Lipoma No More
It would be premature to weigh the significance of over-expression of mdm2 and p53 in relation to cancer prognosis, although the studies discussed above have suggested a possible relationship between them. Cordon-Cardo et al. (1994) reported that high expression of both genes in the same tumour correlated with poor survival. In leiomyosarcomas, abnormalities of either p53 or mdm2 appeared to be associated with a more advanced clinical stage of the disease (Patterson et al., 1994). Three cases of Ewing's sarcomas which had metastasised showed mdm2 amplification, whereas only one of 15 wdw2-negative primary tumours had metastasised (Ladanyi et al., 1995). However, the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK-4 gene was co-amplified in the tumours that had metastasised and therefore it is difficult to evaluate the significance of mdm2 amplification alone in relation to the metastatic process, from this study. Nilbert et al. (1995) found mdm2 amplified in five malignant fibrous histiocytomas, whereas...
Fibroma and related fibromyoma should be removed for diagnostic purposes to exclude a rare leiomyosarcoma or sarcoma. Lipomas usually do not require surgical excision unless they become painful or are cosmetically unacceptable to the patient. Painless, firm, Bartholin's masses, especially postmenopausal, should be excised to rule out Bartholin's gland malignancy (13).
Conditions to be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast cancer include mammary dysplasia, fibroadenoma, intraductal papilloma, lipoma, and fat necrosis.2 The diagnosis of breast cancer is based on the examination of tissue or cells obtained by biopsy. The gold standard for diagnosis and prognosis in breast cancer is the TNM staging system established by the American Joint Committee on Cancer and the International Union Against Cancer (T size of the tumor, N extent of regional lymph node involvement, and M presence or absence of distant metastases). The degree of axillary lymph node involvement is the major prognostic indicator for later systemic disease.1 The second factor that predicts disease outcome is tumor size. The majority of breast cancers are histopathologically classified as either (1) ductal, which constitutes approximately 70-80 of breast cancers, or (2) lobular, representing approximately 10 of breast cancers.4 These classifications are further divided into...
Lipomas Tumors consisting of fat cells. lipomatosis A disorder characterized by deposits of fat beneath the skin of the neck, upper body, arms, and legs. The origin is uncertain, but the condition is thought to be genetic. Lipomatosis often occurs in conjunction with alcoholic liver disease, macrocytic anemia, and peripheral neuropathy. It usually affects men and is most common in the Mediterranean.
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