Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Review

Keto 28 Day Challenge

This program has several advantages that make your work easier and at the same time helps you get along with your keto plan. The most influential benefit of this program is that you have everything you need to embark on your keto journey. The program works well for all people including beginners. This means you shouldn't worry about anything even when you are starting. The program is very informative with all the information you need along the way. Keto 28 has also helped a couple of people. As a matter of fact, there are thousands of testimonies online that affirm the benefits that someone can get from this program. The program is in digital format and hence you can carry it whenever you go. You can as well turn the program to any format that suits your lifestyle. This program is specifically intended for people that want to transition safely to keto diet. If this is what you want and feels like you are experiencing some problems, then you should act swiftly and get it. Read more here...

Keto 28 Day Challenge Summary


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Limitations of food composition data the case of carbohydrates

The above framework for building practical, evidence-based data sets linked to health end-points is illustrated below by reference to two physiological effects of food carbohydrates postprandial glycaemia (post-meal elevation of blood glucose), and faecal bulking. Postprandial glycaemia is determined largely by carbohydrate digestibility,45 and faecal bulk largely by non-digestible, non-fermentable polysaccharides.46 Standard food analyses do not account for the large effects of the structure of carbohydrate molecules and foods in the carbohydrate nutrition. Monosaccharide composition and order, glycosidic bonds, degree of polymerisation, chain configurations, non-covalent interactions between chains, and crosslinks that carbohydrates readily form may all greatly affect physicochemical properties,6,47 and the physiological effects that depend on such properties. Furthermore, food structure, such as particle size, may considerably modulate the ability of food carbohydrates to express...

The Right Carbohydrates

Just like fat, there are good and bad carbohydrates. Though your choice of carbohydrates doesn't have a major impact on your LDL cholesterol level, it can affect your triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels substantially. Carbohydrates encompass a broad range of foods, including table sugar, fruits and vegetables, and grains such as rice and wheat. The DRI for carbohydrates is 45 percent to 65 percent of your daily calories. But, as the Healthy Eating Pyramid (Figure 6.1) shows, most of these carbohydrates should come from whole-grain foods, vegetables, and fruits. If most of the carbohydrates you eat are bad carbohydrates (white bread, potatoes, white rice, and other white starches at the top of the Healthy Eating Pyramid), you could end up gaining weight and putting yourself at risk for some serious diseases. The list of bad carbohydrates may come as a surprise. Why are potatoes bad for you They're vegetables, after all. Why are they in the same category as sweets To answer these...

The Atkins Diet and Cholesterol

In the past few years, the Atkins diet and other low-carbohydrate diets have boomed in popularity. As more and more people adopted the low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet, food manufacturers and restaurants began promoting products to fit into this eating plan. Some of the low-carb diets (like the South Beach diet) distinguish between good fats and bad fats, but some (like Atkins) don't. Without any advice on which fats to eat, people tend to load up on the bad ones that they love bacon, cheese, steak, and fried foods, for example. But this approach leads to an unbalanced diet that's way too high in saturated fats. In fact, a study that used various equations to estimate the impact of certain diets on long-term health estimated that the Atkins diet would raise the average American's cholesterol by 51 mg dL. However, in more surprising news, some recent studies found that low-carb diets have a similar effect on cholesterol levels as low-fat diets, or in some cases even a...

Ketogenic Diet A Treatment for Epilepsy Third Edition

Summary The Ketogenic Diet A Treatment for Epilepsy introduces the ketogenic diet as a means of seizure control in epilepsy. It is intended for physicians, dieticians, and parents of children with epilepsy who might benefit from the treatment. The book is based on the experience acquired in using the ketogenic diet at the Johns Hopkins Pediatric Epilepsy Center. The book is divided into six sections. The 12 chapters (1) provide an introduction to the ketogenic diet, (2) provide answers to common questions about the diet, (3) present a historical overview of the ketogenic diet, (4) provide information on starting the diet, (5) describe how to fine tune the diet, (6) describe how to make the diet work at home and on the road, (7) discuss going off the diet, (8) describe how to make the necessary calculations for the diet, (9) discuss adapting the diet to liquid formulas and tube feedings, (10) provide sample meal plans, (11) discuss the results of new research studies of the diet, and...

Impact on key nutrients carbohydrates

Reducing sugars such as glucose and lactose participate in Maillard reactions, which will be discussed further in section 14.3. The shear forces during extrusion can also create reducing sugars from complex carbohydrates as well as from sucrose and other sugars. Sucrose losses of up to 20 were found in protein-enriched biscuits (Noguchi and Cheftel, 1983). While sucrose loss may affect product color and flavor, there is an opportunity to reduce the content of indigestible oligosaccharides that can cause flatulence. Sucrose, raffinose and stachyose decreased significantly in extruded pinto bean high-starch fractions (Borejszo and Khan, 1992). Corn-soy snacks had lower levels of both stachyose and raffinose compared to unextruded soy grits and flour, but values were not corrected for the 50-60 corn present (Omueti and Morton, 1996). Starch and stachyose were lower in extruded peas compared to raw peas (Alonso et al, 2000), but an increase in total free sugars did not fully account for...

Ketogenic Diet for Child Epilepsy and Seizure Control

Purpose - Excerpt Twenty to thirty percent of children with epilepsy continue to suffer from seizures, even when treated with currently available anticonvulsant medications. Children with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) are particularly handicapped by atonic-myoclonic seizures. Preliminary data suggest that even when other medications have failed, these seizures may respond rapidly and dramatically to a high-fat-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The purpose of the study is to assess if the classic ketogenic diet is efficacious in reducing seizure frequency, medication toxicity, and improves quality of life.


Carbohydrates have the approximate simple formula CH2O and include a diverse range of substances composed of simple sugars such as glucose The simplest carbohydrates are the monosaccharides. These are also called simple sugars. Because they have six carbon atoms, simple sugars are sometimes called hexoses. Glucose (formula shown above) is the most common simple sugar involved in cell processes. Other simple sugars with the same formula but somewhat different structures are fructose, mannose, and galactose. These must be changed to glucose before they can be used in a cell. Because of its use for energy in body processes, glucose is found in the blood. Normal levels are from 65 to 110 mg of glucose per 100 ml of blood. Higher levels may indicate diabetes.

Nutritional Background

Up to the 1970s, the issue of fat in the diet and its effect on health was hardly considered, except in cases of obesity where an overall reduction in energy was recommended. Reduced-calorie foods, therefore, were mainly a small niche market directed toward a minority of consumers who were obese or otherwise wished to lose body weight, and thus were interested in reducing their calorie intake. Moreover, the nutritional advice for weight loss at that time tended to focus more on carbohydrates than on fat, despite the fact that fat is the most dense source of calories (9 kcal g vs. 4 kcal g for carbohydrates and proteins). By the 1980s, a radical change had taken place in consumers' attitudes. This can be traced directly to developments in the science of nutrition, and to a better understanding of the relationships between diet and health, which, in the developed countries, led to significant changes in official nutritional recommendations. In the U.K., this reevaluation was brought to...

Microbial Nutrients and Inhibitors

Nutrients on the skin surface are derived mainly from eccrine sweat, apocrine and sebaceous gland secretions, and the stratum corneum. These materials supply a rich mixture of proteins, peptides, amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipoidal material, and inorganic salts that provide ample nutrition to support large microbial populations. However, the epithelium also secretes a range of antimicrobial compounds that are able to kill microorganisms or inhibit their growth. The differential activity against various microbes provides additional ecological pressure to shape the resulting population. In areas where sebaceous glands are present, skin surface lipids are quantitatively the most important class of substances occurring on adult human skin. Sebum, as synthesized in the sebaceous gland, contains little or no free fatty acid (6). However, sebum

Epilepsy You and Your Treatment

Summary Epilepsy You and Your Treatment is a booklet from the Epilepsy Foundation of America that provides basic information about tests, diagnosis, and management. Topics include (1) what seizures are and how physicians will work with individuals who have seizures (2) blood tests (3) electroencephalograph tests (4) brain imaging techniques (5) tests during treatment (6) drugs prescribed to prevent seizures (7) things to do to help treatment work (8) side effects of drugs (9) pregnancy (10) the effect of taking more than one anticonvulsant drug (11) the benefits of brain surgery for certain types of epilepsy and (12) other treatments, such as the ketogenic diet, biofeedback, ACTH injection, vitamin therapy, and experimental medicines.

Background And Significance

An obvious method to decrease the percentage of energy from fat is to substitute low-fat foods for high-fat foods. However, it is difficult for many people to limit their food choices to the low-fat varieties. Controlled laboratory-based experiments indicate that high-fat foods are overeaten because they are highly palatable. When a considerable amount of fat is removed from the diet, the diet is often bland and monotonous, and even those whose health status is dependent upon reducing their fat intake, such as cardiac patients, find it difficult to maintain long-term compliance (Drewnowski, 1990). Recent advancements in food technology, particularly the development of fat replacers, may offer one way of reducing fat and energy consumption while satisfying the preference for a high-fat diet. The advent of highly palatable reduced-fat or fat-free foods offers consumers choices that were not previously available, but because there have been few controlled studies of how these products...

Differences In Fat Preference

Dietary fat provides approximately 9 kcal g compared with 4 kcal g for carbohydrate or protein (Burton and Foster, 1991). The relatively high energy density of fat could be a factor in its overconsumption if there is a tendency to eat a certain volume or weight of food. For example, 100 g of potato chips (which are typically 60 energy from fat) has 538 kcal, while an equal amount of pretzels (which are typically about 8 energy from fat or less) has only 375 kcal. Several studies which have varied the fat content of foods (Duncan et al., 1983 Lissner et al., 1987 Kendall et al., 1991 Tremblay et al., 1991) have found that subjects consumed a nearly equal volume of food despite differences in energy density. Thus, the more energy-dense, high-fat diets were associated with increased daily energy intakes when compared to the low-fat diets. In some of the studies which have manipulated dietary fat (Duncan et al., 1983 Lissner et al., 1987 Kendall et al., 1991), subjects were given access...

Shortterm Fat Manipulations

Several studies have investigated the effects of manipulating the fat content in certain meals on energy intake on a short-term basis ( 5 days). Caputo and Mattes (1992) manipulated the energy and fat content of a midday meal for 5 days by using traditional low-fat foods and some commercially available reduced-fat foods. They found that both males and females compensated for energy dilutions in their diet however, compensation for a surfeit of energy was weaker, especially when the additional energy was derived from dietary fat. Firm conclusions cannot be drawn from this study because the data for fat intake were obtained via diet records, and such data should be interpreted cautiously due to the potential errors and biases in using self-reported measures. However, similar results were found in a well-controlled residential laboratory study (Foltin et al., 1988) that manipulated the carbohydrate and fat content in certain meals. In this study, subjects (lean males) compensated well...

Longerterm Fat Manipulations

(meals and snacks) to 24 women who were divided into groups of 101 IBW. Subjects were each fed 3 diets low-fat 15 to 20 , medium-fat 30 to 35 , and high-fat 45 to 50 of energy. Subjects could eat the foods ad libitum. Each diet was fed for 14 d with a 7-d washout between the test periods. The results showed that energy consumption was positively correlated with the level of dietary fat, with the total daily energy consumed on the low-fat diet being 2087, the medium-fat diet 2352, and the high-fat diet 2614 kcal. Over the two-week periods, the diets did not produce any statistically significant weight changes. The second Cornell study, conducted by Kendall and colleagues (1991), was similar but extended the intervention period to 11 weeks. It is unclear whether lean or obese women were studied although a mean subject height was reported, there was no mean weight reported. It is noted that individuals

Gas phase reactants or products

Hydrocarbons that are relatively insoluble in the water phase, such as hexadecane, may also be reac-tants or substrates for biochemical reactions. Microbial growth on hydrocarbons has been observed to occur at the liquid-liquid interface and in the water phase. The oxygen requirements are greater when hydrocarbon substrates are used in place of carbohydrates. In the past, there was great interest in the production of microbial protein from petroleum hydrocarbons. The commercialization of the technology was most extensive in the former Soviet Union. The airlift bioreactor is uniquely suited for this four-phase process because of the tendency of the hydrocarbon phase to migrate to the top of the fermentor. The hydrocarbons are found suspended as drops in the water phase, adsorbed to cells, and at the gas-liquid interface. The cells are found adsorbed to hydrocarbon drops, suspended in the water phase, and at the gas-liquid interface. In the airlift fermentor, the vertical circulation...

Doubleblind placebocontrolled trial of vitamin E as addon therapy for children with epilepsy

Not have adequate seizure control with established antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Other options for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy are newer antiepileptic medications, ketogenic diet and surgery. However, a small percentage of patients are candidates for these options. Therefore, additional treatments are needed to improve seizure control in patients with uncontrolled epilepsy. Animal studies have shown an association between vitamin E supplementation and seizure reduction. A study in children also showed that vitamin E helped reduce seizures. However, a similar study in adults did not show a reduction in seizures with vitamin E supplementation. Therefore, this research study is being done to help define vitamin E's usefulness and safety as a treatment for epilepsy. Fifty patients will be recruited from the Children's Epilepsy Program at The Children's Hospital in Denver, Colorado. Qualifying patients will have a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy that is currently uncontrolled with...

Differential Diagnosis

An acute episode of nausea, vomiting, and starvation, may develop alcoholic ketoacidosis. These individuals have ketoacidosis, but plasma glucose concentrations are not increased and may be low (hypoglycemia).6 Starvation ketosis, due to reduced food intake for several days, manifests with mild acidosis (serum bicarbonate 18 mEq L),3 and hyperglycemia is not present.5 Other causes of metabolic acidosis, including methanol,3 ethylene glycol, or paraldehyde intoxication, lactic acidosis and chronic renal failure can also have an increased anion gap, but do not exhibit hyperglycemia. Polyuria and poly-dipsia with dehydration and ketoacidosis can be found with diabetes insipidus, but hyper-glycemia is not present.5

A1 Introduction And Historical Perspective

Starch is one of the most abundant carbohydrates distributed worldwide in green plants, where it is accumulated as a reserve material in the form of microscopic granules. Starch has played an important nutritional role in man's diet since the beginnings of agriculture and, more recently, has become a major industrial raw material used widely in food, paper, board, textile, and pharmaceutical applications. It has been estimated that by the year 2000 more than 900 million metric tonnes of starch will be produced worldwide from cereals alone (Zobel, 1992). With a raw material price that is in the region of tens of U.S. cents per kg, it is not surprising that ingredient manufacturerers have sought to upgrade the properties of starch in order to add to its value and to extend its applications. Fat replacers in which maltodextrins form the bulk of the material but which contain smaller amounts of other carbohydrates have also been introduced to the market recently. For example, Oatrim was...

Foundations for practical nutritional information

Sugars and available carbohydrate not dependable indicators of blood glucose response, which depends on digestion rate of available carbohydrates and on their monosaccharide composition. Glycaemic index (GI) A percentage based on glycaemic response to food carbohydrate compared with response to glucose. Use restricted to equicarbohydrate comparisons and does not respond to food intake. Not useful for accurate blood glucose control.

B7 Nutritional And Toxicological Aspects

Low-DE maltodextrins, including Avebe's Paselli SA2, are fully digestible and provide, like all digestible carbohydrates, 4 kcal g. The pre-prepared gels, consisting of one part maltodextrin and three parts water, have only 1 kcal g which is only 1 9 of the caloric value of fats and oils. Since low-DE maltodextrins are made from slightly degraded starch and do not constitute novel chemical entitites, no specific toxicological studies have been necessary. Nutritional studies showing the effect of using maltodextrins as fat replacers on fat and calorie intake are scarce. However, a recent study using rats has shown that the use of Paselli SA2 as a fat replacer in reduced-fat foods was effective in achieving an overall reduction in fat intake in the diet (Harris, 1994). Further discussion of the results of the Harris study can be found in Chapter 2. The use of complex carbohydrates, such as potato maltodextrins, to replace fats and oils in the diet has been strongly recommended by many...

Clostridium Botulinum in Food

Uneviscerated salted mullet fish was a source of the outbreak (type E) in Egypt (Weber et al., 1993). The level of carbohydrates in such products is usually too low for lactic acid fermentation. If the pH of the product is not low enough, it will not protect against the outgrowth of C. botulinum.

Sanitizing agents and protein stability

To avoid the presence of trace amounts of sanitizing agents in the pharmaceutical industry as well as to avoid the presence of potential residues of cellular components in the biotechnology industry, the validation of cleaning between product lots becomes very important. In the manufacture of bio-pharmaceuticals by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technology, potential residues can include proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, endo-toxins, detergents, and the drug itself.

Meat Palaeolithic diets and health

From meat, which was either hunted or fished (Cordain et al, 2000). It is only with the relatively recent rise in agriculture that humans have begun to consume high levels of carbohydrates. This is now recognised as a major contributor to 'Western lifestyle' diseases. We have changed from a diet high in meat to a diet where grains and refined foods dominate. The hunter-gatherer diet was high in protein (19-35 E) and low in carbohydrate (22-40 E) whereas today, the opposite prevails - lower in protein (15 E) and much higher in carbohydrates (55 E) (Cordain et al, 2000). The fatty acid profiles of such diets may have differed with higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in wild animals, compared to domesticated farm animals.

Your Cholesterol Lowering Diet

Many people have been on a host of different diets in their lives. Maybe you've tried Weight Watchers, the Zone, or, more recently, the Atkins diet. While any of those plans can help you lose weight, they're not the philosophy I ask my patients to adopt. I tell them to think of a diet not as something that's going to restrict specific foods but as a new attitude toward eating. Instead of thinking of eating as something you do to satisfy cravings that are going to come back the more you satiate them, I tell patients to think of food as the very thing that keeps their body going. Put healthy foods in, you'll get a healthy life out.

Improvement of endothelial function

Endothelial dysfunction leads to defects in insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Blockade of vascular nitric oxide synthesis with L-arginine analogue also impairs endothelial dependent va-sodilation. Endothelial function improves with exercise, a low-fat, low-carbohydrate diet, and with use of statins and ACE inhibitors (Table 5) 29,59,67 . Angiotensin I blockade has not shown any improvement of endothelial dysfunction, but benefit has been noted with peroxisome pro-liferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-y) stimulator, antioxidants, hormone replacement therapy, and L-arginine 66,68,69 . In addition, the ACE inhibitor quinapril significantly improved endothelial function in multiple studies, both in normotensive volunteers and in subjects with coronary artery disease 70-77 .

Clinical studies nonrandomized

Both participation in physical activity (primarily walking for 30 minutes per day) during the programme (OR 0.41, (CI 0.19-0.87) and less psychological stress were seen in people who did not develop diabetes. No effect was seen for dietary adherence to a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat (20 ) diet or, in this subset, for weight loss or family history (comparing two parents with diabetes to one parent with diabetes, since everyone had a family history). The nested retrospective design has important limitations, since diet and physical activity adherence and measures of stress were collected only at the last examination rather than prospectively, making them subject to potential recall bias. It is also not clear whether the subjects were aware of their OGTT results at the time of the interview.

The ribotype metaphor

The RNAs and the ribonucleoproteins of a living system have been collectively defined as the ribotype of the system (Barbieri, 1981). In the paper which introduced that concept, however, it was explicitly stated that the new term has also a deeper meaning, because it represents a new cell category. If the word ribotype were used only to indicate a class of molecules, we could call glycotype the carbohydrates, or lipotype the fatty acids, but we would not have new categories. Sugars, fats and proteins, in fact, all take part in cell metabolism and belong to the same category, i.e. to the phenotype. The ribotype, on the contrary, has a biological role that is qualitatively different from those of the two traditional categories. As phenotype is the seat of metabolism and genotype the seat of heredity, so ribotype is the seat of genetic coding. The distinction between phenotype, genotype and ribotype reflects the distinction between energy, information and meaning, the most fundamental of...

Mechanical processing

Between 5- and 10-fold when comparing the thiamin contents of milled, polished rice with those of paddy rice. Historically, this only presented a problem in societies with a restricted food supply, leading to the vitamin deficiency disease beriberi (summarised by Bender and Bender, 1997). Despite improvements in the quality of the food supply, both in terms of quantity and diversity, sociological changes can contribute to reoccurrence of the disease, where it was once thought to have been eliminated. Kawai et al (1980) reported the reappearance of shoshin (acute) beriberi in Japanese adolescents consuming a diet made up predominantly of high carbohydrate, low nutrient density foods such as carbonated soft drinks, polished rice and 'instant' noodles.

Extracellular barriers

Knowledge of the distribution of brush border membrane peptidases along the intestine helps to predict the preferential uptake of peptides and proteins from various intestinal regions.2728 Because this distribution may vary for different enzymes, site-specific oral delivery may be dependent on the amino acid sequence of the peptide. This is because of the substrate specificity of the brush border membrane peptidases. Also, the activities of brush border membrane peptidases may be controlled by the surface pH of mucosal cells rather than the luminal pH.27 Finally, it should be realized that several enzymes that act on carbohydrates may also affect the drug if it is a glycoprotein.

Harnessing Invisible Power

Louis Pasteur described the fermentation process more than one hundred years ago as the addition of a living organism such as a bacteria or yeast to another substance. Under anaerobic conditions (where no oxygen is present), the bacteria break down the carbohydrates and produce alcohol and carbon dioxide. For centuries this process has resulted in wine, beer, bread, and other good things to eat.

Animal Bioassays Agents That Induce Pancreatic Cancer In Laboratory Animals

46.6 in high fat diet 37 group, 31.6 in low fat diet group BOP, BHP, BAP, and HPOP are more specific carcinogens in the hamster inducing tumors with a ductal phenotype that are similar to those seen in men. However, all of the compounds listed above are synthetic chemicals. We have demonstrated that (NNK) and (NNAL) induce acinar and ductal-cell tumors in F344 rats.33 Unlike BOP and azaserine, the most frequently used compounds to study pancreatic carcinogenesis, NNK and NNAL are environmental carcinogens to which humans are exposed. A-nitrosoguvacoline (NG) and a product of fried foods, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo 4,5-f quinoline (IQ), are also environmental pancreatic carcinogens. NG is formed from Arecoline by nitrosation and has been detected in the saliva of betel quid chewers.3435 When given in drinking water, at a dose level of 20 ppm, NG induced 4 acinar cells adenomas in F344 rats.33 IQ, given by gavage, induced atypical hyperplastic acinar cells in 19 of 32 Sprague-Dawley rats,...

Tobaccoderived Carcinogens 2231 Tobacco Components

Administered in drinking water, NNK also induces tumors of the exocrine pancreas in rats.33 In rats fed a high fat diet, NNK elicits pancreatic tumors earlier and at a higher rate than in animals kept on low fat diet (see below for details).37 The reductive metabolite of NNK, NNAL, is also a potent pulmonary carcinogen in the rat and mouse33,47 and a pancreatic carcinogen in the rat.33 Additionally, NNK is capable of transforming spontaneously immortal pancreatic cells into malignant phenotype53 and, when administered with ethanol, it induces pancreatic tumors in the offspring of NNK-treated hamsters.54

Modifiers Of Nnitrosamine Carcinogenesis

Compounds that inhibited NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis include (p-XSC), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tea and its active polyphenols, aromatic isothiocyanates and their N-acetylcysteine conjugates, myo-inositol, dexamethasone, indole-3-carbinol, aryl alkyls, 4-ipomeanol and its analogs, farnesyltransferase inhibitors, and d-limonene.66-68,101-108 However, as reported by Witschi, most of these agents have no effect when tested against whole tobacco smoke only myo-inositol and dexamethasone given in combination reduced lung tumor multiplicities and incidence.109 None of these chemopreventive agents have been tested in NNK-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis. A literature search has revealed that there was not a single study addressing this issue, although, a few investigations assessed the promotional effects of NNK, NNAL, and tobacco smoke in BOP-induced pancreatic cancer.110-112 Interestingly, our single study37 has demonstrated that a dramatic,...

Nutrient deficiency 345

Nutrient Any substance that supplies the body with elements necessary for metabolism. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and alcohol are nutrients that provide energy. Water, electrolytes, minerals, and vitamins are nutrients that are essential to the metabolic process. Nutrients containing carbon are organic food nutrients.

Two Separate Organisms Into

Three billion years ago there were two totally different organisms, Wallace asserts. One organism ultimately gave rise to the structures that we call the nucleus. . . . The other was a bacterium that had developed the ability to make energy very efficiently by oxidizing carbohydrates and fats that it got out of the environment with the oxygen that was made by the plants to generate energy. The mitochondrion got all the carbohydrates and fats it wanted from the cytosol, so it didn't have to swim around and find it, explains Wallace, So, that one-cell organism could survive in that niche. Then it would grow and replicate and pass its genes on to the next generation more successfully then it would have done on its own.

From Anthesis to Senescence Setting the Stage

Physiological changes that have been observed between anthesis and senescence include changes in the ultrastructure of flower tissues, fresh weight, dry weight and nutrient content. Ultrastructural observations of carnation petals indicate that vacuolar and cytoplasmic vesiculation starts in pre-climacteric petals (Paliyath and Thompson, 1990 Smith et al., 1992). However, most studies on ultrastructural changes have concluded that these changes are limited compared to changes observed in senescing tissues (Rubinstein, 2000). After the rapid development of the petals and corolla up to anthesis, associated with an enormous influx of water, carbohydrates and other solutes, the petals often continue an albeit smaller increase in fresh weight and dry weight of varying duration (Borochov and Woodson, 1989 Bieleski, 1993 Rubinstein, 2000 Verlinden, 2003). The growth phase is followed by a maintenance phase for longer-lived species or the immediate entry into a senescence phase for ephemeral...

Aetiology and pathogenesis

Environmental factors including diet influence the incidence of CRC. Western diets that are high in fat and red meat and low in fibre predispose to CRC, while vegetables, vitamins, trace elements, such as selenium, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as sulindac, seem to be protective. Smoking tobacco also increases the risk of CRC. High-fat diets induce the production of carcinogens, while reduced dietary fibre causes constipation so that the carcinogens remain in contact with the epithelium for longer.

Vocabulary Builder

Carbohydrate An aldehyde or ketone derivative of a polyhydric alcohol, particularly of the pentahydric and hexahydric alcohols. They are so named because the hydrogen and oxygen are usually in the proportion to form water, (CH2O)n. The most important carbohydrates are the starches, sugars, celluloses, and gums. They are classified into mono-, di-, tri-, poly- and heterosaccharides. eu

The effects of irradiation on food

The interaction of ionising radiation with matter takes place by means of a cascade of secondary electrons carrying enough kinetic energy to cause ionisation of atoms and molecules and the formation of free radicals. Besides these direct effects and primary chemical reactions chain reactions of secondary and indirect transitions take place. In systems as complex as food and for biological systems usually high in water content most primary reactive species are formed by the radiolysis of water and the pathways of further reactions largely depend on composition, temperature, dose rate and relative reactivities. Only for a few very simple single-component models have the full pathways of reactions been identified for highly complex systems a complete picture has not yet been achieved. Nevertheless, some aspects of the picture are beginning to emerge, especially with regard to the main components, i.e. carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The effects of radiation on micronutrients, in...

Formation And Roles Of Strong Oxidants In Biological Systems

A vast amount of literature on the chemistry and biology of oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) is available (for reviews, see Refs 6-9 ). Controlled oxidation of carbohydrates and lipids with O2 to CO2 and H2O provides the energy necessary to support life 8 . Yet, reactions of dioxygen in its ground (triplet, 3O2) state with most biomolecules (having singlet ground states) are negligibly slow (spin-forbidden) under ambient conditions in the absence of catalysts 6 . The main pathways of O2 activation in biological systems 7 are shown in a simplified form in Scheme 1.

What Are Essential Foods

Food is generally viewed by official sources as consisting of six basic elements (1) fluids, (2) carbohydrates, (3) protein, (4) fats, (5) vitamins, and (6) minerals. Consuming a combination of these elements is considered to be a healthy diet Carbohydrates are the main source for human energy (thermoregulation) and the bulk of typical diets. They are mostly classified as being either simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates include sugars which are often consumed in the form of cookies, candies, or cakes. Complex carbohydrates consist of starches and dietary fibers. Starches are consumed in the form of pastas, breads, potatoes, rice, and other foods. Soluble fibers can be eaten in the form of certain vegetables, fruits, oats, and legumes. Insoluble fibers include brown rice, whole grains, certain fruits, wheat bran and legumes.

Requirements for Prokaryotic Growth

The range of organic carbon compounds uti-lizable by heterotrophs is vast virtually any compound synthesized by biological processes, as well as many xenobiotica (compounds synthesized in the laboratory which do not originate in nature), can be degraded by microbes. Different species of heterotrophic prokaryotes utilize considerably different numbers and kinds of carbon substrates. Some, such as the pseudomonads, are versatile and are known to utilize over 100 different carbon compounds as the sole source of carbon and energy. Their substrates include carbohydrates, sugar acids, polyols, fatty acids, primary alcohols, amino acids, and aromatic substances. In contrast to these versatile bacteria, several groups exist that are limited in their ability to decompose organic compounds. In this cat-

Regulation of Senescence

Daylily was shown to switch from a sink to a source in less than 12 h. Most soluble carbohydrates and amino acids and additional materials from proteins, nucleic acids and cell walls were transported out of the senescing tissue. Most of these materials wound up in newly developing buds. The rapidly senescing parenchyma in the petals was shown to be distinct from the vascular tissue, especially the phloem that largely escapes the senescence process (Bieleski and Reid, 1992 Bieleski, 1993). In addition, increases in hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, hydrolases, proteinases and RNase activity (Panavas and Rubinstein, 1998 Panavas et a ., 1998a,b Rubinstein, 2000), and decreases of the enzymatic components of the ubiquitin-proteo-some pathway, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase (Panavas and Rubinstein, 1998 Stephenson and Rubinstein, 1998) have been observed.

Chloromycetin See chloramphenicol

CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cell A cell used as a factory in genetic engineering to make certain subunit vaccines. CHO cells are derived from mammals and are advantageous because they add carbohydrates (a sugar coat) to the protein, much as naturally infected human cells do.

Trifluorothymidine See trifluridine

Triacylglycerols, are also called neutral fats. A large portion of the fatty substance in the blood is composed of triglycerides. Because these lipids are not soluble in water, they are transported in combination with proteins. About one or two grams of triglycerides per kilogram of body weight are ingested daily in the usual diet in the United States. In addition, they are produced in the liver from carbohydrates.

Meat and micronutrients 9111 Iron in meat

Meat also contains phosphorus a typical serving provides roughly 20-25 of an adult's requirement. Phosphorus has important biochemical functions in carbohydrates, fat and protein metabolism. Meat also provides useful amounts of copper, magnesium, potassium, iodine and chloride. Thiamin and riboflavin are found in useful amounts in meats. Pork and its products including bacon and ham are one of the richest sources of thiamin. Pork contains approximately 5-10 times as much thiamin as do either beef or lamb. Thiamin aids the supply of energy to the body by working as part of a coenzyme that converts fat and carbohydrates into fuel. It also helps to promote a normal appetite and contributes to normal nervous system function. Typical servings of pork provide all the daily requirement of thiamin. Offal meats are good sources of riboflavin, for example, a single portion (100 g) of kidney or liver provides more than the daily requirement. Riboflavin, like thiamin, aids in supplying energy and...

Viral load test See viral load

Vitamin Any of a group of organic substances other than proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, and organic salts that are essential for normal metabolism, growth, and development of the body. Vitamins are not sources of energy nor do they contribute significantly to the substance of the body, but they are indispensable for the maintenance of health. Effective in minute quantities, they act principally as regulators of metabolic processes and play a role in energy transformation, usually acting as coenzymes in enzymatic systems. Vitamins may be fat-soluble or water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins are processed by the liver. They are generally stored for long periods in the body for use when needed. Water-soluble vitamins are processed in the kidney. They are not stored to a great extent in the body, so frequent consumption is necessary. When present in excess of the body's needs, they are excreted in the urine. See minerals. vitamin B complex A group of water-soluble vitamins isolated...

Faecal bulking index and wheat bran equivalents

Normal large bowel function and health are general end-points which, it is almost universally agreed, depend on a supply of bulk to the distal colon.69,71 More specific effects of bulk in the colon were summarised in Table 7.6. Colonic bulk has been related to a number of health end-points in a number of ways. It is a direct stimulus to defecation, dilutes various toxins and distributes intracolonic pressure, reducing the risk of diverticulosis.69,72 The defecation that it induces allows movement of fermenting material into the distal colon, where it produces butyrate, thought to protect against colorectal cancer.73 Replenishment of carbohydrates in the distal colon may also reduce formation of carcinogenic nitrogenous compounds, formed when proteins are used as a carbon source in fermentation after exhaustion of carbohydrate substrates.74

Energy consumption for development

The development time of honeybee larvae from egg to beginning of pupal metamorphosis lasts 9 days. Food uptake ends at larval day 7, external food supply from nurse bees ends with the sealing ('capping') of the brood cell at day 5. In this short time, the larva increases its body mass from 0.32 mg (first larval instar) to 173 mg (seventh larval instar). The rapid growth rate of honeybees should require an intense metabolism with relatively high heat production rates. Nevertheless, the heat production rates of honeybee brood are lower compared to Galleria. Nurse bees produce a nourishing fluid ('food sap') for feeding the larvae, which is rich in carbohydrates and proteins and more balanced than wax moth food. Diet-induced thermogenesis is highly unfikely to occur in honeybees. Further- In principle, the main role of insect larvae is accumulation of body mass and energy for pupal metamorphosis. It is trivial to say that together with the growth of a larva its energy content (Q)...

Significance Of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

Thus, humans produce about 75 million mt year of nitrogenous fertilizer, whereas the annual contribution of reduced nitrogen from the biological process called nitrogen fixation is roughly estimated to be about two to three times that amount. As shown in Table 60.1, nitrogen fixation occurs in every natural environment, including the sea. The energy cost for nitrogen fixation is significant. Perhaps 10 of the available fossil fuel energy is used for the production of fertilizer nitrogen, whereas Hardy (1980) estimated that between 1 and 2 billion tons of plant carbohydrates derived from photosynthesis fuel the biological process of nitrogen fixation.

The Role Of Enzymes In Pancreatic Diseases

Chronic pancreatitis appears to be the result of exposure to xenobiotics too. Finding an increased expression of the Phase II enzyme GST-n in the islets of human patients with chronic pancreatitis compared with normal pancreas and secondary chronic pancreatitis due to duct obstruction in pancreatic cancer supported this hypothesis (see Chapter 7). 38 Lacking an animal model of chronic pancreatitis, Rutishauser et al.39 fed SGHs with a low or high fat diet that was supplemented with a prototype inducer of CYP 2 (Phenobarbitone) or CYP 1 (p-naphthoflavone) enzyme families, with or without a putative enzyme inhibitor (cimetidine). They concluded that drug modifiers of CYP magnified the deleterious effects of corn oil-enriched diets, comparable to those found in humans. Furthermore, these functional derangements were accompanied by pancreatic lipoatrophy.39 Other groups fed rats with either ethanol or 3-methylcholan-threne (MC) and investigated their influence on the activity of CYP 2E1...

Body Weight And Food Intake

Only a few studies focusing on food intake, body weight, body composition, or metabolism were performed before we entered the hypocretin era, and the interpretation was often unclear because of methodological shortcomings. In 1976, Bell (18) used a food questionnaire to conclude that narcoleptic patients eat more than normal and even crave food. However, the diagnostic criteria for narcolepsy were not clearly defined, controls were not matched for age or sex, and the use of medication was allowed but not specified. In 1990, Pollak and Green (19) studied the relationship between feeding and subjective alertness in drug-free narcoleptics and controls living without temporal clues. They incidentally touched on their finding that the narcoleptics ate less than the controls, even though they had a higher BMI. In 1996, we took a cross-check dietary history of 12 drug-free, nondepressed narcoleptic patients with clear-cut cataplexy and 12 matched controls (20). In spite of the fact that they...

Starvation malnutrition and anorexia

Specific micronutrient deficiencies also occur in malnutrition and, paradoxically, global malnutrition may mask specific vitamin deficiencies. For example, malnourished alcohol-dependent people, who neglect nutrition in favour of alcohol, may be thiamine (vitamin B1) deficient. The deficiency may not be clinically apparent while they consume a diet lacking carbohydrates. However, if they are admitted to hospital and given intravenous glucose or a good meal, acute thiamine deficiency occurs, because thiamine is an essential cofactor for the pyru-vate dehydrogenase enzyme, which metabolizes glucose in cells. Acute thiamine deficiency is a medical emergency and can cause permanent neurological damage (Wernicke's encephalopathy) if thiamine is not administered immediately.

Relative glycaemic potency and glycaemicglucose equivalents

As blood glucose response is causal in glycation, insulin response, osmotic effects and other aspects of diabetic pathology, it is a highly relevant marker of the influence of foods and carbohydrates on progression towards disease end-points Glycaemic carbohydrate components most commonly seen on food labels are 'carbohydrate', 'available carbohydrate', 'complex carbohydrate' (starch), and 'sugars'. One of the main reasons for distinguishing between sugars and complex carbohydrates is the once-held belief that sugars have a more acute impact on blood glucose levels than starch. However, some starches are so rapidly digested that they induce a blood glucose response similar to that of pure glucose. For instance, starch in rice bubbles has a glycaemic index (GI) of 97 (gives 97 of the response to an equicarbohydrate dose of glucose) and baked potato a GI of 85, whereas starch in noodles has a GI of 46.54 The relative amounts of sugar versus complex carbohydrate in a food is not,...

Recent Weight Loss and Polyuria in a 52Year Old

The markedly increased random serum glucose concentration suggested diabetes mel-litus, and after considering the history and presentation, the physician thought that it was most likely type 2 diabetes. The increased HbA1c concentration indicated that the hyperglycemia had been present for some time.1 Measurement of plasma glucose on a subsequent day gave a value of 300mg dL (16.7 mmol L), establishing the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.2 The patient was counseled regarding changes in diet and exercise, and was started on 850 mg oral metformin twice daily (bid). On a follow-up visit one week later his casual (nonfasting) capillary blood glucose concentration obtained by finger stick was 230mg dL (12.8 mmol L). The physician prescribed self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) twice a day. Within a few months the patient gained 6 lb and his HbA1c had dropped to 6.1 . He returned to the clinic after 6 months for a follow-up visit to monitor his glycemic control. He admitted to having...

Preformulation studies

This is because the purified protein does not have the natural environment that normally contributes to its stability. This environment may sometimes include other proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, or salts that help to stabilize the structure.10

Lifestyle management for atherogenic dyslipidemia

The NCEP ATP III altered the dietary recommendations that had been issued in earlier sets of guidelines. The new Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet has less emphasis on substitution of carbohydrate for dietary fat. This was done in recognition of the fact that a high-carbohydrate diet will raise the TG concentration, exacerbating atherogenic dyslipidemia. The updated dietary recommendations allow up to 35 of energy from fat, provided that the diet remains low in saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol (7). Increased intakes of whole grains, nuts, fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and low-fat dairy products should be encouraged (20).

Stacey Ma Wendy Lau Rodney G Keck John B Briggs Andrew J S Jones Kathy Moorhouse and Wassim Nashabeh

Carbohydrates are known to play a key role in the therapeutic use of recombinant proteins (1). The fundamental understanding of the biological roles of the carbohydrate moieties demands high-performance analytical tools to accomplish both the structural characterization and routine analysis of carbohydrates. Among the various analytical techniques developed currently, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry are indispensable tools for the structural elucidation of carbohydrates (2-4). Alternatively, the routine profiling and quantitative analysis of carbohydrates are accomplished mostly by chromatographic and planar electrophoretic techniques. Among them, the most widely used techniques are high-pH anion-exchange chroma-tography with pulsed amperometric detection (5,6), liquid chromatography with pre-or post-column derivatization schemes (7-9), and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (10,11). More recently, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as a...

Magnetic resonance imaging MRI Also called

Malnutrition For proper function, the brain must have the correct amount of food, including glucose, vitamins, minerals, and other essential chemicals. For example, the fuel the brain uses is glucose, which is produced from eating carbohydrates or other foods that can be converted to glucose. To grow new connections or add myelin, a fatty sheath to axons, the brain must manufacture the right proteins and fats. It does this by digesting proteins and fats in food and using the resulting amino acids and fatty acids to make the new brain proteins and fats. Without the correct amount and balance of particular building blocks, the brain will not work properly. Too little or too much of the necessary nutrient can affect the nervous system.

Stage 1hydrolysis Stage

In the anaerobic digester complex insoluble compounds such as particulate and colloidal wastes undergo hydrolysis. Particulate and colloidal wastes consist of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. These wastes are polymeric substances, that is, large insoluble molecules consisting of many small molecules joined together by unique chemical bonds. The small molecules are soluble and quickly go into solu- Complex carbohydrates----- Simple sugars

Response To Free Molecular Oxygen

During the degradation of wastes within an anaerobic digester, facultative anaerobic bacteria, for example, Enterobacter spp., produce a variety of acids and alcohols, carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen from carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Some organisms, for example, Escherichia coli, produce malodorous compounds such as indole and skatole. Numerous acid-forming bacteria are associated with methane-forming bacteria. These organisms include facultative anaerobes that ferment simple, soluble organic compounds and strict anaerobes that ferment complex proteins and carbohydrates.

Alleviating Dietary Deficiencies The Golden Rice Story

In addition to proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, a proper diet for the human body includes at least 17 inorganic minerals and 13 organic vitamins. Inadequate supplies of these essential substances can result in nutritional-deficiency diseases. For example, scurvy (the hallmarks of which include bleeding gums, fatigue, and eventual prostration) appears in people deprived of vitamin C for even a few weeks pellagra, a syndrome of skin lesions and sometimes mania, follows from a paucity of dietary niacin (vitamin B3) rickets, a disease of growing bones, ensues from inadequate supplies of vitamin D and anemia is among the early symptoms of iron starvation.

Oral Microbial Ecology

Dental plaque can be divided into five major types based on the location of the habitats involved supragingival, fissure, carious lesions, gingival margin, and subgingival. Supragingival plaque is a general term including those bacteria in the many small ecosystems that reside on the tooth surface above the gingival margin. For example, unique microbial communities can be observed on smooth tooth surfaces, in the interproximal areas between the teeth and in small pits that can range over the tooth surface. Bacteria in supragingival plaque receive their nutrients both from dietary constituents and from saliva, and a significant fraction of the bacteria in these communities utilize carbohydrates as their principal energy source. Large fissures, particularly those on the biting (occlusal) surfaces of the teeth, constitute a second major and unique type of microbial ecosystem, while open (overt) carious lesions are a third type that also support unique bacterial communities. Saliva...

Selectin And Microparticle Biology

The selectin family has a unique extracellular structure consisting of an amino terminal calcium dependent lectin domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and two to nine consensus repeat sequences (CRS) that are homologous to complement binding domains. They also possess a lipophilic transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic tail. The variable structural length of consensus repeat sequences determines which complementary ligand carbohydrates the conserved lectin and epidermal growth factor domains it will interact with.22 L-selectin has two consensus repeat sequences, E-selectin six consensus repeat sequences and P-selectin nine consensus repeat sequences.

Appendix A Researching Nutrition

Food is generally viewed by official sources as consisting of six basic elements (1) fluids, (2) carbohydrates, (3) protein, (4) fats, (5) vitamins, and (6) minerals. Consuming a combination of these elements is considered to be a healthy diet Carbohydrates are the main source for human energy (thermoregulation) and the bulk of typical diets. They are mostly classified as being either simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates include sugars which are often consumed in the form of cookies, candies, or cakes. Complex carbohydrates consist of starches and dietary fibers. Starches are consumed in the form of pastas, breads, potatoes, rice, and other foods. Soluble fibers can be eaten in the form of certain vegetables, fruits, oats, and legumes. Insoluble fibers include brown rice, whole grains, certain fruits, wheat bran and legumes. Carbohydrate An aldehyde or ketone derivative of a polyhydric alcohol, particularly of the pentahydric and hexahydric alcohols. They are so named because the...

Teleost Gonadotropins

Visualizing Heat Map For Alpha

The GtH hormone family includes an additional member, chorionic gonadotropin (CG) produced exclusively by placental trophoblasts of primates and horses, and is essential for normal pregnancy. All GtHs are heterodimers, sharing a common a-subunit and differing in their P-subunits. Both subunits exhibit high content of cysteine residues (C), 10 in the a- and 12 in the P-sub-units, forming multiple intramolecular disulfide bonds known to determine the tertiary structure of the molecule. Crystalographic studies of human CG (Lapthorn et al., 1994 Wu et al., 1994) and human FSH (Fox et al., 2001) revealed that the basic scaffold of the a and P-subunits consists of a cystine knot motif. The latter is formed by three disulfide bonds, which delineate an elongated structure of three P-hairpin loops. However, the P-subunit is distinguished by a seat-belt configuration formed by an additional disulfide bond. This motif enfolds one of the a loops, thus stabilizing the heterodimer (Figure 1). In...

Carbohydrate Fatty Acid Polyesters

The nomenclature chosen, carbohydrate polyesters, is not chemically accurate. The carbohydrate or polyol moiety is not a chain of sugars, nor are the fatty acids or esterified fatty acids chains that resemble fibers, plastics, or cloth recognized as polyesters. Carbohydrate fatty acid polyesters are a synthesized chemical compound with one to four, eight, eleven or more fatty acids esterified to the hydroxyl groups of polyol carbohydrates such as methyl glucose, sucrose, raffinose, or maltodextrins.

Nutritional Functions Of

(A, D, E and K) and they are an important source of energy. From a nutritional point of view, only the first two may be considered as essential because other nutrients (namely carbohydrates and proteins) can act as sources of energy. Normally, even diets very low in fat can satisfy those requirements. The overriding issue today is that changes in people's lifestyles over the years have meant that the requirements for energy from food have decreased significantly. At the same time, the proportion of energy derived from fat (the consumption of which, as noted already, apart from being the most concentrated source of energy, has other adverse effects on health) has remained high. Figure 1.1 illustrates the relative contribution of fat from different foods in an intake of 88 g day which is the average for the U.K., and represents 38 of total energy or approximately 40 of energy from food, i.e., excluding alcohol (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 1994a).

Diversity And Phylogeny

Microbiological Kingdom Tree

Archaea have morphological features that resemble the Bacteria they are unicellular microorganisms that lack a nuclear membrane and intracellular compartmentalization. In contrast, several molecular features of the Archaea have similarity to the Eukarya these feature include histone-like DNA proteins, a large multicomponent RNA polymerase, and eukaryal-like transcription initiation. Despite the similarities to the other domains, Archaea also have unique characteristics that distinguish them from the Bacteria and Eukarya. These distinguishing features include membranes composed of isoprenoids ether-linked to glycerol or carbohydrates, cell walls that lack peptidoglycan, synthesis of unique enzymes, and enzyme cofactor molecules. An additional unifying characteristic among the Archaea is their requirement for extreme growth conditions, such as high temperatures, extreme salinity, and, in the case of the methanogens, highly reduced, O2-free anoxic...

Chirality Background

The phenomenon of chirality is omnipresent in nature, and its presence in humans, animals, and plants determines their chemical structure and also the majority of their living functions. One of the greatest, and so far unexplained, mysteries of biophysics is the predominance of homochirality among living organisms. According to the definition adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), only a sample that contains all molecules of the same chirality type can be considered as homochiral (of course, within the limits of the available detection sensitivity). The most striking manifestation of homochirality in nature is that human and animal organisms are built exclusively of the l-amino acids (i.e., the left-handed form) and of the d-carbohydrates (i.e., the right-handed form).


Biochemical phenomena that occur in living organisms are extremely sophisticated. In the human body, complex metabolic processes break down a variety of food materials to simpler chemicals, yielding energy and the raw materials to build body constituents, such as muscle, blood, and brain tissue. Impressive as this may be, consider a humble microscopic cell of photosynthetic cyanobacteria only about a micrometer in size, which requires only a few simple inorganic chemicals and sunlight for its existence. This cell uses sunlight energy to convert carbon from CO2, hydrogen and oxygen from H2O, nitrogen from NO-, sulfur from SO2-, and phosphorus from inorganic phosphate into all the proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and other materials that it requires to exist and reproduce. Such a simple cell accomplishes what could not be done by human endeavors even in a vast chemical factory costing billions of dollars. The biomolecules that constitute matter in living organisms are often...


The enzymes mentioned above are hydrolyzing enzymes, which bring about the breakdown of high-molecular-weight biological compounds by the addition of water. This is one of the most important reactions involved in digestion. The three main classes of energy-yielding foods that animals eat are carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Recall that the higher carbohydrates that humans eat are largely disaccharides (sucrose, or table sugar) and polysaccharides (starch). These are formed by the joining together of units of simple sugars, C6H12O6, with the elimination of an H2O molecule at the linkage where they join. Proteins are formed by the condensation of amino acids, again with the elimination of a water molecule at each linkage. Fats are esters that are produced when glycerol and fatty acids link together. A water molecule is lost for each of these linkages when a protein, fat, or carbohydrate is synthesized. In order for these substances to be used as a food source, the reverse process must...


If a protein migrates in a pH gradient under an electric field, it will move toward the electrode of opposite sign until it reaches a region in which the pH equals its pi. At this point, the net charge on the protein will become zero, and thus migration will stop. This technique of IEF can be used to find the pi of a protein, to characterize its purity, or to accomplish protein separations.49-52 It can also be used to test the stability of a protein because protein deamidation leads to the production of a new carboxylic acid group, resulting in a shift of pi toward the acidic side. Similarly, it can be used to separate different glycoforms of proteins that differ in the degree of sialylation of the complex carbohydrates. IEF technique can separate proteins that differ in pi by as little as 0.02 pH units.


Carbohydrate An organic molecule made up solely of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates may be made up of only one or two components (mono- or disaccharides, also called sugars ) or complex chains of repeating units (polysaccharides or starches, also the cellulose in plant cell walls).

Structure Databases

Processing and distribution of experimentally determined 3-D biological macromolecular structure data, including the structures of proteins, peptides, viruses, protein-nucleic acid complexes, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. The PDB was established over 20 years ago at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, where it was also maintained until 1998. Since 1998, the PDB has been maintained by the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB). The Macromolecular Structure Database (MSD) is the European project for the collection, management and distribution of data about macromolecular structures. One of its objectives is the development of procedures to aid the deposition of structures in the PDB, but it also develops tools to aid the retrieval and analysis of PDB data. These include tools for secondary structure matching, finding small molecules that bind particular structures, and finding multimeric structures.

Protein solubility

However, protein solubility cannot be clearly predicted from a consideration of the structure of the protein. Proteins that exist more in disordered or helical conformations are generally more soluble than those that form p-sheets. It is often believed that covalent attachment of carbohydrates increases the solubility of proteins. Although this is true for several glyco-proteins, exceptions exist, and no generalization can be made. Once the formulation is designed, solubility must be maintained during the shelf life of the product. This can be a challenge because physical denaturation, such as by aggregation, can lead to a loss of solubility. Measurement of protein solubility will often need some innovative approach. Traditional techniques of preparing a saturated solution containing excess solid may not be viable because of the cost of the protein. Also, addition of excess protein may form a gel rather than create a solid phase. Precipitation of proteins by polyethylene glycol (PEG)...


Liposomes are not stable for long-term use and are thus often lyophilized into a dry preparation. During lyophilization, liposomes can undergo a change in size and can leach their contents because of freezing injury. Cry-oprotectants such as saccharides can help prevent leakage. Proteins such as albumin or gelatin have also been reported to act as cryoprotectants when added to the inside of the liposomal membrane. In a multilamellar vesicle (MLV), there are several lipid bilayers on the inside of the aqueous layer. These can interact with the hydrophobic region of a protein, which can thus cause lipid-protein-lipid bridging among the membranes of the MLV lipo-some.150 Similarly, carbohydrates have been used as free and membrane-bound cryoprotectants during lyophilization of liposomes. These cry-oprotectants can prevent fusion at low concentrations and aggregation at higher concentrations. Also, membrane stabilization results that prevents leakage.151 The patent literature also...


Unlike carbohydrates and proteins, which are water soluble and therefore easily accessible to digestive enzymes and membrane transporters, lipids require partition into a hydrophobic or amphipathic environment. Churning and mixing and the alkaline pH of intestinal fluid promotes the formation of an emulsion.

Essential Elements

Some elements are essential to the composition or function of the body. Since the body is mostly water, hydrogen and oxygen are obviously essential elements. Carbon (C) is a component of all life molecules, including proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Nitrogen (N) is in all proteins. The other essential nonmetals are phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl), selenium (Se), fluorine (F), and iodine (I). The latter two are among the essential trace elements that are required in only small quantities, particularly as constituents of enzymes or as cofactors (nonprotein species essential for enzyme function). The metals present in macro amounts in the body are sodium (Na), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca). Essential trace elements are chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), and perhaps more elements that have not yet been established as essential.

Cell Physiology

Escherichia coli is a facultative anaerobe. It is capable of reducing nitrates to nitrites. When growing fermentatively on glucose or other carbohydrates, it produces acid and gas. By traditional clinical laboratory biochemical tests, E. coli is positive for indole production and the methyl red test. Most strains are oxidase, citrate, urease and hydrogen sulfide negative. The classic differential test to primarily separate E. coli from Shigella and Salmonella is the ability of E. coli to ferment lactose, which the latter two genera fail to do. Aside from lactose, most E. coli strains can also ferment D-mannitol, D-sorbitol, and L-arabinose, maltose, D-xylose, trehalose and D-mannose. There are limited instances where pathogenic strains differ from the commensals in their metabolic abilities. For example, commensal E. coli strains generally use sorbitol, but E.

Dietary Factors

High-fat diets promote duct-like tumors in animal models of pancreatic cancer20 (Chapter 20 and Chapter 21). However, there is little prospective or experimental human data on the types of dietary fat and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Initial observations in several case-control studies suggested that diets high in animal fat were associated with increases in pancreatic cancer risk,2 and two prospective studies have evaluated the association between fat intake and risk of pancreatic cancer.18,19 A prospective analysis of diet and pancreatic cancer in Finnish male smokers (the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene or ATBC study cohort, based on 163 pancreatic cancer cases) found a positive association between saturated fat intake and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer.18 Other types of fat were not associated with risk, and greater energy and carbohydrate intakes were associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. In a prospective analysis of U.S. women within the Nurse's Health...


In ruminants and herbivorous nonruminants, ciliated protozoa constitute an important component of the gut flora and play a significant role in the nutrition of the host. Ciliated protozoa are classified further into holotrichs and entodiniomorphs based on certain morphological features, e.g., ciliary arrangement and shape and location of nucleus. Holotrichs have cilia covering the entire or almost the entire surface of the cell, whereas the entodiniomorphid ciliates have restricted zones of cilia. Holotrichs are generally a smaller fraction of the total ciliates and primarily ferment soluble carbohydrates. Entodiniomorphid ciliates, the dominant fraction in most animals, digest starch and structural polysaccharides (cell wall polysaccharides). Protozoa are anaerobic and can ferment carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Fermentation products


Diauxie Diauxy Adaptation of microorganisms to culture media that contain two different carbohydrates (e.g. glucose and lactose). In the first growth phase the sugar for which there are constitutive enzymes is utilized, then there is a brief pause while the enzyme systems for the second sugar are induced and synthesized.

Diet composition

Composition of the diet has been explored as an etiological factor in the risk of type 2 diabetes for many years. Because of major recent changes in 'Western' diets (including increases in simple refined carbohydrates and in dietary fat from animal sources, with decreased complex carbohydrates and fiber intake), dietary constituents have received significant attention. An early hypothesis was that refined and simple sugars played a major role. This early debate has been summarized by Mann128 who noted that a number of studies both supported and did not support this hypothesis. It is important to note that the majority of those early studies were methodologically weak, and few were prospective in design. West also provided a review of nutrition in the etiology and prevention of type 2 diabetes with published evidence from before 1975129,130. His primary conclusion was that total calories and obesity seem to be of primary importance, and he found little support for specific diet...

Papillary tumor

Parenteral nutrition The intravenous administration of liquid nutrients to patients who are unable to eat or to absorb nutrients normally. It is most often used for patients suffering moderate to severe wasting associated with cancer or HIV AIDS. The nutrient solution generally contains protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes, with the formula adjusted for individual patient's needs. An infusion pump is generally required infusions can take from 12 to 14 hours a day. No definitive studies have been published on the side effects of parenteral nutrition.


Diabetes is a common disorder that affects the way the body processes and uses carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Each of these nutrients is a source of glucose (sugar), which is the most basic fuel for the body. The clearest sign of diabetes is a high level of sugar in the blood.

Bacterial Batteries

Like any living organism, bacteria take in and expel energy. A colony of E. coli bacteria takes in carbohydrates, such as sugar, and breaks them down with enzymes. The bacteria release energy in the form of hydrogen, the same substance that fuels green cars. The electrical current comes in the form of a steady flow of electrons released as the microbe eats.

Concluding Remarks

These findings illustrate the great potential of inhibitors of adhesion in the prevention and perhaps also treatment of bacterial infections. Moreover, they raise hopes for the development of anti-adhesive drugs for human use. The development of anti-adhesion therapy targeted at the microbial lectins has been hampered by the great difficulty in large-scale synthesis of the required inhibitory saccharides. An alternative is glycomi-metics, compounds that structurally mimic the inhibitory carbohydrates, but which may be more readily obtainable. Eventually, a cocktail of inhibitors, or a polyvalent one, will have to be used, since many infectious agents express multiple specificities. The design of such drugs will certainly benefit from more detailed information about the specificity of the microbial surface lec-tins and the elucidation of the atomic structure of their combining sites, none of which is yet known.


Aphids primarily feed on plant phloem sap (Baumann et al., 1995). This diet is rich in carbohydrates but deficient in nitrogenous compounds. Aphids cannot synthesize 10 essential amino acids for growth (Baumann et al., 1998). Such nutrients (e.g., tryptophan and leucine) are provided by Buchnera endosymbionts (Baumann et al., 1995). Buchnera endosymbionts furnish these essential nutrients by plasmid-mediated amplification of key genes involved in tryptophan and leucine biosynthesis (Van Ham


Studies on model systems have clearly indicated that reducing carbohydrates and compounds possessing a free amino group, such as amino acids, either in free or protein-bound form, are the basic material for their formation (Ledl and Scleicher, 1990). They are reported to have molecular weight up to 100000 Da, and to possess structural features, elemental analysis and degrees of unsaturation depending on the reaction conditions.

Yokenella Koserella

It is positive for lysine and ornithine decarboxylase and most strains fail to produce arginine dihydrolase activity (Abbott and Janda, 1994 Farmer, 1999). Yokenella regensburgei tests negative for H2S production, urea, and phenyl-alanine deaminase (Brenner, 1991). Acid is produced from the fermentation of many carbohydrates including D-glucose, L-arabinose, cellobiose, D-mannitol, melibiose, L-rhamnose and D-xylose (Farmer, 1999).

Thermal processing

Livestock can be fed cereals or by-products from cereal processing without any thermal processing (cooking). In contrast, cereal-based foods intended for human consumption almost inevitably undergo some form of cooking. The cooking processes can be as simple as boiling the grain or its meal in water. Alternatively, they can be complex systems involving mixing with other ingredients to form a dough, followed by mechanical processing and subsequent cooking (e.g. baking, as in the case of bread). Processed cereal products are many and diverse. This is reflected in the different technologies used and how the products are finally consumed. As discussed below, the technology used to make a particular product can be as nutritionally important as the ingredients themselves. In terms of nutrition, two of the most significant effects of mechanical and thermal processing concern the vitamin content and the physico-chemical structure of the complex carbohydrates present in the finished product....


Proteins can be classified as simple or conjugated according to their chemical composition. Simple proteins are those that release only amino acids and no other compounds on hydrolysis. Blood serum albumin is an example of a simple protein. Conjugated proteins are more common than simple proteins and release amino acids and non-protein substances on hydrolysis. Glycoproteins that contain carbohydrates and lipoproteins that contain lipids are examples of conjugated proteins.

Angiogenic Disorders

After birth, angiogenesis still contributes to organ growth, but during adulthood most blood vessels remain quiescent angiogenesis only occurs in the cycling ovary and placenta during pregnancy. However, endothelial cells (ECs) retain the remarkable ability of dividing rapidly in response to a physiological stimulus, such as hypoxia and inflammation. Angiogenesis is also reactivated during wound healing and repair. In many disorders, however, this stimulus becomes excessive, and the balance between stimulators and inhibitors is disturbed, resulting in an angiogenic switch. The best-known conditions in which angiogenesis is switched on are malignant, ocular and inflammatory disorders, but many additional processes are affected-such as atherosclerosis, asthma, diabetes, cirrhosis, multiple sclerosis, endometriosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), bacterial infections and autoimmune diseases (Table 1). In obesity, adipose tissue may also show excessive growth. A high-fat diet...

Blood donation

Blood The fluid that circulates through the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries, carrying nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues, and taking away waste matter and carbon dioxide. Human blood is composed of fluid (plasma) in which are suspended red blood cells (erythrocytes), which carry oxygen white blood cells (leukocytes), which help make up the immune system platelets (thrombocytes), required for coagulation fat globules and a great variety of chemical substances, including carbohydrates, proteins, hormones, and gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. Blood consists of approximately 22 percent solids and 78 percent water. See blood plasma.

Arsenic in the air

No one really doubted that Gosio had discovered the reason why there was so much ill health among those living in houses whose walls were decorated with arsenical paints and wallpapers. His findings were such that the sickness associated with breathing the air in such rooms began to be called Gosio's disease. Now it was possible for doctors not only to diagnose the condition but also to treat those affected by removing them from the cause and advising that the room be treated rather than the patient. Nevertheless it took many years before Gosio's disease disappeared. Microbes found damp wallpaper a fertile place to grow. In those days fresh wall plaster was sealed with gelatine (known as size) prior to being painted or wallpapered and the latter was generally stuck on the wall with a flour-based paste. This combination of proteins and carbohydrates made an ideal nutrient for the microbes, especially when it was damp. As the microbes grew they needed to remove the arsenic from their...

Meat and satiety

The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years (National Audit Office, 2001). Satiety influences the frequency of meals and snacks, whereas satiation influences the size of meals and snacks. Macronutrients have differing effects on satiety protein is more satiating than carbohydrates that are more satiating than fat (Hill and Blundell, 1986 Barkeling et al, 1990 Stubbs, 1995). The exact mechanism by which protein exerts its satiating effect is not elucidated, but it may involve changes in the levels and patterns of metabolites and hormones (e.g. amino acids, glucose and insulin), cholecystokinin and amino acid precursors of the neurotransmitters serotonin, noreadenaline and dopamine. A meat-containing meal was shown to have more sustained satiety than a vegetarian meal (Barkeling et al, 1990). Other studies have shown that different meats have different satiating powers (Uhe et al, 1992). These differences may be related to differences in amino acid profiles or...


Cyclodextrins are carbohydrates but are discussed separately as their mechanism of stabilization of proteins is unique and different from that of other carbohydrates. Cyclodextrins have been investigated to solubilize, stabilize, and promote the delivery of peptide and protein drugs.62-66 The natural cyclodextrins, a, p, and g, are cyclic oligosaccharides of six, seven, and eight glucopyranose units, respectively. The ring structure resembles a truncated core, and the fundamental basis of their pharmaceutical applications is the capability to form inclusion complexes because of the hydrophobic property of the cavity.67-69 The cavity size is the smallest ( 5 a-cyclodextrin,

Smoke And Flame

Since the mitochondrion acts as the cell's power source, think of it as a factory or coal-burning power plant. Like any power plant, there are inputs and output. The inputs for the mitochondria include sugars (usually in the form of broken-down carbohydrates) and fatty acids. The mitochondria turn this fuel into energy. To continue with the power plant analogy, the burning of the lumps of coal produces inevitable output. The intra-cellular output is a combination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), water, heat, and molecules called free radicals.

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