Concluding remarks

Thus, TIR8 represents a negative pathway of regulation of the IL-1R/TLR system, with a unique pattern of expression in epithelial cells and DC, crucial for tuning inflammation at mucosal surfaces, in particular in the gastrointestinal tract. Further research is needed to explore the role of TIR8 in controlling inflammation at other mucosal tissues and to investigate its expression and involvement in the pathogene-sis of human diseases, in particular in inflammatory bowel disease.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Istituto Superiore di Sanità, MIUR, FIRB, Ministero della Salute, AIRC and by European Union Sixth Framework Programme.

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