have a life expectancy of less than 2 years, a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 25 or less, and a peak oxygen consumption of no more than 12 mL kg min or a continued need for intravenous inotropic therapy owing to symptomatic hypotension, decreasing renal function, or worsening pulmonary congestion. Likewise, CRT by biventricular pacing is indicated in selected patients who have NYHA functional class III or IV HF caused by idiopathic dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy who have QRS duration 120 milliseconds or greater, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter 5.5 cm or greater, and ejection fraction 35 or less.

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health

A substantial body of research documents the relationship between racial and ethnic disparities and differences in health status. Numerous studies have shown that minority populations may experience burdens of disease and health risk at disproportionate rates because of complex and poorly understood interactions among socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioral, and health care-related factors (NCHS, 1998 DHHS, 2000 IOM, 2002). Although Americans in general experienced substantial improvements in life expectancy at all ages throughout the twentieth century, substantial gaps in life expectancy, morbidity, and functional status remain between white and minority populations. Life expectancy at birth for African Americans in 1990 was the same as that for whites in 1950. Even after controlling for income, African-American men and women have lower life expectancies than white men and women at every income level (for example, see Geronimus et al. 1996 and Anderson et al. 1997 ). When indicators...

The Development of Medicinal Chemistry

However, until the development of analytical and synthetic chemistry in the 19th century, the discovery of new therapeutic substances remained focused on the biological investigation of natural substances usually secured from the apothecary garden. The new chemical techniques enabled the isolation and manufacture of pure substances. First, reproducible extraction procedures yielded individual active compounds from natural products and, subsequently, toward the end of the century, de novo synthesis was achieved of the simpler natural products such as aspirin, which was first marketed by Bayer in 1899. The next logical step was to systematically modify existing biologically active compounds, referred to as lead compounds, in an attempt to improve on their drug-like properties. By the 1930s the pharmaceutical industry had begun a sustained period of productivity, identifying lead compounds and transforming them into effective new therapeutic agents. These lead compounds came from a...

Does gabapentin and lamotrigine have significantly fewer sideeffects while providing equal or better seizure control

Purpose - Excerpt New onset epilepsy in the elderly occurs in 45,00050,000 elderly patients each year. These patients are especially vulnerable to side effects from medications because of changes caused by the aging process and the fact that these patients often have many common diseases for which they are already receiving medications for so that the likelihood of drug interactions is increased. Two new drugs, gabapentin and lamotrigine, have recently been approved by the FDA as antiepileptic drugs. These drugs have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of partial onset seizures, the most common seizures in the elderly. These new compounds also have favorable side effect profiles and infrequent drug-drug interactions and, therefore, would be expected to be well-tolerated in the elderly.

Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Foundation Inc

Most individuals with the syndrome have trouble with language. Some are able to use short sentences, while others express themselves with a few basic words, gestures, or sign language. Nearly all children with this syndrome have poor muscle tone when they are young. other characteristics may include feeding difficulties, delays in walking, hyperactivity, scoliosis, and significant retardation. A small number of children are born with serious organ defects and other life-threatening medical conditions, although most individuals with 5p- can anticipate a normal life expectancy.

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft CABG Surgery

In coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, the cardiac surgeon takes a length of blood vessel from elsewhere in the body and uses it to shunt blood around a narrowed or blocked coronary artery. The attached vessel thus permits blood to bypass the blockage so the heart muscle ordinarily supplied by that coronary artery can once again receive nourishment. About 366,000 Americans undergo CABG surgery each year. The operation can dramatically improve the quality of life and boost life expectancy for some (but not all) people with coronary artery disease.

Introduction Inflammation and atherosclerosis

Vascular disease, particularly atherosclerotic disease, manifests a strong age dependence and plagues more affluent nations partly because of lifestyle, but also because of the sharp discordance in life expectancies and healthcare availability and delivery in developed versus emerging nations. Average global life expectancy is about 63 years, but ranges from a low in most of Africa of less than 55 to a high of 75-85 in countries such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Infection remains the primary cause of death in the world, but deployment of improved healthcare into underdeveloped parts of the world are expected to markedly raise average global life expectancies to the point where prevalence of cardiovascular disease takes the lead as the world's number one health problem.

Supplementing Dietary Supplements Nutrient Boosts

Precisely how much of each vitamin or mineral should be in the human diet has long been a matter of research and discussion. In 1941, an official body of experts in the United States published a compendium of Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) that has been updated periodically ever since. For each nutrient, this book lists the daily ingestion levels judged adequate to meet the standard nutritional requirements of a normal healthy person of given age, sex, and physical condition. The adult RDA for zinc is 15 mg, for example, and that for riboflavin (vitamin B2) is 1.7 mg. The lists were later expanded as a series of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) that also include upper bounds on tolerable ingestion levels. These are important too, because there is circumstantial evidence that particular vitamins in large doses reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and some cancers, or slow the aging process and, on the other hand, that high-dose levels may also have some toxic effects.

Lifes Greatest Mysteries

Time and energy in finding a mate, but also dilute by 50 percent their genetic contribution to each offspring And why should individuals senesce and die when natural selection seemingly would favor any genetic predisposition for greater longevity and continued reproduction From a theological perspective, the paradoxes are no less profound. Why did a god create humans of separate genders, with all of the moral mine fields that entails Why would a god sentence us to old age and death with a certainty that trumps every other consideration, including apparent goodness of the individual Evolutionary science and religion both have provisional answers to such questions, and some of these are closer in spirit than might be supposed.

Fitness Indicators for People Other than Mates

Sexual selection was not the only kind of social selection during human evolution. For humans, as for most primates, all kinds of social relationships affect survival and reproduction. In forming and maintaining many of these relationships there are good reasons to advertise one's fitness, just as one does to potential sexual partners. Friends of higher fitness may survive longer, offer more competencies, and give better advice. Allies of higher fitness may help one to win fights and wars. Trading partners of higher fitness may live longer, travel longer distances to acquire more valuable commodities, and have the social intelligence to keep their promises. None of these social relationships entails any merging of genes, so they are not subject to positive-feedback processes as powerful as runaway sexual selection. But they still offer plenty of scope for all kinds of socially selected indicators to evolve.

Colonystimulating factor1 See csf1

Combined immunodeficiency Severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID) Congenital immunodeficiency with thymic agenesis, lymphocyte depletion and hypogammaglobulinemia both cellular and humoral immune systems are affected, and life expectancy is low unless marrow transplantation is successful.

Box 221 People With The Same Disorder Can Be Quite Different

Half of the children born with Down syndrome are born with severe heart malformations. These and other life-threatening conditions are so severe that some of these children die before age five. However, for those children who survive the fifth year of life, the average life expectancy is fifty years. Even so, these individuals are at high risk for leukemia and for a degenerative brain disorder similar to Alzheimer disease. Men with Down syndrome are usually sterile, but the women are fertile from the few scattered reports available, it appears that half of their children are born with Down syndrome. On one hand, this result makes good sense half of the eggs produced by such a woman should carry two copies of chromosome 21. However, given that some eighty percent of Down syndrome fetuses spontaneously miscarry, we have to wonder why the final result should be a 1 1 ratio. Although we can imagine models for how this might happen, at this time it is still one of many mysteries about this...

The Effects Of Diet On Survival

In an initial study at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, it was found that the modification of the dietary ingredients influences the aging process both in hamsters and rats.1 Syrian hamsters fed commercial chow diet had a longevity of about 40 weeks (short-lived) and suffered with a large spectrum of diseases, including cardiovascular, renal, and malignant diseases. Feeding a formulated semisynthetic diet with the same caloric concentration of fat, protein, and carbohydrate prolonged the survival to over 80 weeks (long-lived) and abolished or reduced many spontaneous diseases.2,3 Both the short-lived and long-lived animals develop the same type and frequency of tumors, but at different times. In the short-lived hamsters, tumors appear much earlier than those in the long-lived hamsters. This was also the case when rats with usually long survival (about 2 years) were compared with the short-lived hamsters.3 In both short-lived and long-lived hamsters, tumors appeared within...

Where the money comes from

The money which funds the NHS comes predominantly from general taxation, with a much lesser contribution from the National Insurance scheme, a fraction from prescription charges, small amounts from private practice within NHS institutions, and miscellaneous sources such as the sale of land. The majority thus comes directly from the Exchequer. The sums involved are huge and represent about 14 of public spending which itself represents 43 of the gross domestic product (GDP what we earn as a nation + what as a nation we borrow PSBR (public sector borrowing requirement) ). Forty years ago NHS expenditure as a percentage of GDP was a mere 3 . It reached 7 as the new century arrived and is scheduled to rise further (Figure 5.3). Nevertheless, in times of difficulty all of us within the NHS like to point out that the NHS still claims a smaller percentage of GDP than almost all our Western European colleagues and about half of what is claimed in the USA. A public health guru or sage Treasury...

Is Aging Of The Brain A Disease

We have all witnessed the deterioration of our parents or grandparents as they aged. Too often, it is a sad deterioration with a loss of quality of life as they fail mentally. At the same time, we read about the marvelous advances in medicine that are supposed to make us healthier and live longer. What is going on Are people living longer And if so, what are the consequences Is it likely that we could live to be 150 or even 200 years old, and what would it take for us to achieve that goal if, indeed, this is something we would want to do

Issues With Individual Prophylactic Indications

Although the justification for temporary caval filtration relates to the limited duration of the need for protection, it is spurred by the fact that most trauma patients are young and their expected longevity is great relative to the duration of this need. Nevertheless, the duration of risk may be quite long in many of these types of trauma relative to the safe indwelling time of most current retrievable filters. In such cases, with predictably long immobilization (e.g., spinal fractures, pelvic fractures, multiple long bone fractures), it might be better to use a permanent filter, the one with the best long-term performance record. Patients with advanced malignancy have been shown to be at increased risk of VTE, and AC therapy may not be adequately protective. Prophylactic VCF use has been debated but the trend now favors therapeutic use (i.e., only after VTE). Risk factors have been identified.19 Univariate analysis and logistic regression models identified the following as...

Prostate Cancer an Overview30

As much as 20 years ago three different options for prostate cancer treatment in stage D1 were tested (radical prostatectomy, extended radiotherapy, and hormone therapy). The median survival in all groups was 39.5 months. None of the three treatment strategies was superior in prolonging life (Kramer et al. 1981), and there was no convincing breakthrough improving on this situation up to the 1990s.

Comprehensive Risk Reduction of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Diabetic Patient An Integrated Approach

The Egyptians recognized diabetes as a pathologic entity nearly 3500 years ago. It was noted to be a rare condition but was known to reduce longevity. The condition now defined as type 2 diabetes is seen worldwide and has reached epidemic proportions. By the year 2025, the number of individuals with diabetes mellitus in the world is expected to exceed 300 million with a prevalence of 5.4 1 . Diabetes continues to affect a substantial proportion of adults in the United States. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Enhancement Survey 1999-2000 indicate that 8.3 of persons over the age of 20 years have either diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, and this percentage increases to 19.2 for persons aged more than 60 years in the United States. Men and women are affected similarly by diabetes 2 . In 1999-2000, an additional 6.1 of adults had impaired fasting glucose tolerance, increasing to 14.4 for persons aged more than 60 years and with a greater incidence in men than in women 3 ....

The safety of irradiated food

From the beginning of systematic studies in the late 1940s it was recognised that irradiated food needed careful toxicological study before the technology could be applied to food manufacturing and processing. It is useless to question why the word 'radiation' carries such a negative image and causes considerable suspicion, not only among lay persons, but also among many scientists. In such a situation, governments and food control authorities were well advised to restrict the application of the new technology. However, further results have become available and the final judgement has been stated by the World Health Organization (1981) as 'Irradiation of any commodity presents no toxicological hazard'. This means that governments and authorities are responsible for the consequences and recognise the radiation processing of food as safe and as simply one among several other technologies. There have been thorough chemical studies, leading to the principle of 'chemiclearance' and classes...

Concluding Observations

Academia has made major contributions to prolonging life and increasing the quality of life through research. Basic research has provided the knowledge necessary to develop precious vaccines that protect against debilitating and deadly diseases, whereas research on the determinants of health has demonstrated the importance of social and behavioral factors to health. However, comparatively few resources have been devoted to supporting prevention research, community-based research, or the translation of research findings into practice. Such resources must be found and allocated if academia is to continue to have a major impact on the health of communities. With the collaboration and partnership of academia, scholarly service has the potential to make great strides in engaging the community in improving its own health. However, without a restructuring of the reward system within universities and colleges, this most promising approach to change encounters barriers that are difficult to...

The future of rationing steps to watch

By the creation of NICE (the National Institute of Clinical Excellence) the government took a major step towards establishing a mechanism that might address perceived and real failures in access to useful healthcare interventions. Because of the limited scope of NICE's recommendations, and because the evidence shows that its advice is often ignored by local purchasers, a better and agreed process for decision taking at local level needs to be established when central government does not take these decisions (the removal of dental services and eye tests, the closure of psychiatric institutions, and the limiting of breast screening to women aged under 65 are, it should be remembered, central rationing decisions). Local processes will need to be very open, very well informed by an evidence base that looks not just at outcome in a life expectancy sense but also more at quality. Nevertheless, on balance, most opinion seems to support the necessity of central decision making about major...

Rights to Genetic Knowledge

Cided to purchase a large insurance policy under the terms of standard health and life expectancy. She or her family would be financial winners, and the company and its other policyholders the losers, since premiums inevitably must rise to cover such financial settlements. Traditionally, insurance has worked on the principle that policyholders pay premiums according to the risk they bring to the insurance fund, but until recently explicit genetic risk factors were unavailable. Who has the right to the new genetic knowledge Who decides the kinds and levels of genetic testing to be done Employers and insurance companies no doubt would wish to have greater assurance that their employees and policyholders are genetically hardy, just as they now routinely require medical exams to assess the physical fitness of applicants. At the population level, many insurers would like to refine their actuarial tables to accommodate any gene-based mean differences among ethnic groups in health and...

Purpose and Intention

Skinner (1974) also recognized the concepts of purpose and intention, but agam, he cautioned agamst attributing behavior to them. Purpose and intention exist within the skin, but they are not subject to direct outside scrutiny. A felt, ongoing purpose may itself be reinforcing. For example, if you believe that your purpose for jogging is to feel better and live longer, then this thought per se acts as a reinforcing stimulus, especially while undergoing the drudgery of joggmg or when trying to explam your motivation to a nonrunner.

Cf And Pancreatic Cancer

With increased life expectancy, the majority of the CF patients now survive at least to adolescence and almost one-third attain adulthood. This increased life span for CF patients, although good, has brought to our attention that people carrying the CFTR gene mutation may have an increased risk of developing cancer, particularly in the digestive tract.55 The development of cancer is a multistep process that includes initiation due to gene mutation, promotion by accumulating the oncogenic mutation, and progression toward a malignant phenotype via further genetic and epigenetic changes. Although all people are equally prone to gene mutation, only a few get it in their lifetime. In fact, the development of cancer is a variable function of a person's genetic background, environmental exposure, diet, and lifestyle.

Marriage and Relationships

Rogers's humanistic approach also has implications for marriage. He noted that modern marriage occurs in a new context, compared to past generations, in which people live longer and have more choice to limit family size. Other factors affecting modern marriage are the social acceptability of divorce, family mobility, wives who have jobs and careers, and sexual freedom (Rogers, 1977). Rogers advocated a person-centered rela

Creativity and Intelligence

Perhaps what psychologists call general intelligence or the g factor will turn out to be a major component of biological fitness. If so, the high heritability of general intelligence may reflect, in part, the heritability of fitness itself. There are a few pieces of evidence that support a link between general intelligence and biological fitness. A recent study at the University of New Mexico found a 20 percent correlation between performance on an intelligence test and a compound measure of body symmetry. Body symmetry is often used as a proxy for heritable fitness, so this result suggests that there is a relationship between general intelligence and heritable fitness. Intelligence is also known to correlate positively with body height, physical health, longevity, and social status. These intercorrelations may arise because all these traits tap into biological fitness to some extent. Much more research needs to be done to address this question, however.

Decisionmaking In Relation To Hearing Problems

There are important aetiological and environmental processes that will have an impact on what we can expect regarding people's decision-making in relation to their hearing problems. In the following sections we shall consider some of these processes changes in some aetiological factors (e.g. more and more non-hereditary causes are eliminated) the demographic changes in the society (e.g. increase in life expectancy) developments in the health sector (especially the greater importance of genetics in health and medicine in relation to hearing impairment) the technical (e.g. better hearing aids) and socio-economic development (e.g. increasing cleavages and privatisation) and the changing ethnic and religious patterns (e.g. increasing diversity in society). Over the past century there have been significant changes in the breakdown of causes of hearing impairment and, almost certainly, of its prevalence in the population as a whole. These stem from three...

Effects Of Proteasome Inhibition Within The

Increases several fold in late age(19,68-72). Proteasome inhibition may serve an important role as a trigger for the sudden and dramatic spike in protein oxidation observed in very late age. Therefore, early in the aging process there is likely a dynamic cellular environment that helps to prevent large increases in protein oxidation. For example, it is likely that proteasome plasticity and increases in stress response (present in young cells) prevent the accumulation of oxidative damage that could potentially occur as the result of cellular stressors (Figure 1). Over time the ability of these protective pathways to prevent increases in protein oxidation dramatically decrease, with inhibition of proteasome function serving as a mechanism for rapidly and profoundly elevating protein oxidation (Figure 1). Additionally, once the levels of oxidized proteins are increased to a deleterious stage, or allowed to persist in the intracellular space for prolonged periods of time, they may serve...

Role Of Proteasome Inhibition As Mediator Of Aging

Proteasome inhibition occurs in the aging of most cell types and tissue, but does it play any role in mediating aging Numerous studies suggest that proteasome inhibition may not only occur during normal aging, but may play a direct role in the aging process. As discussed previously, studies have demonstrated that protea-some inhibition is sufficient to induce multiple pathological alterations observed in aging including increased protein oxidation, nucleic acid oxidation, protein aggregation, increased lipofuscin ceroid, induction of autophagy, and induction of mitochondrial dysfunction. The induction of cellular senescence is also tightly correlated with a loss of proteasome function(6-8,84,85), with proteasome inhibition sufficient to induce multiple aspects of cellular senescence(9,86). Such studies indicate that proteasome inhibition is not only a common feature of cellular and tissue aging, but demonstrate that proteasome inhibition is sufficient to induce age-related pathologies...

Regulation of Senescence

Ethylene-sensitive flower senescence has received most attention by far in studies of flower longevity, most likely because a number of highly valuable flower crops fall into this category (Reid and Wu, 1992). Ethylene patterns. The observations in these studies also support an important role for the ovary in interorgan signalling in flower longevity. The ovary is the first organ that shows accumulation of ACC synthase transcript during age-related senescence (ten Have and Woltering, 1997) and is also the organ that shows increased ethylene responsiveness well before the petals and styles (ten Have and Woltering, 1997 Jones, 2002). Biotechnology controlling ethylene-regulated flower senescence Several successful attempts have been made to create transgenic plants with increased flower longevity. These attempts fall into two categories. The first category includes transgenic plants with altered ethylene biosynthesis (Savin etal., 1995 Aida etal., 1998). ACC oxidase has been the main...

Timing of Senescence the Opening

The fact that petal senescence is under genetic control is well established. Genotypes with varying flower longevity have been identified in Dianthus caryophyllus (Wu et al., 1989 Brandt and Woodson, 1992), Dianthus barbatus (Friedman et al., 2001), Antirrhinum majus (Schroeder and Stimart, 2001), Petunia x hybrida (Porat et al., 1993, Krahl and Randle, 1999), Lilium longiflorum (van der Meulen-Muisers etal., 1998), Gerbera x hybrida (Wernett et al., 1996) and Hatoria x graeseri (Easter cactus) (Karle and Boyle, 1999) among others. These studies showed significant additive gene effects for a number of species (Wernett, et al., 1996 Krahl and Randle, 1999 Schroeder and Stimart, 2001), suggesting that flower longevity in these species is under the control of at least two genes and in at least one case epistatic effects are absent (Schroeder and Stimart, 2001). More detailed studies of genotypes of ethylene-sensitive species showed an important role for the ability to produce ethylene...

Mesencephalon See midbrain

There is no specific treatment for microcephaly, other than to treat symptoms. A serious attempt should be made to identify a specific cause of the disorder. In general, life expectancy for individuals with microcephaly is low and the prognosis for normal brain function is poor. The prognosis varies, depending on the presence of other problems.

Medulla oblongata Full name of the medulla

During the day, melatonin levels are low at sunset, the cessation of light triggers neural signals that stimulate the pineal gland to begin releasing melatonin. This rise continues for hours, eventually peaking around 2 a.m. in normal, healthy young people and about 3 a.m. in elderly patients. After this, it begins a steady decline to minimal levels again by morning. The delay in timing and decrease in amount of melatonin appears to be a part of the aging process interestingly, the maximum amount of melatonin released in the bloodstream of the elderly is only about half of that in young adults. This decrease is so predictable that some experts have proposed blood melatonin levels as a measure of biological age. This reduction in melatonin among the elderly may be part of the reason for the sleeping problems and daytime fatigue many senior citizens report. There has been some research investigating the possibility of melatonin's ability to slow down the aging process in animal studies....

How Long Could We Live

It is common knowledge that average life expectancy has increased spectacularly in the past 100 years. In Europe and the United States, the average life span was less than 47 years in 1890 and by the 1990s it was more than 75 years. During the decade of 1968-1978, average life expectancy rose at the phenomenal rate of one month per year for all those over 50 In Japan, the figures are even more impressive by the mid-1990s the average life expectancy for women was about 83 years of age. Japanese men, like men the world over, had a lower average life span of 77 years. Developing countries also showed substantial increases of average life expectancy in the 1990s. But what about absolute life expectancy Has that increased Here the news is quite different. Ancient texts mention individuals living to 120 years of age, and today we occasionally hear of someone that old, but this is very exceptional. The age at death of the longest-living human that is well documented was 122 years, and in the...

What constitutes the heart failure population

Despite attempted maximum medical therapy (New York Heart Association NYHA Functional Class III or IV, or Stage D) 7 . Different clinical conditions predominate in different parts of the world. Although coronary artery disease accounts for more than 65 of cases in North America and Europe (Fig. 3), Chagas disease assumes greater significance for populations with shorter life expectancy in South America. In the Italian SEOSI study 70 of patients had previous myocardial infarction, whereas 15 had hypertensive heart disease 8 . Idiopathic dilated cardio-myopathy and valvular heart disease together accounted for the remaining 15 . Less well understood is that virtually half of heart failure patients have well-preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 9 . From a 15-year experience of heart failure admissions to the Mayo Clinic, Owan and colleagues 10 showed 47 of patients to have preserved left ventricular systolic function (LVEF > 50 , mean 61 ). Moreover, the diastolic...

Characteristics of patients admitted to day care disintegration and loss of self

Karen went on to explain why I had triggered such an angry response. The previous week she had had to fill out a Department of Social Security form for sickness benefit.6 One of the questions on this form asked if she had a terminal illness. The form went on to define a terminal illness as meaning the person had a life expectancy of six months or less. Karen's sense of anger then became more understandable 'How dare they write me off like that Why use words like advanced or terminal at all They take away your right to hope.' Patients thus attempted to negotiate and resolve the problematic nature of the future by reordering and re-evaluating time they downplayed the significance of forthcoming events (i.e. further deterioration, and ultimately their deaths) and focused upon past and present concerns. In most cases, the future was not denied or negated altogether rather, it was displaced to the realm of a distant, abstract and hence non-threatening domain. Thus as one patient suggested,...

Role of electrophysiological treatment in patients who have advanced heart failure

Was a follow-up study of the MADIT trial. It examined the prophylactic benefit in coronary artery disease patients who had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 30 , who have had at least one myocardial infarction but required no further risk stratification. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 23.5 , and overall mortality rates were 19.8 and 14.2 in the treatment and control groups, respectively 50 . Table 2 provides a summary of the characteristics and outcomes of major clinical trials of electrophysiologic interventions. The American Heart Association Guidelines for management of patients who have heart failure recommends the use of AICD implantation in patients who have ejection fraction less than 30 and mild to moderate symptoms of HF and in whom survival with good functional capacity is otherwise anticipated to extend beyond 1 year. Because medical therapy may substantially improve ejection fraction, consideration of defi-brillator implants should follow...

Fitness as a Defense Against Mortality Awareness

Brief article on how exercise promotes longevity and then completed two questions about their intention to exercise. The first was how much they will exercise relative to their own norm over the next month, and the second was how long (30 to 160 minutes) then next exercise will be. Responses to these two questions were standardized and added together to create an overall measure of intention to exercise. Participants again were university students (50 female). The main difference hi procedures and measures from Study 1 was the inclusion of a filler readhig task (five mundane pages from a work by Camus that had no reference to death or other existential issues) for the delay group. In other words, after the mortality salience or dental procedure manipulation, participants either read the Camus passage (delay group) or immediately answered the more elaborate fitness intention questionnaire, consisting of nine rather than two questions. After a factor analysis revealed two of the nine...

Longitudinal Studies of Attachment

In another study, which gathered data on subjects for seventy years of their lives, subjects whose parents had divorced (a major disruption of attachment relationships for a child) were adversely affected. They were more likely to become divorced themselves, as we might expect from attachment theory. In addition, they were more likely to die earlier, at least in part because stable marriage tends to increase longevity (Tucker et al., 1997).

Jewish Association for Retarded Citizens JARC

Symptoms most commonly begin between the ages of 15 and 40, but may appear earlier or much later in life. Progression may be fast or slow, and life expectancy ranges from 10 to 30 years after the disease begins. The first symptoms appear when a defective gene causes a breakdown and there is a

Special Considerations

Thromboembolic events are less frequent in children than adults. When present, the options for therapy remain the same. The potential for growth and increased life-expectancy for children raises concerns regarding the use of IVC filters. One study has published results of IVC filter placement in 15 children with clinical follow-up. No insertion complications including insertion site thrombosis, no migration, and no filter-related mortality occurred. During follow-up, one patient demonstrated post-thrombotic syndrome symptoms and three patients had common femoral vein reflux, but no recurrent PE occurred.53 In another study of eight patients three patients died. The remaining five patients, followed up to 13 months, demonstrated no filter migration, IVC occlusion or thrombosis, or symptomatic pulmonary embolism.54 From the limited data available, IVC filter placement in children may serve as a useful management tool in patients with a contraindication to anticoagulation. Children do...

New Strategies and Devices for Combined Radiological and Histological Cancer Diagnosis Exclusion or Confirmation

The system to be used for diagnosis in any individual case must be selected from the systems presented with due consideration for the necessity of avoiding any damage to the structure of the cancer. This means not increasing the pressure within the cancer tissue structures and not using large trocars in cases with more extended cancers, as these can open veins directly within the cancer formation. It would be depressing in the extreme if a patient's life expectancy were shortened by early iatrogenically induced hematogenous metastasis.

Categories of Flower Senescence

Pollination is the most obvious external factor to affect flower longevity and as such this type of flower senescence is one of the most widely studied. Pollination leads to dramatic accelerated flower senescence in a number of commercially important plants. In some plants, however, pollination does not lead to flower senescence or may even prolong the life of the flower. The effect of pollination is most pronounced in long-lived flowers and seems absent from ephemeral flowers such as daylily and morning glory (Stead, 1992).

Mapping Maternal Effect Mutations

Intercrossing strains to make a map cross gives rise to very robust stocks, through so called hybrid vigor. As a consequence of interbreeding F1 fish of diVerent strains, we find the F2 hybrid generation to be particularly healthy and prolific, with increased reproductive longevity, compared with either independent strain. This is advantageous in regenerating the maternal-effect mutation to produce additional females for mapping (see later). However, a drawback is that hybrid vigor leads to an increased propensity to produce females in the F2 hybrid generation. Thus, typically 20 of F2 families yield three or less males. We assess the sex ratio at about 2 months of age and discard those with less than four males. In the F3 generation, the sex ratio is not distorted and we rarely find such sex-biased families. It is possible that future lines could be developed that do not exhibit the sex bias in the F2 hybrid generation.

Familial Hyperalphalipoproteinemia

Familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia is defined as an inherited condition of HDL-C level greater than the 90th percentile without a known secondary cause. HDL-C in these families appears to be associated with lower risk for CHD and increased longevity. Other than CETP, additional genes that cause or contribute to this phenotype are not known. An understanding of the genetics of this syndrome would advance the scientific field and provide new targets for the development of therapeutics for HDL.

Genetic Causes of Sinusitis

Although in the past most people with CF did not survive into adulthood, treatments have become so effective in recent years that many CF patients are now living well into middle age. In addition, some children and adults are now being diagnosed with a milder form of CF that is caused by a partial defect in the DNA gene it's less likely to affect longevity, but secretions can still be thick, causing frequent bouts of sinusitis.

Immune system abnormality

Remune), epoetin alpha (Procrit), interferon, and gm-csf. There is also a hope that gene-based therapy may also hold promise for HIV patients. Researchers are studying the possibility of inserting anti-HIV genes that would make a person's T cells immune to destruction by HIV. It would ideally assist the individual with keeping the virus at bay. Many different immune-based therapies are being studied to find potential therapies for HIV. To date no studies have shown these immune-based therapies to increase a person's life expectancy nor to work effectively and safely to decrease HIV in the body.

Familial Factors in the Development of Scientific Interest

Additionally, in his 1996 book Born to Rebel, Sulloway makes a persuasive case that birth order is a fundamental influence on an individual's disposition to accept or reject authority, be it familial, educational, political, social, or scientific. The fundamental finding, and one that he puts in the context of evolutionary theory of sibling rivalry and competition for resources, is that firstborns are disposed toward accepting the power structure they are born into because they are the oldest and strongest and identify most with the authority of their parents. Due to their temporary only-born status, they once garnered all the parental resources of attention and care, and when siblings come, they are thrust into positions of responsibility and power. Later-born children, in contrast, are inherently disposed toward questioning and challenging the innate power structure of the family, given their built-in inferior status within the family. What makes Sulloway's argument persuasive is...

Human exposure to dioxin

Exposed and showed reversible changes to the skin known as chloracne, now known to be typical of exposure to this kind of chemical. This group of workers were monitored for thirty years by the Institute of Environmental Health at the University of Cincinnati. Far from showing adverse effects and ill health, the group appeared to live longer and have fewer diseases than non-exposed individuals.

How Does Epilepsy Affect Daily Life

Most people with epilepsy lead outwardly normal lives. Approximately 80 percent can be significantly helped by modern therapies, and some may go months or years between seizures. However, epilepsy can and does affect daily life for people with epilepsy, their families, and their friends. People with severe seizures that resist treatment have, on average, a shorter life expectancy and an increased risk of cognitive impairment, particularly if the seizures developed in early childhood. These impairments may be related to the underlying conditions that cause epilepsy or to epilepsy treatment rather than the epilepsy itself.

Mutually monogamous sexual relationship A

MAC can be localized (limited to a specific organ or area of the body) or disseminated throughout the body. Disseminated MAC infection affects a variety of organs, including the lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, intestines, and blood. MAC infection is found almost exclusively in people with HIV disease it rarely occurs in people who are immune-suppressed for other reasons. Note that as children live longer with HIV disease, MAC occurs with increasing frequency. It is an indicator of markedly advanced disease and requires treatment with multiple drugs.

Pathophysiology Diagnosis and Management of Hereditary Hemochromatosis

Fortunately for iron-overloaded HH patients, phlebotomy therapy is a highly effective method for lowering body iron stores. Every 500 mL of blood removed contains 250 mg of iron. Phlebotomies are usually instituted every 1 -2 weeks while keeping the patient on a high-protein and folate-supplemented diet. Immediately prior to the phlebotomy, patients should have a light snack and take in fluids. The removed blood can be used by blood banks (although some centers post warnings that the blood was obtained for therapeutic reasons). The goal of phlebotomy therapy is to lower the serum ferritin to < 100ng mL (< 100 mg L) and a transferrin saturation around 30 and then find a phlebotomy frequency (usually every 2-4 months) that keeps the ferritin and transferrin saturation within normal range without causing iron deficiency or anemia. Treated precir-rhotic HH patients have been shown to have a normal life expectancy. But once cirrhosis or diabetes develops, HH patients have markedly...


King Mithridates VI of Pontus (132 to 63 B.C.) lived in a region where poisoning was even more common than in other parts of the Roman Empire. Accordingly, he dedicated himself to discovery of a universal antidote. He worked long before the days of informed consent and so his experiments could be freely performed on slaves and criminals whose objections to such treatment fell on deaf ears. The concoction which the king eventually prepared was called a mithridatum. It is said that he took it every day. Perhaps it had some effect because he lived to be 69, well beyond the expected longevity of the time. Legend has it that he tried to commit suicide in later life, but the poison he now took to end his life had no effect because of his long years of mithridatum use. He died by the sword as told by Galen, the great physician of the ancient world.


This disease has been particularly horrific in southern Africa, where in many cases population growth is in negative numbers and life expectancy has fallen below the age of 30. Botswana is the worst affected. This country has southern Africa's highest per capita income, and it also has the highest percentage of adults that are HIV positive nearly 39 percent. According to UN studies, the situation in neighboring countries is nearly as critical In Zimbabwe, 33 percent of adults are infected in Swaziland, 33 percent Lesotho, 31 percent Namibia, 23 percent Zambia, 21 percent and South Africa, 20 percent. A study released in early 2003 by the government of Swaziland has increased the UN numbers to an estimated 38 percent HiV rate among adults in this small country of 1 million people. Life expectancy in Botswana has fallen, for the first time since 1950, to 39 years. Without the advent of AIDS the life expectancy in Botswana would be 72 years. Six other countries also have life...

Future trends

The majority of sources of dietary data clearly suggest that there remains considerable room for improvement in the Europeans' diet. As we enter a new millennium weighted with much information, priorities could be set to clarify the objectives of a prudent diet. Are they to prolong life as much as possible, or to maximise quality-adjusted life expectancy We must also consider externalities that should take into account our cultural heritage, protection of the environment and macroeconomic considerations. The first of these studies was conducted in Greece (Trichopoulou et al, 1995), the second in Denmark (Osler and Schroll, 1997), the third in Australia (Kouris-Blazos et al, 1999) and the fourth in Spain (Lasheras et al, 2000). All have shown that the Mediterranean diet has beneficial, substantial and statistically significant effects on longevity.

Am I the right age

The correct age for appointment to a clinical management post is often debated and there is no right answer. It is, however, good practice for young clinicians to look at their possible future career path before accepting a management post. Clinical director posts are time consuming and reduce the opportunities for developing or practising other skills. Furthermore, when clinicians have spent a few years in management posts they have learnt a set of skills and obtained a body of knowledge that makes them very valuable assets to the organisation but only if they continue in management. As a consequence, some young clinicians become trapped into a sequence of management posts from which they may emerge too late to develop other, possibly more rewarding, avenues of personal development. We need young clinicians in management for their vigour, open mindedness and longevity, but the potential damage to the full breadth of an individual's career needs to be considered and discussed openly...

What Is Normal Aging

Even in the face of these changes in brain structure and function, studies of successful aging in the oldest of the old, centenarians, have taught us that disruptive cognitive decline is not an inevitable part of the aging process. There is a tremendous range of variability in how we age. In fact, many neuroscientists disagree about the entire notion of normal aging. At one end of the spectrum, there are researchers who view normal aging and degenerative brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's, as parts of a continuum. This view is supported by the finding that some people who do not exhibit memory problems during the aging process still have the hallmark biological features of Alzheimer's disease in their brains on autopsy. Although the extent of these disease features is substantially smaller than in people who exhibit memory problems, the presence of these features is viewed as evidence that each and every one of us would eventually develop Alzheimer's disease if we lived long enough.

Cellular senescence

In limiting the number of times that a given cell can divide in response to intrinsic or extrinsic signals, cellular senescence is thought to represent a natural barrier to cancer development in vivo. This notion is further emphasized by the fact that tumor suppressors such as p53 or pRB, which are frequently inactivated in human cancers in vivo, play important roles during cellular senescence in vitro (104,105). Findings by Schmitt et al. emphasized an antagonistic relationship between cellular senescence and carcinogenesis in vivo and positively correlated intact senescence pathways with tumor regression following chemotherapy (106). In addition, senescence has been suggested to underlie aspects ofthe organismal aging process (107,108). Interesting in this regard is the fact that molecules involved in senescence such as telomerase, p53, and BRCA1 can cause aging pheno-types when deleted or mutated in mice (109-111). Despite the intriguing physiological implications of these...

The chemical machine

The first objection encouraged a long series of experiments on the in vitro synthesis of organic compounds, and was clamorously falsified in 1828, when Friedrich Woehler obtained the synthesis of urea in the laboratory. It is interesting to notice that Woehler himself was a convinced vitalist, and wrote with dismay that he was witnessing The great tragedy of science, the slaying of a beautiful hypothesis by an ugly fact (this shows that the first vitalists - quite differently from their later followers - fully accepted the principle of experimental falsification). The second objection of Stahl had a stronger basis, and forced mechanists to change the very definition of living machine. In the course of the eighteenth century, in fact, the view that organisms are mechanical machines gradually turned into the idea that they are chemical machines. This smooth change of perspective went hand in hand with the development of a new engine, an apparatus that was exploiting the chemical...

The computer model

Towards the end of the eighteenth century, just as the chemists' critique was giving way, another opposition to mechanism arose and gave origin to a new version of vitalism. This movement started as a spontaneous, almost instinctive, reaction of many biologists to a veritable absurdity that mechanists wanted to impose on biology. It was a revolt against preformationism, the idea that adult structures are already preformed in a homunculus within the fertilised egg. In 1764, Charles Bonnet explicitly launched the great challenge of preformationism If organised bodies are not 'preformed', then they must be 'formed' every day, in virtue of the laws of a special mechanics. Now, I beg you to tell me what mechanics will preside over the formation of a brain, a heart, a lung, and so many other organs The challenge was clear, and in order to avoid preformationism biologists were forced to conclude that the formative force required by Bonnet in order to account for embryonic development must...

Vocal Education

Vocal education coupled with vocal hygiene provides the patient with an understanding of the aging process as it relates to voice use. An understanding of how all body organ systems are affected by normal aging helps to explain why the voice may not have the same quality, pitch range, endurance, or loudness that was present in earlier years. Since the voice is the product of respiratory and vocal tract functions, all of the systems that contribute to the aging of these organs are responsible for the final vocal output. Recently, Murry and Rosen published a vocal education and hygiene program for patients (Murry and Rosen, 2000). This program is an excellent guide for all aging patients with neurological voice disorders. Nursing homes, senior citizen residences, and geriatric specialists should consider offering this outline as the first step in patient education when patients complain of voice disorders.


Another distinction that has been drawn in the behavioural literature is between priming for items that are pre-experimentally familiar (e.g. words, pictures of known objects) as opposed to those that are novel (e.g. non-words, nonsense objects). Whereas familiar items have pre-existing memory representations, novel items, especially if their constituent parts are themselves unfamiliar, do not. So to the extent that priming is supported by activation of pre-existing memory representations (Bowers, 2000), priming effects should be greater for familiar than for unfamiliar items. Whereas studies of healthy subjects provide a somewhat mixed picture of whether, and in what circumstances, priming effects for familiar and novel items differ in their magnitude or longevity, Gooding et al. (2000) have argued that priming effects in amnesic patients are reliably greater for familiar than for novel items. According to these authors, priming for novel material is supported at least partially by...


Deprenyl is chemically related to amphetamine and phenylethylamine, a substance found in chocolate, and stimulates the substantia nigra, a tiny brain region rich in DOPAMiNE-using brain cells. (It is the deficiency of dopamine that can result in Parkinson's symptoms.) Degeneration of the neurons in the substantia nigra also has been associated with the aging process.


To investigate the genetic and biochemical mechanisms used by FGFR3 to regulate chondrocyte growth and differentiation, we have constructed transgenic mice that either lack a functional Fgfr3 gene or that express the activating FGFR3 mutation (G380R) that causes achondroplasia. The effects on proliferation and differentiation of epiphyseal chondrocytes showed that activation of FGFR3 dramatically inhibits both chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. The consequence of this effect on chondrogenesis is a histologically shortened growth plate and a gross phenotype resembling the human skeletal disorder, achondroplasia. In contrast, loss of FGFR3 activity results in an opposite phenotype in which proliferation is increased, the size and longevity of the growth plate is extended and skeletal overgrowth ensues. Examination of signalling pathways that regulate chondrocyte differentiation showed that FGFR3 signalling inhibits Ihh signalling and BMP4 expression in cartilage and...

Delirium 137

Level of this substance is 5 percent of that of a 20-year-old. It is unclear whether aging causes this decrease or the decrease causes aging. People argue on both sides of this fence, and there has been no medical research done to show what purpose DHEA has, or what role it plays in any disease or aging process. It is sold by prescription and is heralded as a wonder drug by many, who claim that it has many effects, from increasing sexual potency to decreasing the risk of strokes and slowing the process of HIV. DHEA seems to be nontoxic and is available in synthetic form by prescription.


Sodalis appears to be vertically transmitted through maternal milk glands (Cheng and Aksoy, 1999). Eradication of S-endosymbionts (S. glossinidius) from tsetse flies with streptozo-tocin has little effect upon fly reproductivity but does reduce longevity (Dale and Welburn, 2001a). Eradication also increases the refractory nature of tsetse flies to parasitism by trypano-somes. This suggests S-endosymbionts might serve as important delivery systems for antiparasite gene expression (Dale and Maudlin, 1999). Sodalis glossinidius can either be cultured using mosquito (Aedes albopictus) feeder cell culture systems or can be grown in vitro on Mitsuhashi-Maramorosch (MM) agar supplemented with fresh horse blood or catalase (Dale and Maudlin, 1999). Optimal growth occurs under microaerophilic conditions (< 10 oxygen) at 25 C no growth occurs at temperatures exceeding 30 C. Colonial morphology is pleo-morphic and not maintained upon subculture. Cells are nonmotile, filamentous, Gram-negative...


It's not uncommon for people with sinusitis to develop a new infection or see their symptoms flare up within twenty-four hours of drinking an alcoholic beverage. The problem is not the alcohol itself but the presence of impurities known as congeners, which are the by-products of the fermentation and aging process. Congeners provide much of the beverage's taste and aroma, but some have histamine-like properties. Similar to what happens with an allergic reaction to pollen or dust, individuals who are sensitive to these impurities can experience nasal congestion, drainage, and headaches.

The Path Less Taken

Brigid Hogan from Vanderbilt University and Peter Donovan at the National Cancer Institute had managed to keep primordial germ cells taken from fetal mice alive and growing in culture. The clusters of primordial germ cells were transferred to a specially treated plastic culture dish, where they began to form germ-cell colonies. Interestingly enough, the cultured cells lived far beyond the typical week-long life expectancy of the mouse germ cells.

Life cycle

Life expectancy The expected remaining average number of years of life for a group of persons of a given age according to a mortality table. The data from which such tables are constructed may be obtained as much as two decades or more prior to their date of publication. This is particularly true for data used for insurance purposes.


Schubert (2003) found that adult chickadees at QUBS survived about two winters on average, with 25 of males and 20 of females surviving to a third winter, in general agreement with Smith's (1991) value for average lifespan of 2.5 years. In these analyses, where missing adults were assumed to have died if they were not resighted on the study site, males survived better than females (Cox regression Wald x2 4.17, N 436 females, 427 males, P 0.04). This finding is in agreement with other studies of Parid survival (Desrochers et al. 1988 Lens and Dhondt 1993). Interestingly, there was no difference in mean life expectancy of males


Ultrasound and surgical consultation. In addition, their age was to be greater than 18 years, Zubrod performance status 42, estimated life expectancy of at least 12 weeks and adequate organ function defined as absolute neutrophil count 51500cm3, platelets 5100000 cm3, serum creatinine < 1.5mg dL, bilirubin < 3 mg dL, and AST < 5 times upper limit of normal. Further they had to have no prior history of abdominal irradiation or chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer.

Flower Senescence

The opportunity for pollination depends on flower longevity, the time a flower remains open and functional. In order to maintain floral structures for considerable amounts of time a lot of resources have to be expended by the plant. Therefore, flower longevity can be understood in terms of a cost-benefit analysis. In other words, plants have evolved a mechanism for flowers to remain open and functional in order to facilitate pollen dissemination and ovule fertilization as long as the resources used by the plant to maintain a flower are less than the resources expended to construct a new flower. Flower senescence in this context will happen when it becomes more advantageous for the plant to construct a new flower - including renewed odds of getting pollinated - than to maintain an existing one (Ashman and Schoen, 1994).

Education and Health

By the early 1990s, Peru had a mortality rate of 7.4 per 1,000, a birthrate of 29 per 1,000, and an infant mortality rate of 66.1 per 1,000 live births. In 2000, the infant mortality rate was 41 deaths per 1,000 live births. The average life expectancy in Peru is 72.5 years for women and 67.6 years for men. A chol -era epidemic in 1991 killed more than 1,000 Peruvians and sickened another 150,000 (Mariategui 1988 Pan American Health Organization 1994).

Take Vitamins

I advise my patients to take vitamin C because the majority of the research suggests that antioxidants protect against memory loss due to aging and dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Antiox-idants combat free radicals, destructive molecules that occur naturally in the body and damage healthy tissue, including brain tissue. We know that free radicals accelerate the aging process, and

Mental Health Issues

Quality of life and life expectancy are significantly correlated. Despite its significance, mental health is not a priority in public health budgets or policies in 1989, only 0.28 of the government's budget was devoted to mental health. Well-known psychosocial realities such as chronicity trends, unemployment, increasing rehabilitation costs, suicidal risks, lower life expectancy, increased violence and criminality, and lack of insurance or adequate social

Parkin In Pd

There is evidence in cell cultures that diminished cellular proteasomal activity results in an accumulation of over expressed parkin in large non-toxic cytoplasmic aggresome-like structures (71,72). Compartmentalization into these structures would preclude parkin from its normal enzymatic activity, resulting in the accumulation of substrates and cell death by the mechanism described above. It is therefore plausible that the impaired proteasome function observed in the substantia nigra in idiopathic PD could impair parkin clearance and induce its aggregation into Lewy bodies (73). Proteasome dysfunction in the cell may be caused by, among other reasons, protein aggregation and the normal aging process (74-76). Thus even a subtle compromise in the function of the UPS could result in the selective vulnerability of neurons by numerous mechanisms, leading to the degeneration observed in PD.


Oxidative stress accelerates telomere attrition (Jennings, Ozanne, and Hales 2000 Kurz etal., 2004) and the progress of atherosclerosis (Stocker and Keaney, 2004) and is one of the fundamental mechanisms of aging (von Zglinicki, 2000 Dillin etal., 2002). Evidence exists that mitochondrial gene expression changes both quantitatively and qualitatively during cell differentiation (Lane etal., 2001 Dillin etal., 2002). Impaired glucose homeostasis and a reduced mitochondrial copy number were seen in rat offspring exposed to a fat-rich diet prenatally (Taylor etal., 2005). There is also evidence that a change in the ratio of glycolytic and oxidative enzymes within skeletal muscle is associated with insulin resistance and obesity (Simoneau and Kelley, 1997). One of the limits that excessive postnatal nutrition may exceed is a maximum level of mitochondrial functional capacity. There is evidence this capacity is set during early development and that reserve may be outstripped in later life,...


A growing percentage of the world's population is overnourished rather than undernourished and this is reflected as the term 'malnutrition' increasingly used also to express overnutrition (Darnton-Hill, Nishida and James, 2004). For populations undergoing urbanization, increases occur in the relative levels of nutrition over several generations (Reddy, 2002). Epidemiological work describes how such a pattern of nutrition facilitates subsequent catch-up growth, increased adult BMI and reduced lean body mass, all of which are important factors contributing to the risk of the metabolic syndrome (Sayer etal., 2004). For over 40 years it has been known that postnatal restriction of nutrition in animals enhanced longevity (Berg and Simms, 1960 McCay etal., 1975). Ozanne and Hales (2004) refined these findings, showing that control of the growth of male rats during suckling not only increased longevity but protected against the effects of an obesity-inducing diet later in life. Using a...

Population Changes

Under this heading, the marked increase in life expectancy, particularly in the more developed countries, and major population movements both have a significant impact. While the medical advances have tended to reduce the prevalence of non-genetic causes of hearing impairment, these have the effect of increasing the proportion of hearing impairment due to genetic factors within the resulting populations. Increased longevity can also be expected to have a major impact on the breakdown of causes of hearing impairment in the population as a whole, given that the likelihood of having impaired hearing increases markedly with age, particularly over the age of fifty years. Davis (1997) has published estimates of increasing numbers based on population projections from the United Nations for the period 1995-2025. Within these figures, the number of people with hearing impairment (over 25 dB in their better hearing ear) worldwide is projected as increasing from 441 million in 1995 to 915...


The physician enters the patient's private world vowing to go for the benefit of the ill. Ancient physicians seemed to understand this aim of medicine much as we do. As the author of Ari puts it, I would define medicine as the complete removal of the distress of the sick, the alleviation of the more violent diseases.2 It is noteworthy that this focus on restoring health does not encompass the explicit aim of prolonging life, one of the most ardent aims of modern medicine.3 This book will not focus on the therapies these physicians used rather, it focuses on ethics, and in this case, on how the conduct of the physician-patient relationship was understood as benefiting the ill. Patient education, the frank disclosure of diagnoses, and informed consent to treatment are seen as modern prerequisites for a good physician-patient relationship and as ways to effectively engage the patient as a partner in treatment. Was it so in ancient Greece


Oxygen free radicals are produced by several unavoidable factors in our environment. Toxins, highly processed foods, large amounts of saturated fats in our diets, and, significantly, stress, can cause oxygen in the blood to degenerate from its stable and useful form. Antioxidant therapies seek to remedy deficiencies caused by these factors, decrease damage to the immune system and, speculatively, slow down the aging process. Orthomolecular therapeutic agents include beta-carotene (a nontoxic form of vitamin A that can be stored in the body) coenzyme q10 (a nutrient used in Japan as an anticancer agent) germanium (a fossilized plant product used widely in Japan as a cancer preventative) gluthathione peroxidase (a complement to super-oxide) suPEROXiDE dismutase (one of the basic building blocks of the body's antioxidant response, usually extracted from wheat or barley sprouts) vitamin c (probably the most widely used ortho-molecular therapeutic agent, and also the most controversial)...

Earlyonset Cataracts

Approximately 1 250 infants are born with a cataract (Robinson and Linden, 1993). Worldwide, 10 of all blindness is attributed to congenital cataracts (Rabinowitz et al., 1997). Cataracts seem to be involved in the aging process, for all humans will develop cataracts that can impair vision if they live to an advanced age. The upper age limit that is considered early for the onset of cataracts is debatable (R. Kalina, personal communication).

Direct Voice Therapy

Voice therapy is one treatment modality for almost all types of neurological aging-related voice disorders. The recent explosion of knowledge about the larynx is matched by an equal growth of interest in its physiology, its disorders, and their treatment. Increased use of la-ryngeal imaging and knowledge of laryngeal physiology have provided a base for behavioral therapy that is increasingly focused on the specific nature of the observed pathophysiology. While treatment is designed to restore maximum vocal function, the aging process of weakness, muscle wasting, and system endurance may not restore the voice to its youthful characteristics. Rather, the desired goals should be effective vocal communication and forestalling continued vocal deterioration (Sataloff et al., 1997).

Antibacterial drugs

In earlier centuries millions of people died from infectious diseases, which were partly responsible for many early deaths and the shortened life expectancy. That this is no longer the case and this aspect of our lives has changed so much for the better is largely due to two things sanitation and hygiene, better drinking water and living conditions and antibacterial drugs. Many of these drugs were discovered by chance and their development is a shining example of the importance of chemicals in our society. They are also an important illustration of another principle in relation to the toxicity of chemicals toxicity can be selective and can therefore be used beneficially.

Type B

Medical management is recommended for type B APU 16 . Stent-grafts permit a higher degree of protection against rupture than medical therapy alone. Because APU affect older persons, one must consider the patient's age, overall physical condition, and anticipated life expectancy in the decision to use operative treatment. If patients tolerate medical management without clinical deterioration, they may continue conservative follow-up care with reasonable safety 10 . This medical treatment is permissible in high-surgical-risk patients, when a close clinical and imaging follow-up is possible, in uncomplicated forms, and when the aorta diameter is smaller than 50 mm.

Can Be Fixed

Leaflet Coaptation

Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a significant health burden whose impact is increasing around the world. As our population ages, medical advances that have extended our average life expectancy have also left more people living with chronic cardiac disease than ever before. In the United States alone, there are nearly 4.9 million suffering with heart failure with over 500,000 new patients diagnosed each year. Despite the significant improvements with medical management, patients who have CHF are repeatedly readmitted for inpatient care, and the vast majority will die within 3 years of diagnosis 1 . Heart transplantation has evolved to become the gold standard treatment for patients who have symptoms of severe congestive heart failure associated with end-stage heart disease. From an epidemiologic perspective, this treatment is trivial because less than 2800 patients in the United States are offered transplantation due to limitations of age, comorbid conditions, and donor availability....

The demon drink

Patient Will I live longer if I give up alcohol and sex Doctor No, but it will seem like it. Though the medical temperance campaign was eagerly taken up by health promotionists and radical epidemiologists, in the course of the 1990s it encountered some epidemiological difficulties of its own. In face of earlier research revealing the adverse effects of alcohol, not only on the liver, but in increasing risks of heart disease and cancer, new studies claimed to show that moderate drinking had a beneficial effect on health and longevity (Marmot, Brunner 1991). In particular a study conducted by a team headed by Richard Doll, famed for revealing the smoking-lung cancer link forty years earlier, concluded that 'among British men in middle or older age, the consumption of an average of one or two units of alcohol a day is associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality than is consumption of no alcohol, or the consumption of substantial amounts of alcohol' (Doll et al. 1994). It...

Staying Young

Staying Young

Discover The Secrets To Staying Young Forever. Discover How To Hinder The Aging Process On Your Body And In Your Life. Do you feel left out when it comes to trying to look young and keeping up with other people your age? Do you feel as though your body has been run down like an old vehicle on its last legs? Those feelings that you have not only affect you physically, but they can also affect you mentally. Thats not good.

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