Industrial Waste Ebooks Catalog
Medical waste Infectious or physically dangerous medical or biological waste material, including discarded blood and blood products pathology lab waste contaminated animal carcasses and body parts contaminated bedding sharps (medical articles such as hypodermic needles that may cause punctures or cuts to those handling them) and discarded preparations made from genetically altered living organisms and their products. In 1985, the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) developed the strategy of universal blood and body fluid precautions to address concerns regarding transmission of HIV and other infectious illnesses in the health care setting. See
Realistically, humans are not going to stop using Earth's resources and return to a natural era in which human influences on Earth, its climate, and its resources are minimal. Therefore, the challenge facing humans today is to use their intelligence and growing technological abilities to integrate the anthrosphere with the rest of Earth's environment in a way that minimizes adverse environmental impact and, indeed, enhances the quality of the environment as a whole. One way in which this is done is through the practice of industrial ecology, in which industrial enterprises interact in ways analogous to organisms in natural ecosystems, maximizing the efficiency of their utilization of materials and energy, recycling materials, and generally minimizing the impact on the Earth's resources and environment in providing goods and services that humans require for a high standard of living.3 Very recently, the exercise of chemical science and technology within the context of the best practice...
In 1994, researchers put cages of male rainbow trout into five rivers. In each case five sites were chosen, one upstream of a waste treatment plant, one at the point where the effluent was discharged, and three others at various distances downstream. It was found that the female protein vitellogenin was produced in male fish in four out of the five rivers at the site of the effluent discharge. The other waste treatment plant did not receive industrial waste. In one river, where the effluent was the most active, at all the other sites, up to 5 km downstream, the fish produced vitellogenin. It has also been found that male fish such as flounder in estuaries in the UK also have high levels of vitellogenin. In the Tyne and Mersey estuaries the increased levels of the female protein were 10,000 to i million times more than in control animals.
Some opportunities for collaboration have less obvious but important health effects, as in the case of community redevelopment efforts. The economic condition of a community has clear implications for health. Higher employment levels, for example, tend to improve not only personal income and access to health insurance but also a community's tax revenues and, thus, its ability to address health threats and to provide opportunities for health improvement. In some communities, local health departments have become partners in efforts to revitalize neighborhoods through the remediation of areas with industrial waste and environmental contamination (NACCHO, 2000a). Empowerment zones and enterprise communities are examples of public-private partnerships with significant government resources requiring collaboration at the local level to improve health in communities. A recent study found that 119 of the 144 national empowerment zones and enterprise communities initiatives had an interest in...
A large amount of research has been conducted into the migration of contaminants and toxic additives from plastic packaging materials into food and food simulants (Brede et al., 2002). Estimates of the exposure to contaminants in the diet are determined by combining migration data with information on the uses of food packaging that may contain additives or contaminants (Simoneau et al., 1999). Traditionally, migration data are obtained from tests in which plastics are brought into contact with a food simulant (e.g., vegetable oil, alcoholic or acidic solution) under established time and temperature limits (Commission Directive 97 48 EC, Council Directive 85 572 EEC).
Chromium is not seen as a major environmental pollutant although it has caused problems in rivers taking untreated industrial waste, especially that from tanneries. Soluble chromate in soils gradually turns into chro-mium(III) salts and because most of these are insoluble the chromium then becomes unavailable to plants. In this way the food chain is protected. There are localities where chromium has polluted the environment and may have affected people, both in terms of the health and their finances. The effect on health is generally perceived as an increased risk of getting cancer and as such is almost impossible to quantify. The financial damage is more quantifiable because it makes homes built on contaminated land impossible to sell.
Figure 16.6 presents an engineered land treatment system. Much like conventional municipal solid waste treatment units or landfills, controls or collection systems may be placed in the land treatment unit. To prevent groundwater contamination, the base of a typical land treatment unit is covered with a highly impermeable clay or geosynthetic (plastic) liner. A series of leachate recovery pipes are then placed near the base of the system to collect wastes that may percolate through the soil. A thick layer of sand covers the collection system, and the contaminated soil is then placed on the
In New York State, the Monroe County Health Department and other public and private community partners formed the Water Education Collaborative to educate citizens about protecting water quality. The Industrial Management Council, the Monroe County Health Department, and the Rochester Institute of Technology are collaborating on a plan to provide environmental health training and technical assistance to small- and medium-size businesses. This will help local businesses develop environmental management systems (environmental monitoring, waste recycling). The Kodak and Xerox corporations, which are headquartered locally, already provide leadership in this area.
Plastic materials represent a source for contamination through mass transfer, i.e., the migration of substances from the packaging into the food. Identification of the potential migrants or contaminants and assessing their toxicological potency is currently one of the crucial steps in the public safety monitoring processes. It is also very important to determine the levels of residual monomers or additives in food-contact materials and in foods, and to identify the factors affecting the migration of contaminants. Based on this knowledge, it is possible to estimate the maximum likely intake of the contaminants resulting from the contact of food with plastic packaging materials.
Packaging materials made of plastics are necessary for the food industry, and it would be a major problem if they were suddenly abandoned. Most of the plastics used are almost inert towards food constituents, however a small amount of toxic additives or unbound monomers and oligomers may migrate into food. Migration may occur during storage of food in plastic packages, and may be particularly extensive when fatty food surfaces are in direct contact with plastic packaging. Heating food in plastic containers, e.g., in microwave ovens, increase the rate and extent of migration.
Although these micronutrients are usually present in sufficient quantities in municipal wastewater, the digester effluent should be analyzed to ensure that residual soluble quantities of these nutrients exist, especially in industrial waste-water treatment plants. The presence of adequate nutrients, especially micronu-trients, helps to minimize digester upsets caused by the accumulation of volatile fatty acids.
Free hydrogen sulfide gas can be removed from digester sludge by the rapid production of carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane. Treatment measures that can be used to reduce soluble hydrogen sulfide include 1) diluting the sulfides, 2) separating and treating the sulfate sulfide waste stream, 3) precipitating the sulfide as a metal salt, and 4) scrubbing and recirculating digester biogas.
Infancy begins at birth and continues until a child develops articulate or syntaxic speech, usually at about age 18 to 24 months. Sullivan believed that an infant becomes human through tenderness received from the mothering one. The satisfaction of nearly every human need demands the cooperation of another person. Infants cannot survive without a mothering one to provide food shelter, moderate temperature, physical contact, and the cleansing of waste materials.
Project Earth Conservation
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