Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders of carbohydrate metabolism that result in hyperglycemia. The disease is classified into several categories.4 Type 1 diabetes [formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)] usually has onset in childhood, frequently presents with an acute episode of severe hyperglycemia often progressing to ketoacidosis, and produces sudden weight loss. Type 2 diabetes [formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)] is commonly associated with obesity, and hyperglycemic episodes usually occur without ketoacidosis. Although onset is more common in adulthood, the frequency of type 2 diabetes in children is increasing as a result of the rising prevalence of childhood obesity.2 Other forms of diabetes are rare. These include endocrinopathies such as Cushing's syndrome, reactive diabetes due to pancreatic insult by drugs or infection, and rare genetic/congenital causes, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). The fourth category is gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which is diabetes first diagnosed during pregnancy; thus, a woman with diabetes who becomes pregnant is not classified as GDM.2 Hyperglycemia not sufficient to meet the criteria for diabetes is categorized as "prediabetes." Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is present when fasting plasma glucose concentrations exceed the limits of healthy individuals but fail to meet the criteria for overt diabetes (i.e., 100-125 mg/dL; 5.6-6.9 mmol/L).2 If diagnosed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), this is categorized as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), with a 2-hour plasma glucose ranging within 140-199 mg/dL (7.8-11.0 mmol/L). Both IFG and IGT are termed "prediabetes" and are risk factors for progression to diabetes and cardiovascular disease.2
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All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.