Improve Your Intelligence and IQ
An intelligence must meet three criteria to be a true intelligence (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso, 1999) a correlation criterion, which involves defining a set of abilities that can be moderately intercorrelated with one another a developmental criterion, which requires that tested abilities develop with age and experience and a conceptual criterion, which involves demonstration of actual mental abilities, not just the desire to possess those abilities. Emotional intelligence does involve this actual demonstration of ability, which is further subdivided by Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (1999, 2000, 2002) along a continuum from lower, molecular skills to higher, more complex skills. In 1999, Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso presented a new scale for measuring emotional intelligence, known as the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS). They argued, based on findings from the use of this scale, that emotional intelligence was much like traditional intelligence. It could be measured with...
What is even more relevant (and frightening) has been the replication of this same effect with teachers' perceptions and student performance, a phenomenon Rosenthal dubbed the the Pygmalion effect (after the Greek myth of a sculptor who carved a beautiful statue, fell in love with it, and believed it came to life and returned his love). Rosenthal and Jacobson set out to replicate the bright-dull finding from rats and maze performance in elementary school children. They first administered a nonverbal test of intelligence to students in eighteen classrooms (three at each grade, 1 through 6), a test, the teachers were told, that does an excellent job at predicting intellectual blooming. Each class naturally consisted of students with above average, average, and below average ability levels, yet the experimenters randomly chose 20 percent from each classroom and informed the teachers that these particular children had performed on the intelligence test in such a way that they would show...
Measure (or mismeasure) 7 The circular response, intelligence is what an intelligence test gauges, begs the question of how IQ scores are to be validated by independent criteria and culture-free standards. Surely an encompassing description of human mental capacity implies more than can be captured by a standard exam, regardless of how carefully designed.8 True, empirical scores on IQ tests are fairly good predictors of human performance in tasks related to the tests themselves, such as schoolwork, and in this context IQ rankings might be put to useful service (as Binet intended) in identifying students for special tutoring. However, history records that eugenicists often had more nefarious goals in mind. Furthermore, many other aspects of human intelligence not well measured by test-taking ability undoubtedly exist.
A second category of twin studies attempts to ameliorate these difficulties by comparing the correlations of traits for monozygotic versus dizygotic (nonidentical or fraternal) twins, the latter usually matched for same sex to avoid any biases associated with gender. Many such studies report considerably higher IQ correlations in the monozygotic twin sets, as would be predicted under models of genetic influence. However, one plausible caveat is that the environmental influences to which monozygotic twins were exposed may have been more similar on average than those for dizygotic twins, in which case all nature nurture bets are off.
An initial question to be addressed in considering the language development of children with focal lesions is their overall intelligence and cognitive profiles. If these children have severe intellectual impairments, then any language deficits should be evaluated in relation to cognitive measures such as intelligence quotient (IQ) tests. Most studies concur that children with focal injury to either hemisphere, even those with total surgical removal of a hemisphere, score at or near the population mean (Bates, Vicari, and Trauner, 1999). In children, unlike in adults, differential hemispheric mediation of verbal and performance or nonverbal functions is not typically found (Vargha-Khadem et al., 1992 Vargha-Khadem, Isaacs, and Muter, 1994 Bates, Vicari, and Trauner, 1999). The near-normal intellectual performance of
The patients studied was equally non-specific. If the claim is that language propositions supported by grammar are necessary for ToM and causal cognition, a test then requires that aphasic patients have no access to propositional language in any modality of language use. Similarly, questions of disruption of cognition in aphasia have been addressed through administering tests from non-verbal intelligence scales with no clear rationale as to why language might be implicated in, for example, visuo-spatial problem solving. It is only now that claims of specific forms of language mediation (e.g., language propositions) in specific types of reasoning (e.g., ToM) have been tested.
IMPLEMENT AN EFFECTIVE TRAINING PROGRAM AND NETWORKING OPPORTUNITIES. An effective training program, along with appropriate testing, is essential for proactive establishment of emotional awareness. Departments or teams can use one of many tests, including the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso, 2002) and those provided by Weisinger (1998) and Bar-On (2000). Benner's (1984) novice to expert model, which models nursing competency at five levels, might also be applied to development of emotional awareness.
In its revised form, the test provides multiple area IQ scores (called S.A.S.'s) in addition to an overall iQ score. in addition to measuring the verbal and nonverbal areas of a child's development, the Stanford-Binet also provides a quantitative score, measuring the child's mathematical reasoning, and a memory score, measuring the child's short-term memory. (While the Wechsler scales also have subtests which measure these areas, they do not provide iQ scores isolating these abilities.) The Stanford-Binet test is a good choice for children who are slow at processing information because it contains only one timed subtest. However, this lack of timing can make the testing session extremely long. in addition, test scores may be substantially lower than those resulting from the WAIS-R for very bright individuals over age 16.
People's scores on psychological tests of creativity are correlated with their scores on standard intelligence tests. The correlation is moderate, but not perfect. In particular, high intelligence appears to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for high creativity. Many creativity researchers believe that people who become famous for their creativity usually have an IQ of at least 120. The evidence from psychological testing implies that creativity is a rather good indicator of general intelligence, not just an indicator of youthfulness and proteanism ability. Perhaps what psychologists call general intelligence or the g factor will turn out to be a major component of biological fitness. If so, the high heritability of general intelligence may reflect, in part, the heritability of fitness itself. There are a few pieces of evidence that support a link between general intelligence and biological fitness. A recent study at the University of New Mexico found a 20 percent...
Importantly, the two groups differed in the progress they had made at a 2-year follow-up. Contrary to what might have been expected on the basis of their IQ, the children with specific reading difficulties (who had higher IQ) made less progress in reading than the generally backward readers. This finding suggested that their problems were intransigent, perhaps because of some rather specific cognitive deficit, at the time unspecified. It is perhaps worth noting here, that this differential progress rate has not been replicated in more recent studies (Shaywitz et al., 1992), perhaps because advances in knowledge have led to better focused remedial approaches.
The child was followed up into adulthood and assessed in detail at the age of 28. Intelligence on Progressive Matrices was normal. In contrast, declarative memory was severely impaired. His profile on the Wechsler Intelligence Scales indicated that as an adult his weakest subtest scores were attained on Information, which assesses the factual general knowledge established in semantic memory, and on Vocabulary, which assesses the knowledge of words established in semantic memory. On further formal testing, he was impaired in episodic recall of words, stories and patterns. He was also impaired in learning paired associates and delayed recall of a route. His memory impairment extended to both antero-grade and retrograde loss as he was unable to remember any events more than 6-9 months prior to the anoxia. Recognition memory for words, faces and doors on the WRMB (Warrington, 1984) and the Doors and People Test (Baddeley et al., 1994) was impaired but immediate recognition memory for...
Goddard and revised several times, but it was not until 1916 that the test was standardized with the revision by Lewis M. Terman in the form still known as the stanford-Binet test. In 1911 William Stern developed the idea of relating mental age to chronological age with his formulation of Intelligence Quotient. This simple formulation of IQ MA CA x 100 gave a number that would stand for the performance of the child. This allowed the IQ to be manipulated within statistical tests and to be used for prediction of later performance. since that time there have been many intelligence tests produced, some specifically aimed at reducing cultural and background effects on pencil-and-paper tests. In 1969 the debate about the inherent versus the environmental bases of intelligence exploded with an article by psychologist Arthur Jensen in which he argued for the inheritance of racial differences in intelligence. The debate continued into the last decade of the 20th century in...
Burt's most convincing evidence came from twin studies in which high correlations were reported in measures of IQ (intelligence quotient) for large numbers of genetically identical twins who had been reared apart since birth. The (questionable) assumption underlying such studies is that a marked resemblance of IQ scores between members of these monozygotic sets of twins must bespeak the influence of the identical sets of genes that they share. Apparent corroboration came from further reports by Burt of correlations between IQ and degrees of genetic relatedness between more distant classes of relatives, such as grandparents and grandchildren, or uncles and nephews. Sir Cyril Burt achieved great fame in his lifetime, as evidenced by his knighthood and by numerous laudatory references in psychology textbooks to his compelling body of scientific evidence for genetic influence on variation in human intelligence. Cyril Burt had been born into the British...
This SEIMC-sponsored class of ten students (four girls, six boys) had a mean CA of ten years one month, mean Stanford-Binet MA of five years eight months, and a mean IQof 69. Unsuccessful attempts to teach these children to read had been made for three years prior to their exposure to SA
The first field application of the SA Reading Program was conducted at Wrentham State School in Massachusetts (Marko 1968) with a population of trainable developmentally delayed residents who had not previously been able to learn how to read. The program was applied over a period of 18 months with 70 developmentally delayed residents with a mean chronological age (CA) of 21 years, mean Stanford-Binet mental age (MA) of four years eight months, and mean IQof 38. These developmentally delayed residents learned to sight-read a mean of 28 words in a range of verb-noun and noun-verb sentences, in both large and small type size. Twenty of the seventy were able, with the help ofletter-sound accentuation (Phase 3 ofthe SA Program), to sound out and decode the meaning of words with different consonant- vowel-consonant combinations.
Forward digit span is the most widely used technique for assessing verbal short-term memory ability in children, due largely to its presence in large-scale intelligence test batteries, such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children III UK (Wechsler, 1991), and the British Ability Scales II (Elliott, 1996). The Test of Memory & Learning (Reynolds & Bigler, 1994) includes standardized assessments of forward recall of both digits and letter sequences.
Someone could claim to assess your intelligence by measuring the circumference of your head, or your morality by examining your skull for bumps in particular locations, as phrenologists once did. Undoubtedly, except in very unusual cases, these would be quite reliable measures. Yet we would not accept them. Such measures might be reliable, but they are not valid.
The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism), in iodine-sufficient countries, is approximately one in 4000 births and may be associated with the most severe neuropsychological abnormalities.1 This high incidence has resulted in the institution of neonatal screening programs in many developed countries. Clinical features include feeding problems, hypotonia, umbilical hernia, constipation, enlarged tongue, dry skin, characteristic facies, and open posterior fontanelle. On radiological examination, poor skeletal maturation can be seen as retardation in the appearance of ossification centers. Failure to institute early treatment with thyroid hormone leads to significant brain damage. Even with early therapy, there may still be a residual effect to lower the intelligence quotient.
Ability traits define various types of intelligence and determine how effectively a person works toward a desired goal. Both heredity and learning affect intelligence, and Cattell and others have struggled to disentangle these two influences. Cattell was concerned that existing intelligence tests did not measure simply a person's innate ability to learn but also included effects of experience. Most intelligence tests are biased in favor of those with a good education and underestimate those who are innately brilliant but not well educated in vocabulary and mathematical content that are learned in school. Is it possible to test for innate intelligence without underestimating the abilities of those with a poor education Cattell tried. Cattell (1971) distinguished two types of intelligence. One, which he called fluid intelligence, is the innate ability to learn. It is fluid because it can be expressed in different kinds of learning, depending on the educational opportunities of the...
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Brain Training Conversion
Hot Tips on Keeping your Brain in Shape. Do you envy those people who always seem to be intelligent and witty? Do you ever wish you could unlock your own intelligence and wit?