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Specificity Of Visuospatial Working Memory

In Plato's Meno, the dialogue between Meno and Socrates (Bluck, 1961 Grube, 1997) describes knowledge as recollection , i.e. the concept of re-collecting, or joining together in new combinations, items of information from the environment or from past experience. In other words, a crucial aspect of memory was seen as an active process of combining, recombining and reinterpreting past and current experience. This is in contrast with Plato's writings in Theaetetus (Levett & Burnyeat, 1997), in which memory for past events was seen more in the metaphor of an aviary (storehouse of ideas), with each bird representing an item of information that can be retrieved. Working memory refers to the active processes of memory the recollection of the birds, forming them into novel groups and generating new insights as well as offering an interpreted snapshot of the current state of our environment. Working memory then is viewed as a set of cognitive functions that are separate from the traces of past...

Visuospatial Working Memory And Representational Neglect

Neglect is not confined to impairments in reporting details of extrapersonal space. It can also be demonstrated as an impairment of the mental representation of a scene, either recently perceived or drawn from more remote past experience. A number of patients who have been reported with perceptual neglect also present with representational neglect (e.g. Bartolomeo et al., 1994 Bisiach & Luzzatti, 1978), in which only half of the scene represented in a visual image can be reported. Bisiach & Luzzatti asked their two patients to describe, from memory, the Cathedral Square in Milan, or the inside of a room in their home or work place, and to do so from a particular viewpoint (e.g. with their back to the Cathedral). They successfully reported details that would have been on the right from that viewpoint, but reported very few, if any, details on the left. This was not simply because of a general memory problem or because there are few items to report from those locations, because when the...

Visuospatial Working Memory And The Central Executive

As discussed above, many current theories view cognition as comprising a range of abilities supported by separate systems, rather than a general intellectual ability, as assumed by Knox and his contemporaries. We have already discussed the range of cognitive functions that might support performance on what appear to be quite simple tasks. A recent line of investigation is beginning to point to the suggestion that temporary visual and spatial temporary memory functions are important, but not sufficient for performance of a range of visuospatial working memory tasks, many of which appear to require additional support from executive resources. For example, Salway & Logie (1995) reported that Brooks' (1967) matrix path memory performance (see earlier discussion) was more sensitive to disruption from a concurrent executive task (random generation of letters) than was performance on an equivalent verbal memory task. A recent series of experiments by Rudkin (2001) has suggested that...

Contemporary Issues In Neuropsychological Semantic Memory Research

Several questions have dominated recent research. For the most part these reflect putative dissociations in knowledge observed in patients with semantic memory breakdown. 1. Superordinate vs. subordinate information. Is taxonomic category information more resistant to disruption than information about the properties or attributes of an object Might a patient know that an elephant is an animal, while not knowing that it is large, has a trunk, has tusks, etc If so, what are the implications for the organization of semantic memory 2. Category specificity. Can semantic memory impairment be confined to specific conceptual categories Might a patient understand the significance of a hammer, microphone or shuttlecock, but not of an elephant or rabbit If so, what are the implications for the way categories of information are represented in the brain Which categories of information are dissociable 3. Modality effects. Can semantic memory deficits be modality-specific Might one patient...

The Relationship between Semantic and Autobiographical Memory

Semantic memory, as originally defined (Tulving, 1972), is information that is typically acquired early in life, shared by individuals within a culture and not tied to a particular tem-porospatial context. One can know that Paris is the capital of France without remembering when that information was acquired. One can know that a dog is an animal without recalling an individual experience or episode involving dogs. This decontextualized knowledge contrasts with episodic memory, which is context-bound and specific to each individual. The observation of semantic impairments in patients with good day-to-day memory (Snowden et al., 1996b) and the demonstration of double dissociations in performance on semantic and episodic memory tasks (Graham et al., 1997,2000) appear to provide support for the notion of separable memory systems. The distinction is reinforced by links to different anatomical regions semantic memory impairment is associated with temporal neocortical damage and episodic...

The Neural Basis For Semantic Memory

The strong association between disorders of the temporal lobes and semantic memory impairments emphasizes the critical role of temporal neocortex in semantic memory. There is converging evidence to implicate the anterior temporal lobes in particular, and the inferior temporal gyri specifically. In semantic dementia, brain imaging shows atrophy of the temporal pole (e.g. Mummery et al., 2000) and particularly involvement of the inferior temporal gyrus (Breedin et al., 1994 Cardebat et al., 1996 Mummery et al., 2000). Autopsy examination (Snowden et al., 1992 Snowden et al., 1996b) has shown atrophy of the inferior and middle temporal gyri with notable sparing of the superior temporal gyri, including Wernicke's area, and medial temporal structures. In herpes simplex encephalitis patients, there is evidence of damage to the inferior temporal neocortex (Pietrini et al., 1988 Sartori & Job, 1988 Silveri & Gainotti, 1988 Sartori et al., 1993a). In a patient with semantic impairment...

Neuropsychological Dissociations Between Visual Working Memory And Spatial Working Memory

Corsi Block

Thus far we have provided neuropsychological evidence to argue that visuospatial working memory is best viewed as an active workspace, rather than a passive memory store, and that it is somewhat distanced from perceptual processes. A range of patient data speak to the notion that visual and spatial working memory might be seen as two distinct but linked components of the cognitive system. For the purposes of this argument, it is important to clarify what we mean by visual as opposed to spatial properties. By visual , we refer to the visual appearance of an object or scene, its colour, shape, contrast, size, visual texture and the location of objects relative to one another with respect to a particular viewpoint in a static array. By spatial we refer to pathways or sequences of movements from one location to another in the scene, or the processes of change in the perceived relative locations of objects that occur when an observer moves (physically or in a mental image) from one...

Script Theory and Semantic Memory Loss

The data on semantic-autobiographical interactions point to limitations of cognitive models that represent concepts purely in terms of a static network of properties of words and objects. There are other facets of performance in semantic dementia patients that are not easily accommodated by traditional semantic memory models. One of our patients, L.B., was consistently unable to name a pair of glasses on confrontation. In comprehension tests he would comment, Glasses, what's glasses I don't know what that is . He could not match the spoken word with the real object or provide descriptive or gestural information. To all intents and purposes he had total loss of knowledge of the word glasses . Nevertheless, when intending to read or carry out close work he would remark I'll just go and get my glasses , would proceed to find his glasses and use them appropriately. Parallel findings have been reported in relation to object use. Objects that fail to be recognized in an artificial test...

Shortterm And Working Memory

The term short-term memory refers to memory for events that occurred in the very recent past, when the delay between presentation of the material to-be-remembered and remembering is measured in terms of seconds and possibly minutes rather than hours or days. Evidence from a wide range of sources indicates that short-term memory is itself fractionated, being served by a number of separate temporary memory systems with distinct neuranatomical loci (see Gathercole, 1999, for review). The working memory model originally advanced by Baddeley & Hitch (1974) is the most influential theoretical account of short-term memory. Although originally devised to account for adult short-term memory performance, this model has proved to be of great value in characterizing the development of short-term memory during the childhood years, and is used to guide the analysis provided here. The standard working memory model (e.g. Baddeley, 1986) comprises three components the central executive, the...

Visuospatial Working Memory A Workspace Not A Gateway

Working memory is often viewed as a form of transit lounge or gateway that acts to hold sensory input on its way to long-term memory. This was the view in the widely cited model proposed by Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968). Also, it still appears as an assumption in a wide range of contemporary, introductory textbooks, as well as in some contemporary theory, including theories that incorporate multiple components of working memory. An illustration of this form of gateway concept is shown in the upper part of Figure 13.1. However, the transit function for working memory carries with it a number of implications for the status of the information it holds. One implication is that there is no direct access route between sensory input and long-term memory. However, this runs into difficulty when attempting to account for the wide range of evidence for implicit processing of sensory input that arises from studies that we discuss in detail later in the chapter, of patients with blindsight Figure...

Working Memory

Frontal patients exhibit deficits on tests of new learning and retrieval when there are high demands on monitoring and controlling memory. As such, these deficits in long-term memory can be construed as directly related to deficits in the executive control of working memory. In a seminal analysis of working memory, Baddeley (1986) characterized frontal lobe impairment as a dysexecutive syndrome and offered a concise interpretation of the relationship between working memory and long-term memory disorders associated with frontal lobe damage (see also Moscovitch, 1992,1994). It is well documented that patients with frontal lobe lesions exhibit deficits in the on-line control of information in short-term memory. Such working memory processes have been tested using a variety of stimuli, including digits, locations, colors and sounds (Baldo & Shimamura, 2000 Chao & Knight, 1996 Freedman & Oscar-Berman, 1986 Goldman & Rosvold, 1970 Jacobsen, 1936 Mishkin & Pribram, 1956 Petrides et al., 1993...

Implicit Memory

Implicit memory occurs when the response to a stimulus is influenced by previous experience in the absence of intentional, conscious recollection of that experience (Roediger, 1990 Schacter, 1987). The findings that implicit memory was spared in persons with dense amnesia (Warrington & Weiskrantz, 1968) incited a riot of recent research on the dissociation between explicit and implicit memory in both normal and patient populations (e.g. Bassili et al., 1989 Challis & Brodbeck, 1992 Craik et al., 1994 Gabrieli et al., 1995 Graf & Masson, 1993 Graf etal., 1985 Jacoby&Dallas, 1981 Rajaram&Roediger, 1993 Roediger & Blaxton, 1987 Roediger et al., 1992 Schacter, 1987 Schacter & Church, 1992). In the studies investigating memory deficits, the general finding is that patients who show impairment on explicit tests of memory perform normally on implicit tests of memory. This pattern has been shown for a wide variety of stimulus materials, including verbal, nonverbal, procedural and even memory...

Basic Science Preclinical Courses

The first 2 years of medical school consist of courses designed to provide a solid foundation in the scientific basis of medicine. You spend long days in the classroom and laboratory, memorizing anatomic terms, studying biochemical pathways, and reading about bugs, drugs, and diseases. During these years, students rarely step foot inside the hospital (except to learn how to take patient histories and conduct physical examinations under resident supervision).

Intermodal coordinations

These questions are examined first in infants by Streri (Chapter 11). The author relies on the analysis of the coordination between vision and prehension and on studies based on habituation and reaction to novelty to show how precocious these coordinations are. She describes too the kind of constraints limiting them and the difficulties raised by the interpretation of early intermodal transfer. In the next chapter (Chapter 12), similar problems are discussed by Hatwell on school-aged children and adults. The studies on intermodal matching do no support the hypothesis of amodal processing stated by the Gibsons (1966, 1969) and, in perceptual conflict tasks, the visual dominance is not general but limited to the spatial domain. When the task concerns the material properties of the objects, a dominance of the haptic system may sometimes be observed. However, these observations are true only for explicit memory whereas measures on implicit memory do not reveal differences between...

Incremental Construction of Representations and a Brief Sketch of FINSTs

Suppose the system began by drawing a line, then another line, then a line that happens to intersect a line that was already there, forming a vertex, illustrated in figure 1.1. Assume that as these three lines and the first intersection were drawn, representations of them were constructed in working memory (the memory where active representations are stored while they are being used). Working memory now contains a representation of three lines and a vertex. But do we know which line is which, and which of the represented lines form part of the vertex Since we have drawn three lines at this point we can infer that the vertex involves two of these lines but which ones And of the two that form the vertex, which is which So far it hardly seems to matter. We can easily distinguish them by their orientation. But what if we could not what if two of them had the same orientation (as in the first and third line in this example) Surely we know that there are two lines and that one was drawn...

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Region

The dorsolateral prefrontal sector includes the expanse of cortex and attendant white matter on the convexity of the hemispheres in the frontal lobes (Figure 2.7). The dorsolateral prefrontal region plays an important role in working memory. Working memory refers to the ability to hold a limited amount of information in an active state ( on-line ) for a brief period of time, and to manipulate that information (Baddeley, 1992). The amount of information that can be kept active in working memory is generally considered to comprise up to about 10 items, and the duration of working memory covers up to about 1 min of time. Working memory is used to bridge temporal gaps, i.e. to hold representations in a mental workspace long enough, so that we can make appropriate responses to stimulus configurations or contingencies in which some, or even all, of the basic ingredients are no longer extant in perceptual space. Typical everyday examples of working memory include the process of looking up a...

Ventromedial Prefrontal Region

The ventromedial prefrontal sector, which comprises the mesial part of the orbital cortices (parts of areas 11 and 12) and the lower mesial sector formed by parts of areas 32 and 10 (Figure 2.9), does not appear to play a significant role in conventional forms of memory, neither does it appear to be involved in working memory. In fact, patients with extensive bilateral damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortices are usually entirely free of conventional memory impairments (i.e. learning and recall are normal) and they have also been shown to have normal working memory (Bechara et al., 1998). However, the ventromedial prefrontal region plays a critical role in behavioral regulation and response selection, which depend in turn on the ability to learn and retrieve certain types of emotional information in connection with different types of factual knowledge. This idea, which has been termed the somatic marker hypothesis (Damasio, 1994 Damasio et al., 1990), has been investigated in detail...

Is Your Brain Shrinking

Only in the presence of memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, does the brain suffer dramatic destruction and loss of neurons. Loss of neurons in the hippocampus and eventually other areas of the brain directly contributes to the pronounced difficulty with short-term memory that's typical of people with Alzheimer's disease.

Microtubules in the Cerebral Cortex Role in Memory and Consciousness

This chapter raises the question whether synaptic connections in the cerebral cortex are adequate in accounting for higher cognition, especially cognition involving multimodal processing. A recent and novel approach to brain mechanics is outlined, one that involves microtubules and microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2). In addition to effects on the neuronal membrane, neurotransmitters exert actions on microtubules. These neurotransmitter effects alter the MAP2 phospho-rylation state and rates of microtubule polymerization and transport. It is argued that these processes are important to the physical basis of memory and consciousness. In support of this argument, MAP2 is degraded with learning in discrete cortical modules. How this relates to synaptic change related to learning is unknown. The specific proposal is advanced that learning alters microtubules in the subsynaptic zone lying beneath the synapse, and that this forms the physical basis of long-term memory storage...

Which Cognitive Functions Are Most Vulnerable to Aging

Age-related changes in the brain are likely to affect your memory and related operations in different ways. These functions are prone to age-related difficulties Working memory. Your ability to hold and manipulate information in mind is reduced. Remembering a phone number and then dialing or comparing the price per ounce of two items are some examples.

Seasonal variation in hippocampus volume neuron number and neurogenesis rates

Smulders and Dhondt (1997) hypothesized that food-caching Parids might specifically need extra memory during food caching in order to memorize cache locations and to create optimal cache distribution that minimize cache pilferage. Based on these assumptions, they suggest hippocampal volume might be largest in October, when food caching was assumed to be most intense. Shiflett et al. (2003) argued that the hippocampus is involved specifically in memory encoding, which

Love And Medicine The Couples Match

I orthose that subscribe to the belief that love conquers all, you will be happy to know that love can even triumph over the dreaded residency Match. During 4 years of education, medical students who are single often have more on their minds than memorizing drugs and bugs and reading good old Harrison's from cover to cover. After all, many physicians meet their life partners while in medical school. The sparks of love and lasting bonds could happen at any time, whether during first-year orientation or surgery clerkship. Today, nearly every graduating class has its share of student couples, and marriages in which both partners are practicing physicians are on the rise.

Causes of Memory Problems

Fortunately, many causes of memory dysfunction are preventable or treatable. You can consume less alcohol. You can eat sensibly and exercise regularly to reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, both of which can lead to cerebrovascular compromise and reduced blood flow to the brain. I give a complete description of these and other strategies in Chapter 9. In addition, treating underlying conditions that cause memory loss (such as hypertension) can help keep your memory in optimal condition. Although you can change a multitude of factors that affect the quality of your memory, some causes of memory loss are beyond your control, such as your genetic background.

Interpretation of Findings from Encoding Studies

What are the cognitive operations associated with these prefrontal effects Whereas little can be said at present about the operations engaged by nonverbal material and supported by the right prefrontal regions, there is more evidence about the possible role of the left prefrontal cortex. The overlap between regions activated by depth of processing manipulations and those identified by event-related, subsequent memory experiments suggests the existence of cognitive operations that are engaged differentially both by semantic vs. nonsemantic processing, and by effective vs. less effective encoding within semantic processing tasks. It has been suggested that the operations supported by the regions of the left inferior prefrontal cortex identified in contrasts between semantic and non-semantic tasks might contribute to semantic working memory (Gabrieli et al., 1998) the temporary storage, manipulation and selection of an item's semantic attributes. According to this hypothesis (see also...

Memory Loss Following Heart Surgery

Memory problems are common among people with diabetes, as well as among people with mildly impaired glucose metabolism, whose blood sugar is slightly high. In 2003, researchers at New York University School of Medicine reported that people with suboptimal glucose metabolism achieved lower scores on short-term memory tests than people with normal blood sugar. What's more, the hippocampus was smaller in people with elevated blood sugar. Suboptimal glucose metabolism (also known as reduced glucose tolerance) is one of the five characteristics of Syndrome X, a collection of risk factors for heart disease that tend to aggregate in some people. The other factors are hypertension, elevated triglyceride, low HDL (good cholesterol), and abdominal obesity.

Haptic memory in infancy

The haptic memory concerning shape and texture in eight-month-old babies after a five-minute break or a haptic interference (the presentation of a new object). The babies attested to good texture memory and showed recognition of the shapes of familiar objects after the break, but not after the interference. This failure was interpreted in terms of a too close similarity in the shape of the objects used in the familiar and the interference phases. Furthermore, the duration of the familiarization phase was limited to 30 seconds of manipulation or contact. On the other hand, Lhote and Streri (1998) revealed the baby's capacity to recognize an object manually after a 30-second break at the age of two months, and after two minutes (long term memory) at the age of four months (Lhote & Streri 2003 cf. Chapter 6, 6.2.2). Nevertheless, recognition is sometimes fragile after haptic interference.

Hemispheric encodingretrieval asymmetry HERA

Starting in 1993, several laboratories reported a consistent, but unexpected prefrontal asymmetry of activation in various short-term memory tasks Tulv-ing et al. (1994) labeled this phenomenon the hemispheric encoding retrieval asymmetry (HERA). The basic effect is that LH prefrontal regions are relatively active during the encoding phase of stimulus memorization, whereas RH pre-frontal regions are activated in the recall or retrieval phase. This was found using various brain-imaging techniques, including EEG, ERP, PET and fMRI, and reported by diverse groups. Debate continues regarding the influence of the nature of the stimuli and whether or not recall success and or effortfulness are important factors (e.g., Nyberg 1998), but the reality of the effect using meaningful verbal stimuli is not in doubt (Fletcher et al. 1998a, b Heun et al. 1999). While these issues remain unsettled, the asymmetry of cortical activation during verbal information-processing in short-term memory tasks is...

Congenital brain defects

Some researchers, including Endel Tulving, have postulated that there are three varieties of consciousness noetic, autonomous and anoetic. Noetic consciousness implies a semantic memory because it involves thinking about objects and events and relationships among them in their absence. Autonomous consciousness is self-knowing it is related to episodic memory that recognizes events as in the personal past. Anoetic consciousness is nonknowing, but it is still consciousness because it allows appropriate behavioral responses to aspects of the environment.

Concurrent synaptogenesis in the cortical mantle

In the macaque, likewise, early signs of competencies that will later be fully developed are already in evidence. Thus, adult-like properties of neurons in the inferotemporal cortex, such as selective responses to face recognition, are present at only a few weeks after birth (Rodman, Gross, and Scalaidhe, 1993 Rodman, 1994). The critical periods for obtaining social skills and learning simple discriminations also take place as early as two months after birth in macaque infants (Harlow and Harlow, 1962). The cognitive process of working memory, which is subserved by the dor-solateral prefrontal association cortex, likewise emerges in monkeys soon after birth and before the end of phase 3 (Diamond and Goldman-Rakic, 1989), when basic synaptoarchitectonic features are still being laid down (Bourgeois, Goldman-Rakic, and Rakic, 1994 Goldman-Rakic, Bourgeois, and Rakic, 1997 Goldman-Rakic, 1987). Although monkeys obviously do not possess language, they do have...

Global Anatomy Of Longterm Memory

They also tend to assume a process of long-term memory consolidation. While initially the retrieval of a recently experienced event is reliant upon the hippocampal system, repeated reinstatement of the hippocampal-neocortical ensemble over time results in the formation of a more representation in the neocortex. We will discuss some of the evidence and counter-evidence for a long-term consolidation process in more detail below. in which newly acquired knowledge must be integrated into the existing knowledge database. They use a backpropagation network and contrast focused learning, where semantic memory can rapidly learn new facts, with interleaved learning, where learning of new facts (temporarily stored in a hippocampus ) is interleaved with additional learning of already learned facts. As was discussed above, focused learning will lead to catastrophic interference, causing overwriting of old facts by newly learned facts, e.g. McClelland et al. (1995) show...

Retrograde Amnesia

Since the 1950s, many models have been published that address aspects of the formation of long-term memory, hippocampus-cortex interaction, and retrograde amnesia (e.g. Milner, 1957, 1989 Mishkin, 1982 O'Keefe & Nadel, 1978 Rolls, 1990 Squire & Zola-Morgan, 1991 Squire et al., 1984 Teyler & DiScenna, 1986 Treves & Rolls, 1994 Wickelgren, 1979,1987). The four connectionist models discussed in this section have their roots in these earlier models. Through their implementation, they provide existence proofs, demonstrating that many of the earlier, mostly verbally stated ideas are indeed viable. We will in turn review the models by Alvarez & Squire (1994), McClelland et al. (1995), Murre (1996,1997), and Nadel & Moscovitch (1997).

Tracking without Keeping Track of Labels

One early finding concerns the failure to recall the identity of targets while tracking. Our story of how we track multiple moving objects in MOT using FINST indexes claims that an index keeps referring to the same individual object throughout the experimental trial. In doing so it keeps track of the identity of each individual target during this period. In other words, it knows that a particular individual object Xi is a target because it was visibly distinguished as a target at time tj and is the same individual now as it was at time tj therefore it must be a target. If this story is correct, then if the object had been labeled with label Li at the start of the trial and if we can show that under conditions of the experiment subjects can recall the four pairings Xj-Lj, X2-L2, X3-L3, X4-L4, then subjects should be able not only to identify the targets as targets but also to provide their labels. But in fact people are very bad at recalling targets' labels even when they correctly...

Memory Myth All Stress Is

Excessive stress can blunt your memory, but a modest amount of stress can actually sharpen it. The pressure of a looming deadline may increase your ability to focus and sustain attention. The result is that you acquire information more effectively, which in turn promotes memory consolidation and retrieval. Without some sense of urgency, your focus is likely to blur, resulting in diminished assimilation of information and ineffective memory consolidation.

Researching Druginduced Amnesia

Despite their differing pharmacological actions, SP and BDZs produce remarkably similar effects on memory. Performance on brief span tasks (e.g. digit span, block span) is unaffected but performance on more complex tasks, where information is manipulated whilst it is retained, can be impaired (Rusted & Warburton, 1988). On the whole, the evidence points to a reduction in speed with which information is processed, rather than qualitative effects on working memory. For example, response times are usually much more affected than error rates (Rusted, 1994). A criticism of many pharmacological studies is their diagnostic assumptions about cognitive tasks. Often studies have used verbal learning tasks to assess episodic memory, implicitly assuming a one-to-one relationship between a task and the episodic memory system. Clearly, many verbal learning tasks are only minimally episodic in nature and performance will depend on other memory systems, including working memory and semantic memory....

Flourens Marie JeanPierre 109

Fipexide This centrally active drug has been shown in some studies to enhance the release of dopamine, the neurotransmitter related to fine motor coordination, motivation, emotions, and the immune function. In one double-blind study of 40 elderly patients with severe cognitive problems, fipexide improved cognition and performance, short-term memory, and attention. Average improvement in cognition was estimated to be 60 percent.

The Features Of Anterograde Amnesia

Successful creation of new long-term memories about facts and events that one has experienced requires a sequence of processes to work effectively. Information has to be processed and represented (encoding), that information has to be consolidated into long-term memory (initial consolidation), further storage changes may occur over long periods of time (slow consolidation), perhaps partially to maintain long-term storage and make it more stable, and the stored information has later to be remembered (retrieval). Only encoding and retrieval can be directly measured in humans. Inferences about consolidation and maintenance of long-term memory have to be made indirectly from human data or by extrapolation from animal data about these physiological and biochemical processes (e.g. see Squire & Kandel, 1999). In this chapter, the term encoding is used in the narrow sense that includes only the processes necessary for representing information at input, rather than in the broader sense where...

Location Of The Lesions That Cause Anterograde Amnesia

Midline diencephalic nuclei and fibre tracts are small, but there is evidence from both animal and human studies that selective lesions of the mammillary bodies and anterior thalamus produce impairments of explicit memory (see Aggleton & Saunders, 1997 Mayes & Downes, 1997). The hippocampus is connected to both these diencephalic nuclei via the fornix and there is evidence that selective damage to this fibre tract also impairs explicit memory (e.g. Aggleton et al., 2000). In contrast, the perirhinal cortex is not directly connected to these nuclei, but does have a projection to the magnocellular dorsomedial thalamus (Russchen et al., 1987). Although the evidence is not uniformly supportive, it suggests that a clear anterograde amnesia occurs following sufficiently large, but relatively selective, lesions to either the dorsomedial thalamic nucleus (e.g. see Isaac et al., 1998) or the anterior thalamic nucleus (e.g. see Mark et al., 1970). However, it remains unclear whether damage to...

Evidence That Anterograde Amnesia Is Functionally Heterogeneous

Although the above sources of evidence suggest that the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus mediate different explicit memory processes, this does not conclusively prove that selective lesions of these two structures will have clearly dissociable effects on explicit memory. The evidence, which mainly relates to whether hippocampal lesions cause item recognition deficits, is still conflicting and hard to interpret. The majority of animal studies indicate that The anterior thalamic nucleus is connected to the retrosplenial cortex, which is one of the two major subdivisions of the posterior cingulate cortex. The retrosplenial cortex is connected to parts of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices, and provides a major input to the parahippocampal and entorhinal cortices, as well as to the presubiculum (see Maguire, 2001). There is growing evidence that retrosplenial cortex lesions disrupt explicit memory, although the precise nature of this disruption remains unclear. Maguire argued...

What Kinds Of Functional Deficit Cause Anterograde Amnesia

Few, however, have proposed that impairments in representing aspects of factual and episodic information at input cause anterograde amnesia. However, Butters & Cermak (1975) postulated that amnesics, or at least Korsakoff patients, do not spontaneously encode semantic features of information to a normal level at input, and that this failure causes patients' later poor memory. Although Gray & McNaughton (2000) have argued that some evidence (e.g. Oscar-Berman & Samuels, 1977) suggests that the proposed semantic encoding deficit may be part of a broader problem in multidimensional stimulus analysis, this possibility has not been developed, whereas the semantic encoding deficit hypothesis has been influential. However, if this hypothesis is proposing that amnesics do not spontaneously represent a normal amount of semantic information about stimuli at input, then it is in tension with patients' preserved intelligence and inconsistent with evidence that their immediate semantic memory is...

Social And Procedural Context

A recent study in our laboratory illustrates this approach. We sought to discover whether different kinds of shifts of attention activate different brain areas. One kind of attention-shift is required when one must change which of several objects is currently relevant for behavior. For example, an airline pilot may be monitoring the cockpit windshield, and shift attention to the radar display to check for other nearby objects. Another type of attention-shift is between attributes of objects a pilot may switch attention from the location of objects on the radar to their apparent velocity. In addition to the object and attribute switching described above, the study also manipulated whether attention-switching was performed on items stored in working memory ( internal representations) or whether they were available on-screen ( external representations). Figure 2.10 shows results from different types of attention shift in a group of 38 participants.

Retrograde Vs Anterograde Amnesia

Anterograde memory, especially of visuospatial material such cases cannot be described as instances of focal or isolated RA. Second, other cases showed poor anterograde memory in more moderate or subtle form across a number of tests, particularly logical memory, face recognition memory and delayed recall. There are various possible reasons for this, but such findings beg the question of whether like has really been compared with like . Third, patients with focal RA commonly cited in this literature encompass cases of specific impairment in autobiographical memory, semantic memory, or both these are not the same. Fourth, many of the most convincing cases in this literature showed an initially severe AA as well as an extensive RA. However, by the time of their assessment, the RA had remained profound whereas the AA had become only moderate, mild or minimal. In such cases, the issue is not so much whether RA could occur without AA, but what determines differential patterns of recovery a...

MRM the family of memory algorithms

This result is interesting because it focuses our attention on the individual features of the memory matrix. If only vortices are memorized, it is obvious that the algorithm performs better with pictures that have a high potential number of vortices, but if other features could be memorized, it would become possible to reduce substantially the unknowns even with grey pictures. We have therefore the problem of discovering if other features exist which allow us to

Neuropsychology Of Tga During Attack

Semantic memory appears to be less impaired than autobiographical memory. Patients do recognize objects, can use language meaningfully and know how to behave in a civilized way. Normal performance has also been documented on a more demanding test requiring matching of pictures by associative or functional relationships (e.g. selecting whether a lion or a giraffe goes with a clown Hodges, 1994). Problems might, however, affect the recall of temporally bound public events and of famous personalities (Hodges & Ward, 1989). Patients examined during TGA could normally distinguish real from fictious events, but made more errors than after the TGA when trying to date the events. They were also deficient in the naming of famous faces. It thus seems that the borderline between impaired and preserved retrograde memory is not so much between autobiographical and semantic memory as between recall of specific events or personalities and recall of general knowledge. Implicit memory, that is the...

Inferential Context

Researchers have inferred that romantic love and retribution involve reward system activation because these conditions activate the caudate nucleus (Aron et al., 2005 de Quervain et al., 2004), that social rejection is like physical pain because it activates the anterior cingulate (Eisen-berger, Lieberman, & Williams, 2003), among countless similar conclusions. The trouble is that both these regions are involved in motor control and cognitive planning and flexibility in a wide range of tasks, including basic shifting of attention, working memory, and inhibition of simple motor responses (Bush, Luu, & Posner, 2000 Kastner & Ungerleider, 2000 Paus, 2001 Wager, Jonides, & Reading, 2004 Wager, Jonides, Smith, & Nichols, 2005). One meta-analytic review concluded that cingulate activity was related most reliably to task difficulty In a large range of tasks (Paus, Koski, Caramanos, & Westbury, 1998). Thus, the assumption that one can make reverse inferences in this case is seriously flawed.

Neuroradiology Of Tga Imaging After Attack

Evidence for the location of lesions underlying TGA is also provided by patients in whom TGA is followed by a persistent memory deficit and CT shows lesions in memory-related structures. The occurrence of a permanent memory deficit which correlates with the lesion's location makes it unlikely that the lesion has silently been present before the TGA. It does not, however, exclude more widespread cerebral dysfunction during the TGA. Goldenberg et al. (1983) found a left polar thalamic lesion in a 40 year old patient whose TGA was followed by a predominantly verbal memory deficit and an impairment of autobiographical memory which reached back into school days. Gorelick et al. (1988) reported on a patient

Singlecase Studies Of Recovery Of Memory Function

In this section, we will concentrate on those single-case studies which have provided detailed recovery of function data relating to particular aspects of memory performance, or those in which the results of serial multiple imaging have suggested possible mechanisms relating to recovery of function. While most of these studies have focused on long-term anterograde or retrograde memory functioning, it is worth noting observations by Wilson & Baddeley (1993) in relation to recovery of short-term memory. Their patient's digit span recovered to normal from an initial span of two that was found 7 years earlier. This improvement was paralleled by an improvement in language comprehension, but not by any major improvement on tests of phonological awareness. This recovery-of-function study therefore highlighted the link between short-term phonological working memory and language comprehension on the one hand, and the dissociation between short-term phonological working memory and phonological...

Problems with Selection by Location

Of course in all these cases, where objects do not move, being at a particular location and being on a particular object are perfectly confounded. Moreover, it is quite reasonable that priority may be given to location once the object has been selected. There is considerable evidence for the claim that location is treated as special among the various conceptualized properties of selected objects. Indeed, our work on multiple object tracking has shown that when objects disappear, the location of targets is retained better than any other property of the targets (Scholl, Pylyshyn, and Franconeri 999). We have also shown that the disappearance of tracked objects for half a second, and perhaps even much longer, does not disrupt tracking if the objects reappear where they had been when they disappeared, thus showing that the location of disappearance must have been retained in some form (Keane and Pylyshyn 2006). But our assumption is that the disappearance itself causes locations to be...

Brain Imaging Studies Of Recovery Of Memory Function

A potentially important application of modern brain imaging procedures to the study of recovery of memory function also relates to functional activation studies of those patients who have recovered from an initially dense amnesia, or those who are left with selective memory loss as part of their neurological condition. Such studies may highlight those areas of the brain that act as neural compensatory mechanisms, and so offer clues as to the basis of recovery of function in brain disease. Very few such studies have yet been carried out, but one exception is that by Maguire (2001), in which a patient with developmental amnesia was found to show greater bilateral temporal lobe involvement during an autobiographical memory task compared to matched control participants.

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HIV encephalopathy The term for the actions of HIV on the central nervous system. It is known that HIV infects the brain early in the course of disease. Typically it does not produce symptoms until later in the disease process. In some instances, people with early HIV infection may suffer some problems that can be related to HIV activity such as lack of concentration or a drop in short-term memory abilities. As HIV disease progresses, its effect on the nervous system becomes more evident in some people. These early problems may worsen, with significant changes in feelings, behavior, and ability to function. It is unclear still what causes some people to suffer from these central nervous system (CNS) problems whereas other people do not.

Do You Need a Memory Evaluation

If you're concerned enough about your memory to wonder if something's wrong, you should see your doctor. Begin with a consultation with your primary care physician. Because this doctor knows you and your medical history, he or she is in an advantageous position to assess the big picture of your health and consider the more common medical and psychological conditions that can cause memory loss. If your doctor tells you, You don't have Alzheimer's disease, so don't worry it's just normal aging, but you are still concerned about your memory, don't be shy about saying so. Some primary care physicians tend to be dismissive of subtle memory complaints in an otherwise well-functioning person. Some have too few categories to rely on in making sense of a memory issue (that is, either the patient has Alzheimer's disease or nothing is wrong). Although Alzheimer's disease accounts for the vast majority of degenerative dementias in older people, many other diseases and conditions can cause...

Neuroanatomical Basis Of Phonological Shortterm Memory

Current information about the neural correlates of phonological short-term memory come from two main sources of evidence (a) the traditional anatomoclinical correlations (Vallar, 2000) in brain-damaged patients with a selective deficit of this system and (b) the measurement of regional cerebral activity by PET and fMRI in normal subjects engaged in short-term memory tasks. frontal involvement, which differs from the predominantly parietal damage found in most patients, may represent the anatomical correlate of J.O.'s and T.O.'s output difficulties. These data from individual patients are in line with the results of a group study by Risse et al. (1984). In a series of 20 left brain-damaged patients, defective auditory-verbal span was associated with lesions clustering in the inferior parietal lobule, but not in the frontal lobe or in the basal ganglia. The anatomical evidence concerning the selective impairment of the process of verbal rehearsal is less definite, but one such patient...

The Physical Examination

Because a multitude of physical and psychological conditions can affect your memory, your physician will review your personal medical history. And because many relevant medical factors and disorders are heritable or tend to run in families, your checkup will include questions about your family medical history.

Associated Deficits The Uses Of Shortterm Memory

Phonological Short-term Memory and Sentence Comprehension Phonological Short-term Memory and Vocabulary Acquisition Patients with defective phonological short-term memory may have preserved performance on standard episodic memory tasks, requiring the acquisition of verbal material. However, learning and retention of new words, i.e. of pronounceable letters strings without any preexisting lexical-semantic representations, is grossly defective. In 1988, Baddeley et al. showed that patient P.V. was unable to learn new words (Russian words transliterated into Italian) by a paired-associate paradigm, whereas her learning of pairs of Italian words was entirely preserved. With auditory presentation her learning deficit was complete, with P.V. unable to acquire a single new word. With visual input, some learning was possible but performance was grossly defective. A similar disproportionate difficulty in learning new words was subsequently found by Baddeley (1993) in a 23 year-old graduate...

Neuropsychological Testing

The purpose of these tests is to determine if your memory and other cognitive abilities fall within normal limits or if the findings suggest a disorder such as depression, mild cognitive impairment, or Alzheimer's disease. But what's normal for you isn't necessarily normal for another person. The neuropsychologist will interpret and analyze the test results within the context of several important variables that influence memory and cognitive ability, such as your age, your estimated baseline intelligence, and your level of education. The distinction between normal and abnormal test performance may be different for a person with a high IQ and an extensive education than for a person with a lower IQ and fewer years of education. Memory. The most common type of memory test involves listening to or reading information and recalling it immediately afterward and then recalling it again ten to thirty minutes later. The information may consist of a list of words or a brief narrative story....

Implicit Processing In Perceptual Neglect And In Blindsight

Evidence that working memory is unlikely to function as a gateway comes from studies of patients with unilateral perceptual neglect. A key deficit in these patients is that they ignore one half of extrapersonal space, most commonly the left, following a lesion in the right parietal lobe (for review, see Robertson & Halligan, 1999). Thus, when asked to copy a picture, they will reproduce only the right half of the picture. When asked to describe their immediate environment, they will describe only the right half of the scene in front of them and, in severe cases, will eat from only the right half of their plate. This deficit does not arise from failure of the visual sensory system, and is generally interpreted as an impairment of the attentional system. Although such patients ignore information on their left side, they nevertheless appear to be affected implicitly by some of the ignored information. A now classic example is that of patient P.S. (Marshall & Halligan, 1988), who was...

Challenges for Accurate Assessment

The work of Michael Marcell (Marcell and Weeks, 1988) documents verbal short-term memory deficits. This has significant implications for assessment of language comprehension and production, particularly when using standardized procedures that require processing specific stimuli and remembering it long enough to provide to appropriate response. Clearly, memory deficits may also be contributing to behaviors that may be labeled as inattention or that result in inconsistent response patterns. In our experience, providing visual support enhances performance when verbal abilities are tested. This may involve pictures, graphic material, or printed words.

Why carbon monoxide is such a deadly killer

The long-term effects of carbon monoxide poisoning for victims who recover are less clear. Those who recover from exposure to high levels, especially if they have been unconscious, can suffer effects on the memory and the brain and heart which may last some time or even be permanent. Some victims may suffer heart attacks some time after apparent recovery or succumb to pneumonia, especially the elderly. Similarly, despite an apparent full recovery, some weeks after the poisoning the victim may suffer from effects on the brain (for example, encephal-opathy) which can cause symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease or personality changes (irritability, for example) which can persist for some time. Loss of short-term memory is common. Muscle damage sometimes occurs, which can lead to renal failure. This is because the breakdown products of the muscle are excreted into the urine and overload the kidneys. These effects are most likely in those who are victims of severe poisoning.

Effect of Alzheimers Neuropathology on Communicative Function

Because AD begins in the hippocampal complex, an area important for the formation of recent or episodic memory, the typical initial manifestation is loss of memory for recent events. With disease progression to frontal cortex and temporoparietal association areas, other declarative memory systems are affected, specifically semantic and lexical memory. Because the basal ganglia and motor cortex are spared throughout most of the disease course, procedural memory also is spared.

Active and passive functions in mental images created in totally blindness condition

It is easy to use and very flexible in experimental practice. In addition, the implicated set of tasks allowed us to investigate different aspects of visuo-spatial processing and to evaluate several theoretical assumptions related to the characteristics of the Working Memory system. In particular, it was possible to address the distinction between passive and active processes in VSWM and to investigate the characteristics of several central integration processes that can be involved in the execution of mental imagery task. In most cases, the performance on the active, mental pathway, task has been combined with a passive storage task requiring to memorize target positions within matrices of different dimensions. In a further experiment (Cornoldi et al. 1993) we investigated whether blindness determine a reduction in active spatial working memory functions only or the deficit concerned also the passive - more visual - functions. Congenitally blind and sighted participants were asked to...

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Auditory Memory There are two kinds of auditory memory Long-term auditory memory is the ability to recall something heard long ago, whereas short-term auditory memory is the ability to remember something heard very recently. Children with problems in this area may find it difficult to remember people's names, memorize and recall telephone numbers, follow multistep spoken directions, recall stories they have been told, or remember lines from songs.

Functional vs Sensory Attributes of Meaning

Of semantic memory (Allport, 1985), which assumes that properties of an object are encoded across a number of different subsystems or attribute domains (for an excellent discussion of category specificity and implications for models of semantic memory, see Saffran & Schwartz, 1994).

Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery Precise Mapping Precise Treatment

Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery is a particularly exciting area in neu-rosurgery these days. This specialty is an especially good field for technology buffs and for those who loved the intricate pathways of the brain memorized (and often forgotten) in medical school.

Object Knowledge vs Object

Apraxia is the inability to carry out purposeful actions in the absence of weakness or sensory loss. At first sight, consideration of apraxia may seem inappropriate in the context of semantic memory disorders. However, inability to carry out skilled movements can arise for conceptual reasons (De Renzi & Luchelli, 1988 Ochipa et al., 1989 Rothi et al., 1991). A patient may fail to salute or demonstrate the action of combing hair on command because of loss of knowledge of how to carry out the required action. For patients with severe semantic impairment, such as semantic dementia, loss of object knowledge typically entails both an inability to recognize and describe the function of an object, as well as an inability to demonstrate its use. A patient who does not recognize a razor also cannot demonstrate its use by action pantomime. Nevertheless, dissociations between functional knowledge and use can sometimes occur. Moreaud et al. (1998) described a patient who was impaired in his...

Core Features of Amnesia

Normal attention and working memory capacity Relatively preserved skill learning and procedural memory ing and the episodic form of declarative memory that are affected, whereas procedural memory remains relatively intact. Procedural memory which comprises well-established skills, such as driving a car is unscathed because it doesn't depend on the hippocampus or other brain structures damaged by amnesia. Steven, the patient I described in the beginning of this chapter, could recall the minute details of how to make a leather vest (a procedural memory) but could not remember newly encountered names or faces, or recent conversations (declarative memories).

Reasoning In Agrammatic Aphasia

Recent studies have adopted this more focused approach to the relation of grammar to cognition in aphasia (Varley & Siegal, 2000 Varley, 2002 Varley, Siegal & Want, 2001). These have revealed that patients with severe agrammatic aphasia, who have minimal access to propositional language, are capable both of ToM understanding and simple causal reasoning. For example, SA is a man in his fifties who has extensive damage to left hemisphere language zones following a focal bacterial infection of the brain. Following the lesion, SA displayed severe aphasia. He retained a large amount of vocabulary, but he had minimal grammatical ability. His difficulties in grammatical processing included a severe impairment in the understanding of spoken and written sentences, and he was unable to construct sentences in either speech or writing output. SA also had problems in understanding and using verbs. In psycholinguistic theories of sentence processing, the ability to understand and retrieve verbs is...

Syntax The Noun Phrase

The sequence of all specifiers in a wide sense of the word (i.e. determiners and attributes) is determined by the universal principle of Heaviness Hierarchy which is known in traditional German grammar as Gesetz der wachsenden Glieder(' 2w of growing elements'). The heavier (i.e. longer and internally more complex) the prototype of a syntactic class, the later it appears in the sequence of elements. In German, the noun phrase conforms strictly to this principle. The principle may be motivated by such needs of the language-processing apparatus as relief of short-term memory. If this is so, one is tempted to establish a relation to another characteristic property of the noun

Language Disorders in School Age Children Overview

Another form of nonstandardized assessment focuses on the underlying cognitive processing skills that potentially are linked to some language disorders. This evaluation includes tasks assessing verbal working memory (e.g., recalling an increasing number of real words), phonological working memory (e.g., imitating nonsense words), and auditory perception (e.g., discriminating speech and nonspeech sounds). School-age children with language disorders have been distinguished from their age peers by lower accuracy on verbal working memory and nonword repetition tasks (Ellis Weismer, Evans, and Hesketh, 1999 Ellis Weismer et al., 2000). Dynamic assessment also has been advocated as an effective non-standardized assessment strategy (Olswang, Bain, and Johnson, 1992). In dynamic assessment, aspects of a language task are altered systematically to examine the conditions under which a child can achieve optimal success. Thus, dynamic assessment can be used to determine a child's potential for...

Nerve cell See neuron

Neurological disease There are several neurological diseases that can affect people with HIV disease. Some are opportunistic infections, and others are effects of the virus itself. HIV encephalopathy is one of the more common problems in late-stage HIV. haart has led to a decrease in incidence of HIV encephalopathy, but it still occurs in some form in approximately 30 percent of all HIV-positive people. Symptoms include decrease in short-term memory, inability to keep track of conversations or appointments, and motor impairment such as changes in gait and problems with handwriting or keyboarding. occasionally a patient's partner reports a decrease in emotions or social withdrawal and apathy.

Rebound headaches See headaches

Recall A term used to denote the ability to retrieve information from long-term memory. Recall is involved in a broad range of tasks and specific tests, from remembering a phone number of calling up information for a school exam. While useful as a descriptive term, it does not refer to a specific area of cognitive function. Difficulty recalling information may be caused by a number of different learning problems. This may include problems imprinting information during processing because of poor attention or short-term memory, as well as difficulty with rapid retrieval tasks that are typically found in expressive-language disorders.

Memory and Processing Capacity

Research on the role of working memory in language disorders has stemmed mainly from the phonological loop model (e.g., Baddeley, 1986 Gathercole and Bad-deley, 1993) or the capacity theory of comprehension (e.g., Just and Carpenter, 1992). These models differ in their conception of working memory and in the paradigms typically used to assess this construct (cf. Montgomery, 2000a) however, a central premise of both frameworks is that there is a limited pool of operational resources available to perform computations, such that processing and storage of linguistic information is degraded when demands exceed available resources. Numerous investigations based on these two approaches have demonstrated an association between working memory capacity and normal language functioning in children and adults. In young children, individual differences in phonological working memory predict vocabulary development and are related to differences in word repertoire, utterance length, and grammatical...

Neurobiological Introduction

The prevailing view of long-term memory and information processing in the central nervous system continues to be heavily influenced by Hebb's conjecture 37 . The idea, which is based on the processing of information in a network of neurons, involves activity-dependent strengthening of synap-tic connections between neurons. Thus, the biological steps that coordinate and strengthen synaptic activity are essential to better modeling of biological neural-based networks. McCullough and Pitts 80 showed that a sufficiently large network of simple neurons (modeled by point-like nodes - with linear threshold units) is capable of universal computation, i.e. is equivalent to a Turing machine. In this model, synaptic inputs are linearly added into a single threshold function. In the remainder of this chapter, we shall review two main routes in neural modeling, both relevant to our proposed revised model. The first deals with biologically realistic models of electrical (and chemical) signaling in...

Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Learning Related Long Lasting Synaptic Plasticity

ABSTRACT Learning is the process whereby we acquire information about the world, and memory is the process whereby we retain that information. Memory can be divided into at least two temporally distinct components short-term memory that lasts for minutes to hours and long-term memory that lasts for days, weeks, or even years. Over the past several decades, molecular and cell biological studies of learning and memory have indicated that these behavioral processes are reflected at the cellular level by changes in synaptic plasticity-the ability of neurons to modulate the strength and structure of their synaptic connections with experience (Bliss and Collingridge, 1993 Martin and Kandel, 1996). Thus, in the simplest terms, what these studies have shown is that memories are stored as increases in the strength and, at least in some cases, the number or pattern of synapses in the brain. Like memory, learning-related synaptic plasticity can exist in at least two different forms. First, there...

Alternative Remedies for Memory Loss

A 2001 study compared the performance of a small cohort of commercial airline pilots who took donepezil for one month with those who took a placebo. The pilots who took the Alzheimer's disease drug performed better on difficult flight-simulation tasks. The researchers interpreted the results to mean that donepezil might have improved the pilots' procedural memory their retention and execution of complex skills.

Memory For Contextual Information

In addition to deficits in new learning and recall, frontal patients have a reduced ability to recollect contextual information (Janowsky et al., 1989a Shimamura et al., 1990 Smith & Milner, 1988). Contextual information refers to the spatiotemporal aspects of an event (e.g. when and where you saw a recent movie), as opposed to its semantic content (e.g. the plot of a movie see Johnson et al., 1993). Retrieving such information requires the reconstruction of episodic information from long-term memory. Source memory (i.e. recalling the source of learned information) has also been shown to be disproportionately impaired in patients with frontal lobe lesions. In one study, participants were asked a series of trivial questions (e.g. What is the name of the dog on the Cracker Jacks box Janowsky et al., 1989a). On those questions that they could not answer correctly, participants were given the correct answer (e.g. Bingo ) and asked to repeat and memorize it. Several days later,...

Metacognition And Memory

Metacognition refers to the ability to reflect upon one's own thoughts, memories, and knowledge (see Metcalfe & Shimamura, 1994). This ability depends in part on the status of the prefrontal cortex (Janowsky et al., 1989b Metcalfe & Shimamura, 1994 Shimamura, 2000b). Similar to other aspects of memory discussed thus far, metacognition depends upon strategic, explicit retrieval of information from long-term memory. Metacognition has been construed specifically as the monitoring and control of information processing (see Nelson & Narens, 1994 Shimamura, 1994, 2000b). Findings from patients with frontal lobe lesions suggest that they lack such an ability to use and manipulate memories. These deficits may be part of a general deficit in selecting, organizing and manipulating information in working memory, e.g. in an attempt to recall some information, one might retrieve partial information and, based on this information, decide to spend extra time trying to develop associative strategies...

Retrieval From Remote Memory

As this review indicates, patients with frontal lobe lesions exhibit marked impairment on a variety of tests involving long-term memory. Deficits are observed on tests involving list learning, source memory, metacognition and retrieval of information from remote memory. However, frontal patients can exhibit intact memory when the demands on attention are reduced and or retrieval strategies are provided (Hirst & Volpe, 1988 Mangels, 1997 McAndrews & Milner, 1991).

Longterm memory requires changes in gene expression

Protein Kinase A Is Critical for the Transmission of Signals from the Synapse to the Nucleus Serotonin released by interneurons in vivo or applied directly to sensorimotor cocultures binds to 5-HT receptors on the sensory neuron membrane and activates adenylyl cyclase. The resulting increase in cAMP, in turn, activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). PKA plays a critical role in both short- and long-term facilitation. Indeed, cAMP analogues can evoke both short- and long-term facilitation, and inhibitors of PKA block both forms of facilitation (Ghirardi et al., 1992 Montarolo et al., 1986). How PKA participates in the RNA and protein synthesis-dependent process was illustrated by an experiment carried out by Bacskai and associates (1993). They monitored the subcellular localization of the free PKA catalytic subunit and found that with one pulse of serotonin, which produces short-term facilitation, the catalytic subunit was restricted to the cytoplasm. With repeated pulses of...

Neuroimaging Findings Corroboration And Extension

In terms of new learning and long-term memory, neuroimaging studies have shown that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in organizational processes (e.g. during list learning), while the ventral prefrontal cortex is activated during encoding more generally (Fletcher et al., 1998). Other studies have shown that source memory judgments activate left and bilateral prefrontal regions, while simple recognition judgments activate a subset of these regions (Rugg et al., 1999). Individual and retrospective analyses of PET data have suggested that the left prefrontal cortex is preferentially activated during encoding of episodic memories, while retrieval of episodic information is associated with bilateral but predominantly right prefrontal activation (Andreasen et al., 1995 Lepage et al., 2000 Tulving et al., 1994 but see Swick & Knight, 1996). In terms of working memory, many neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the lateral prefrontal cortex is activated as part...

Selfhypnosis See hypnosis

Semantic memory Memory for facts, such as the information that would be contained in a dictionary or encyclopedia with no connection to time or place. People do not remember when or where they learn this type of information. Semantic memory registers and stores knowledge about the world in the broadest sense it allows people to represent and mentally operate on situations, objects and relations in the world that are not present to the senses. A person with an intact semantic memory system can think about things that are not here now. Because semantic memory develops first in childhood before episodic memory children are able to learn facts before they can remember their own experiences. The seat of semantic memory is believed to be located in the medial temporal lobe and dien-cephalic structures of the brain. (See also memory.)

Stable longterm facilitation is associated with the synthesis oflate as well as earlyproteins and with the laying down

Genes is ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (Hegde et al., 1997). This rapidly induced gene encodes an enzyme that associates with the proteasome and increases its proteolytic activity. This regulated proteolysis is essential for long-term facilitation Inhibiting the expression or function of the hydrolase blocks induction of long-term but not short-term facilitation. Thus, through induction of the hydrolase and the resulting up-regulation of the ubiquitin pathway, learning recruits a regulated form of proteolysis that removes inhibitory constraints on long-term memory. One of the substrates of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis is the regulatory subunit of PKA, degradation of which leads to a persistently active PKA (Chain et al., 1999). This persistence in PKA activity continues for up to 24 hours even in the absence of cAMP or serotonin (Greenberg, Bernier, and Schwartz, 1987) and is essential for the consolidation of short- to long-term memory (Chain et al., 1999).

Prevention and Proaction The Path to Optimal Memory

No matter how old you are, it's not too late to take steps to prevent memory loss. In this chapter, I review thirteen strategies for achieving and maintaining optimal memory. Some are good health habits that can reduce the risk of illnesses that might impair your memory as well as the likelihood that you'll need medications with memory-related side effects. Others are strategies that appear to strengthen the brain and enhance cognitive function. Best of all, they're neither expensive nor difficult to carry out. Obtain regular exercise Put out the cigarettes Take vitamins Involve yourself with others Maintain healthful nutrition Aim for a good night's sleep Learn something new Moderate alcohol intake Engage in life Manage stress

Synapsespecific transcriptiondependent plasticity

The finding that long-term memory requires alterations in gene expression poses a cell biological paradox in the study of memory. Does the requirement of transcription and thus the nucleus-a resource shared by all the synapses within a cell-for long-lasting synaptic plasticity mean that long-lasting memory needs to be cellwide, or can the strength of individual synaptic connections be modified independently

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Dunce dnc Drosophila mutant that is deficient in short-term memory. Gene codes for cAMP-phosphodiesterase and mutation leads to elevated cAMP levels that in turn particularly affect the delayed rectifier potassium currents in neurons of brain centres associated with acquisition and retention. The effect of the mutation does also alter nerve terminal growth and synaptic plasticity. Comparable behavioural defects are associated with rutabaga (rut).

Right Hemisphere Language and Communication Functions in Adults

There are, of course, unresolved issues. The range of language and communication skills associated with right hemisphere injury is extensive. These skills seem to represent several domains that will need to be examined separately, even though powerful unifying constructs have been explored, such as coherence (Benowitz, Moya, and Levine, 1990) and working memory (Tomp-kins et al., 1994). Finally, our understanding of localization of function involving the right hemisphere is poorly developed. Functions often associated with the right hemisphere may be as appropriately tied to pre-frontal regions in either hemisphere (McDonald, 1993 Stuss, Gallup, and Alexander, 2001).

Right Hemisphere Language Disorders

Right hemisphere damage, and because differences in impairment profiles make it difficult to equate groups for severity. Consequently, it is impossible to determine whether observed deficits are specific to right hemisphere damage. Another major issue is the lack of consensus on how to define or even what to call language deficits associated with right hemisphere damage (cf. Myers, 1999), either in totality or as individual components of an aggregate syndrome. Conceptual and terminological imprecision, and apparent overlap, are common in referring to targets of inquiry such as nonliteral language processing, inferencing, integration, and reasoning from a theory of mind (Blake et al., 2002). Conclusions about language deficits after right hemisphere damage also are complicated by intraindividual performance variability, whether due to factors such as differential task processing requirements (e.g., Tompkins and Lehman, 1998), or to time following onset of injury (Colsher et al., 1987)....

Overview and Potential Accounts of Symptoms in Characteristic Deficit Domains

Right hemisphere damage is not usually considered to impair lexical structure, but it has been shown to diminish performance on tasks that involve lexical-semantic processing, such as picture naming, word-picture matching, word generation, and semantic judgment. These findings have been taken to indicate a general, subtle, but specific deficit in lexical-semantic processing (e.g., Gainotti et al., 1983). However, visual-perceptual problems could account for difficulties in many such tasks. Additionally, semantic priming studies indicate no lexical-semantic processing deficit after right hemisphere damage, under either automatic or controlled activation (Joanette and Goulet, 1998 Tompkins, Fassbinder, et al., 2002). This suggests that right hemisphere damage does not affect representation and initial activation processes in the lexical-semantic system (although currently it is not possible to rule out slowed initial processing). Because clear difficulties...

Implications For Rehabilitation

In recent years a broader spectrum of rehabilitation techniques has been explored, in part as a consequence of expanding knowledge of physiology and neurochemistry of the brain, as well as advances in understanding of the mechanisms underlying basic cognitive processes. Traditional psychological approaches to rehabilitation have employed compensatory strategies, such as utilization of internal or external memory cues or memory aid devices, with variable results (for review, see Sohlberg & Mateer, 1989). More recently, researchers have taken the approach of devising strategies that build on preserved cognitive components, such as procedural and or implicit memory (e.g. Evans et al., 2000 Glisky, 1993 Glisky & Schacter, 1988 Thoene & Glisky,1995 Wilson & Evans, 1996). As with more traditional approaches, the results of these types of strategies are inconclusive. More research is needed to specify the conditions under which such interventions are effective. Several more biological...

Stereotactic radiosurgery 295

In its revised form, the test provides multiple area IQ scores (called S.A.S.'s) in addition to an overall iQ score. in addition to measuring the verbal and nonverbal areas of a child's development, the Stanford-Binet also provides a quantitative score, measuring the child's mathematical reasoning, and a memory score, measuring the child's short-term memory. (While the Wechsler scales also have subtests which measure these areas, they do not provide iQ scores isolating these abilities.)

Forget Chomsky and Kanzi

The other 20th-century controversy about language concerned its innateness. The language theorist Noam Chomsky and other language nativists fought hard against the social science dogma that all human mental abilities are products of learning. It was a heroic fight, but for our purposes all we need to know is that the nativists won. Steven Tinker's excellent book The Language Instinct reviewed why they won. Pinker listed the features of language that mark it as a proper biological adaptation Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently. These features show that language really is a human instinct, a mental adaptation. But they are common to all of our mental adaptations. Our capacities for language, depth...

Moderate Alcohol Intake

Alcohol use can either harm or protect your memory, depending on how much you consume. There is no question that heavy drinking contributes to memory loss. Excessive alcohol consumption is toxic to neurons and is the leading risk factor for Kor-sakoff's syndrome, a disorder caused by thiamine deficiency and characterized by sudden and usually permanent memory loss. On the other hand, research suggests that moderate alcohol consumption (one or two drinks per day) may help prevent dementia. If you have been drinking heavily, discontinuing or sharply reducing your alcohol consumption can help prevent further memory loss and may permit the restoration of whatever loss you have already suffered. If you do not drink, I wouldn't recommend that you start to do so. Your memory won't suffer if you avoid alcohol, especially if you follow the other measures for maintaining optimal memory.

The Pattern Of Memory Impairment The Case For A Schizophrenic Amnesia

Long-term Memory There is no controversy that this memory store is affected by schizophrenia. The vast majority of studies have included (and have often relied exclusively on) long-term memory measures, and, as noted above, almost all of these have found evidence of impairment. For example, in the review of studies comparing patients with well-matched controls carried out by McKenna et al. (2000), all of the eight which found significant impairment, found this on long-term memory measures (Calev et al., 1987b Gruzelier et al., 1988 Gold et al., 1992b Goldberg et al., 1993 Landro et al., 1993 Elliott et al., 1995 Paulsen et al., 1995 Rushe et al., 1999). Short-term Memory In contrast to studies of long-term memory in schizophrenia, studies of short-term memory have had inconsistent findings. Several studies have reported that forward digit span remains intact (Kolb & Whishaw 1983 Park & Holzman, 1992 Tamlyn et al., 1992 Goldberg et al., 1993 Duffy & O'Carroll, 1994 Morice & Delahunty,...

Does the consolidation period have psychological utility

Active forgetting provides a first example in which LTP research suggests something about memory that has not been prominent in psychological studies or theories (the second of the upward links noted in the introductory paragraphs). Moreover, the idea arrives with details that would not have been found with behavioral analyses alone but that nonetheless have behavioral connotations. Theta pulses are an example these are not detectable as such in behavior but are probably closely associated with a subset of psychological states (Vertis and Kocsis, 1997). Information of this sort not only fleshes out the idea of active forgetting but also provides a correlational approach for testing if it exists for example, does the presence or absence of the pulses correlate with what is learned (e.g., the steepness of generalization gradients for a complex cue). Pharmacological manipulation provides another approach with which to search for active forgetting, but this is better considered in the...

Rapid Auditory Processing Deficits in Dyslexia

Since then, there have been failures to replicate the findings with reading disabled children (Mody, Studdert-Kennedy, & Brady, 1997 McArthur, Hogben, Edwards, Heath, & Mengler, 2000) and to confirm predictions of the theory (Nittrouer, 1999). Studies from our own laboratory involving dyslexic children and dyslexic adults, have typically found only a small subset of dyslexic readers who display low-level auditory processing impairments. Moreover, it is important to note that these participants have not been those with the more severe phonological deficits. Thus, the relationship between RAP and phonological processing remains an open question. It seems to us, that dyslexic children may have difficulty with the paradigms used to test auditory processing for a number of reasons some have attentional difficulties and these are demanding paradigms some have verbal labeling difficulties and verbal codes may be used to mediate perceptual judgments, as Vellutino...

Yes You Can Maintain a Positive Attitude

Although you can't choose your parents or your genetic heritage, many factors that affect your memory are within your direct control. Your nutritional habits, physical activity level, depth of social engagement, extent of involvement in lifelong learning, degree of vigilance regarding prevention and management of health problems these are among the many factors that shape your memory function, present and future. And you control each and every one of them. Don't dwell on the things you cannot control, and don't feel that you must make every change in your life all at once. Review the strategies outlined in this chapter, set realistic goals for yourself, and begin with one step . . . today.

The identification of drawings

Thermore, Pathak and Pring (1989) showed that storage of drawings in working memory was difficult in early blind. The performances of early blind participants were lower than those of blindfolded sighted when, after the presentation of three drawings, they were asked to indicate from memory which of the drawings corresponded to a word said by the experimenter. In the reverse situation, where a single drawing was presented and subjects had to choose which of three words corresponded to the drawing, the two groups were equivalent.

Practical Strategies to Enhance Everyday Memory

A variety of strategies have proven to be highly effective in helping people improve their memory for new information and skills. These strategies can be divided into organizational methods, effective learning behaviors, and memory techniques. I personally rely on many of them to help me put names to faces, remember what people tell me, avoid misplacing keys and other items, and retain complex information.

Why Do we Need a Theory of Consciousness

Memorizing information It is also intriguing that the obligate conscious activities include memorizing information and learning, but recall of memorized information (such as the motor actions required to perform a learnt task) does not require consciousness. When learning a task such as playing the piano, one's first plodding fingering of the keys is painfully conscious but, once learnt, a practised pianist can effortlessly play a familiar tune whilst singing the accompanying song. Indeed, learning a skill seems largely to be about driving its accomplishment into our unconscious mind. Another aspect of this dualism is the fact that our visual system is constantly analyzing the changing scenery as we go through our day, but we only recall those items that we thought about. The memory of everything else is lost. Any theory should explain why our conscious mind appears to be the conduit for delivering information to our memory but is not required for its retrieval.

Conditions on a Theory of Active Spatial Representation ASPAR

The impression that spatial representation is different from other kinds of representation is usually associated with examples from perception and spatial reasoning (or mental imagery). In other words the evidence comes from phenomena that involve active working memory, as opposed to more permanent long-term memory. There is reason to think that the representation of space under these conditions, which I will refer to as active spatial representation or ASPAR, is special in a number of ways.12 Although many of the characteristics of ASPARs are also shared by other nonspatial representations, representing space appears to involve all the following characteristics in essential ways. 12. Although I am loath to propose yet another acronym, the closest constructs in general use, ''visual short-term memory'' and ''visual workspace,'' both have the wrong connotations since what I am trying to capture is not a type of memory, visual or otherwise, or a storage place, but rather the...

Developmental Impairments of Verbal Shortterm Memory

One notable feature of children's performance on tests of phonological short-term memory is the high degree of variability across individuals. Although memory span increases regularly across age when assessed on the basis of group data at each chronological point, very large differences are found in span estimates for individual children at any one age. For unselected cohorts of young children, these differences in phonological memory capacity have been found to relate closely to two important aspects of language development vocabulary acquisition (e.g. Avons et al., 1998 Gathercole & Baddeley, 1989, 1993 Gathercole et al., 1992 Michas & Henry, 1994) and speech production (Adams & Gathercole, 1995, 1996 Blake et al., 1994 Speidel, 1989, 1991). These and related findings have led to the proposal that a primary function of the phonological loop is to support language learning (Baddeley et al., 1998b Gathercole & Baddeley, 1993). Consistent with this view, children with specific language...

Maps and Maplike Navigation Behavior

Environment plays an essential role as the organism moves through it. Moreover, the way in which spatial information comes to be in the ''map'' is different from the way it comes to be in the ASPAR. In the examples discussed earlier involving ASPARs, the information either comes from perception or it is constructed from cognitive descriptions. By contrast, spatial information in a navigational map is the result of precise measurements of time, distance, and direction that are the result of having traveled through the terrain. Insects use a sophisticated method for establishing how far and in what direction they have traveled. The method, called path integration, requires integrating the vector speed with respect to time, a process that yields a continual record of distance and direction from starting point (Col-lett and Collett 2000). To measure speed, bees use motion over the retinal image (visual flow fields), whereas ants use a measure based on motor output, and other animals may...

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