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And Energy Metabolism In The Brain

Neuronale Anaerobic Glycolysis

For years, elevated lactate levels have been considered to signal the existence of hypoxia and anaerobic energy metabolism in tissues (47,48). Substantial evidence has been accumulated (48,49) to indicate that large amounts of lactate can be produced in many tissues under fully aerobic conditions, but brain tissue has been presumed to be an exception. Lactate production has been promoted as an exclusively anaerobic process, and its accumulation was thought to be a major detrimental factor in ischemic brain damage (50). The coupling of neuronal activity and energy metabolism has also been studied in rat hippocampal slices (53). Although activation of these slices with Glu could result in a significant elevation in the production of lactate, no such increase was detected. Does this lack of increase in lactate tissue level indicate lack of lactate production, or that lactate is consumed as quickly as it is produced To test whether or not such elevation occurs, lactate utilization must be...

Activated macrophage A macrophage mononuclear

Activation (of eggs) Normally brought about by contact between spermatozoon and egg membrane. Activation is the first stage in development, and occurs independently of nuclear fusion. The first observable change is usually the cortical reaction, which may involve elevation of the fertilization membrane the net result is a block to further fusion and thus to polyspermy. In addition to the morphological changes, there are rapid changes in metabolic rate and an increase in protein synthesis from maternal mRNA.

Clinical Applications

Mors are characterized by increased glucose metabolism, as was first described by Warburg and his group in the early 1920s (Warburg et al. 1930 Warburg 1956). Recently, the molecular basis of this finding has been found. Increased metabolism, including increased rates of glucose consumption, was noted following activation of oncogenes or loss of tumor suppressor genes (Flier et al. 1987). Cells expressing the ras or src oncogenes exhibited increased rates of aerobic glycolysis and increased levels of glucose transporter proteins only hours after malignant transformation by oncogenic viruses. In addition to the increased glucose transport into cells, a five-fold overexpression of the type II hexokinase gene was found in a hepatoma cell line compared with normal hepatocytes (Rempel et al. 1996). Recent molecular studies suggest that cellular energy metabolism is predominantly affected by the expression of transcription factors that regulate the genes that encode metabolic enzymes...

Papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer

Targeted expression of E6 and or E7 in the basal cells of squamous mouse epithelium supports different, but complementary, functions for the two oncogenes in the process of carcinogenesis (25-30). The viral E6 and E7 proteins have been shown to bind a number of cellular proteins and to possess a variety of activities that could contribute to carcinogenic progression (see ref. 31 for a for review). E6 actions include (1) formation of a tri-meric complex with p53 and the E6AP ubiquitin ligase that leads to the targeted degradation of both p53 and E6AP (32,33), (2) interactions with a protein E6TP1 (now known as SIPA1L1) exhibiting homology to Rapl-GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) (34,35), (3) interactions with proapoptotic proteins Bak and c-myc (36-38), (4) binding of a number of PDZ proteins, including the human homolog of the Drosophila tumor suppressor Dlg and MAGI I (39-41), and (5) interactions with the cellular transcriptional co-activators CBP p300 (42,43) and human ADA3 (44)....

Clinical thiamin deficiency

Cardiac failure, muscle weakness, peripheral and central neuropathy and gastrointestinal malfunction have been seen in animals and humans on diets deficient in thiamin. The circulatory effects of thiamin deficiency are no doubt linked to attempts by the body to increase metabolism of energy-forming substances. Other effects may well be due to impaired nerve transmission and or the energy deficiency the precise biochemical reasons have not been established. In Wernicke's disease, failure of energy metabolism predominantly affects neurons and their functions in selected areas of the central nervous system. Biochemical lesions that affect TKL and nucleic acid metabolism may cause glial changes. Membranous structures are visibly altered and secondary demyelination follows (Tanphaichitr, 1999). Prolonged alcohol consumption is associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including the dense amnesic disorder known as Korsakoff's syndrome. Korsakoff's syndrome is frequently...

Restrictions On Use And Regulation

Title 40 CFR, Part 158, explicitly outlines the data requirements for antimicrobial pesticides. Further amendments are being considered to Part 158. These data requirements are for tiered human health and exposure data requirements for nonfood uses, product chemistry, and toxicology. Explicit tiered testing approaches for environmental fate and effects have been developed for antimicrobials, wood preservatives, antifoulants, and algicides. Specifically, data are required for end-use antimicrobial products, including data on end-use formulation, active ingredient, product chemistry information, residue chemistry, efficacy, toxicity, environmental fate, and ecotoxicity. Data are required to assess acute toxicity, chronic and subchronic toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, neurotoxicity, metabolic effects, and immunological effects. Toxicology test requirements are set out in tiers based on general requirements and risk assessment. It should be noted...

Definition of the Disease

Hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are synonymous terms. Excess thyroid hormone elevates the basal metabolic rate (e.g., causing weight loss) and causes the classic findings exhibited in this patient involving the nervous system (e.g., personality changes, tremor, hyperreflexia), cardiovascular system (tachycardia with a hyperdynamic heart, bounding pulses and wide pulse pressure), and gastrointestinal tract (e.g., loose stools or diarrhea). In extreme cases, high output heart failure can result. Many other systems can be affected such as the tissues of the retroorbital space, the skin, the hair, and the reproductive system. The patient's oligomenorrhea is likely a consequence of her disordered metabolism, the stress of illness and weight loss.

Molecular Genetic Studies

Destruction of orexin neurons in human narcolepsy is accompanied not only by abnormal sleep wake regulation but also by metabolic alterations (22,23). The finding of decreased caloric intake (24) combined with an increased body mass index (23) in narcolepsy suggests that narcolepsy patients have a feeding abnormality with reduced energy expenditure or low metabolic rate. Because narcolepsy is caused by orexin deficiency, the altered energy home-ostasis in human narcolepsy patients suggests roles of orexin in regulation of energy home-ostasis (22,23). Consistently, orexin neuron-ablated mice show hypophagia and late-onset obesity (25). Complex disruptions of energy homeostasis in orexin ataxin-3 transgenic mice are indicated by hypophagia (Fig. 3), obesity, and inactivity relative to control litter mates (25,26). Orexin knockout mice were also showed to be hypophagic (27). The decreases in food intake observed in orexin knockout or orexin neuron-ablated mice suggest the physiological...

Biochemical Mechanisms Of Cellular Dysfunction During Angiogenesis In Dm

DM is a complex metabolic state with hyperglycemia considered to be a key causal factor in the development of diabetic vascular complications by causing divergent cellular dysfunction 67 . Hyperglycemia occurs as a result of an impaired glucose utilization by tissues due to either whole-body insulin resistance in DM type 2 or lack of sufficient availability of insulin in DM type 1 146 . Generally, lack of physiological effects of insulin on the cells and related hyperglycemia-induced cellular biochemical alterations are two major factors resulting in cellular dysfunction in DM. In the following, we are discussing major biochemical pathways through which elevated glucose levels can lead to cellular dysfunction increased polyol pathway flux increased advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and increased hexosamine pathway flux increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other products of abundant oxidative stress, e.g....

Other minerals iodine and selenium

The non-metallic element iodine is an essential nutrient that, apparently, has a single function in the body as a component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodotyronine (T3). These hormones are necessary for a range of body processes, the most important of which are the control of metabolic rate, cellular metabolism, growth and neural development. Production of T4 and T3 is controlled by tissue demands which are mediated by the secretions of the pituitary gland and by the supply of iodine in the diet.

Effects Of Chromium Supplementation On Human Body Composition And Physical Functions

Interpretation of the data from the studies of Kaats et al. 22, 23 is complicated by some key issues. Use of the calculation of the body composition improvement index rather than actual assessments of body composition is suspicious. Also, lack of control of or assessment of Cr(III) intake and of recording accurate energy intake and expenditure limit the interpretation of the findings. Similarly, calculation of loss of fat based on 3500-kcal energy expenditure associated with physical activity fails to acknowledge homeostatic adaptation in energy metabolism and produces dubious conclusions. Therefore, conclusions from these results should be viewed with caution.

General limitations in assessing nutrient intake

As for any nutrient where deficiency and toxicity are issues, the reliable assessment of intake is paramount. The ultimate aim of defining optimal dietary intakes is hampered by difficulties in determining certain key facts, namely, individual copper intakes and status. Dietary intake can be assessed by a number of methods, involving either the recording of actual consumption (prospective) or the assessment by questionnaires of diet in the recent past (retrospective). At each stage in the application of any method, errors are introduced, producing as a result either a systematic bias or random deviations from the true values. Of the methods in common use, the weighed dietary record is widely accepted to be the most accurate, but it requires a considerable amount of co-operation from human subjects. This disadvantage may give rise to substantial bias, most likely toward underreporting habitual dietary intakes.48 In clinical practice the most frequently used method of dietary assessment...

Watersoluble vitamins

The main water-soluble vitamins are vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and the B-complex vitamins. Ascorbic acid, thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, biotin, pantothenic acid, inositol and choline are absorbed by passive diffusion or Na+-dependent active transport in the small intestine. Vitamin C deficiency interferes with collagen synthesis and causes scurvy. B-complex vitamins are mainly involved in energy metabolism and deficiencies cause widespread abnormalities in epithelial, neuronal and cardiac function.

The Role Of Hypocretin In Vigilance Controls And Their Interaction With Other Regulatory Systems

Some of the mechanisms for the activation of hypocretin neurons during fasting are also becoming elucidated by in vitro electrophysiological studies. The results of these studies revealed that peripheral humoral factors related to energy metabolism modulate the activity of hypocretin neurons the activity of isolated hypocretin neurons is inhibited by glucose and leptin and stimulated by ghrelin (14).

Contextual information

In addition to growth factors, it has been shown that countless other molecules have multiple functions. Cholecystokinin, for example, is a peptide that acts as a hormone in the intestine, where it increases the bile flow during digestion, whereas in the nervous system it behaves as a neurotransmitter. Encephalins are sedatives in the brain, but in the digestive system are hormones that control the mechanical movements of food. Insulin is universally known for lowering the sugar levels in the blood, but it also controls fat metabolism and in other less known ways it affects almost every cell of the body.

Functional Brain Imaging

If your structural imaging is normal but your doctor suspects that you might have Alzheimer's disease or another type of degenerative condition, he or she might also recommend a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan or a positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Rather than producing a picture of brain structure, these imaging techniques look at how the brain is functioning. SPECT traces perfusion (blood flow), and PET maps glucose metabolism. Decreased perfusion or energy metabolism in the temporal and parietal regions of the brain is the functional signature of Alzheimer's disease. Other brain disorders produce distinctive functional imaging patterns. These scans can reveal abnormalities even when an MRI appears normal.

Regulation Of Pilus Biogenesis

Environmental signals affect pilus biogenesis through global regulator proteins that can modify the transcription of pilus genes. Various global regulators have been identified and include H-NS, a DNA-binding histone-like protein that often mediates temperature regulation of pilus synthesis. H-NS appears to alter DNA topology and typically functions as a negative regulator. Regulation by carbon source can occur through the catabolite activator protein (CAP), whereas the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) can modulate pilus expression in response to aliphatic amino acids. The CAP and Lrp regulators can control sets of pilus operons, enabling the expression of different types of pili to be coordinated and integrated with the metabolic state of the bacterial cells. In addition to these and other global regulators, specific regulator proteins encoded by genes within some pilus operons may also modulate pilus biogenesis. Multiple regulatory factors can act upon the same promoter...

The effects of alcohol on the brain and addiction

Exposure to alcohol leads to an increase in the amount of the enzyme, with the result that the alcohol is broken down more rapidly and removed. The heavy drinker thus becomes tolerant to the pleasurable effects of alcohol while the adverse metabolic effects are not diminished.

Maletomale transmission See transmission

Malnutrition in AIDS can result from many different factors. Inability to take in a proper amount of nutrients can be the result of impaired swallowing and taste due to infections in the mouth or the esophagus, AIDS medications that have anorexia, nausea, and vomiting as side effects, or limited financial resources that make three meals a day difficult to manage. Diarrhea and changes in absorption caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites may impair nutritional intake. Some medications, particularly antibiotics, may change the normal bacterial composition of the intestine and interfere with breakdown of food. Finally, an increase in metabolism often occurs in many people with HIV and leads to an increased need for nutrients. The presence of HIV itself as well as some of its associated infections can increase the metabolic rate. These three factors diminished intake, malabsorption, and hypermetabolism usually occur simultaneously to deplete the body of nutrients.

Dynamic Ontological Induction

We can now understand how solutions to problems of perception and the robustness of those solutions are necessarily related. Also, we can understand the process of mental development as an essentially inductive process. That is to say, it is the implicit order of the objects and phenomena of the world around us, their patterns, symmetries and invariance in space and time, that form the necessary conditions for the formation of solitons or traveling waves in the brain. The persistence of these solutions depends upon the persistence of the implicit order associated with the objects of perception. Thus, the robustness of cognitive states and all biological processes is a complimentary aspect of the fact that they make explicit the implicit ontology of the environment that they mediate as part of the catalytic process. It is not what can be calculated from the structure of the environment that is important, but rather, what can persist by uniting energy and structure (invariance,...

Morphology and Ultrastructure

Lytic enzymes, and the progeny is released. The filamentous cell developing at the expense of the host's cytoplasmic content grows in proportion to the size of the prey (Kessel and Shilo, 1976) and exhibits a very efficient energy metabolism. Therefore, the number of progeny varies, from 5.7 per E. coli (Seidler and Starr, 1969b) to 20 to 30 cells in Aquaspirillum serpens (Stolp, 1967). In liquid culture, the initial cell cycle is completed within 2 to 4 h, depending on the age of the bdellovibrios (Varon et al., 1969). The signals leading to initiation of growth within the peri-plasm, cell elongation, division, and differentiation into attack phase cells have been sought, but a consistent picture of their mode of action has not been obtained.

Relevant Findings Of Preclinical And Clinical Studies

Depressive symptoms may be related to hypocretin effects on several fronts. Sleep disturbances, both hypersomnias and insomnias, are prominent in depression. Hypocretin promotes wakefulness and increases grooming and face washing in rodents, whereas it suppresses REM sleep. A deficit of hypocretin could contribute to fatigue and hypersomnia, and to the shortened delay in REM sleep onset in depression, but is not as readily reconciled with the frequent insomnia. An excess of hypocretin might explain REM disturbances, but the hypersomnia would seem improbable. Appetite in depression can go either way and frequently fluctuates within depressed individuals over time. Increased food intake is observed with icv injections of Hcrt (16,17) and may be related to increased wake time, but this has been argued to be a relatively weak effect, dependent on the circadian time of administration (2). Hypocretin knockout mice have normal weight (18), but ataxin-3 mutants lacking hypocretin cells have...

Possible Pathogenic Mechanisms In Huntingtons Disease

Function and impaired energy metabolism, synaptic transmission and electrophysi-ological abnormalities (14-16), and activation of apoptotic pathways (17). Some of these abnormalities are thought to be consequence of sequestration of key proteins in the intraneuronal inclusions, while others might be consequence of interactions of mutant huntingtin with certain proteins independently of the aggregation state.

General Interpretation And Discussion

Reduced circulating leptin levels may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity in nar-coleptic patients. The fact that narcoleptic patients are obese in the face of hypophagia suggests that they spend less energy, which is supported by early observations (2). Leptin is critically involved in the control of energy expenditure, and hypoleptinemia is associated with a lower metabolic rate in obese animal models. Alternatively, hypocretin deficiency may reduce basal metabolism directly via its inhibitory impact on the sympathetic nervous system.

Rights to Genetic Intervention

At one end of the spectrum of public opinion is the view that any explicit manipulation of human biology is undesirable. Whether or not this philosophy has merit, it is operationally moot. For millennia, humans intentionally have altered our external and internal bodily environments in ways that influence health. In the medicinal arena, for example, metabolism-altering compounds have been employed for all manner of ailments, from gout to gonorrhea. Some of the first languages uttered by primitive peoples probably included words describing particular plants and animals perceived to be sources of desirable medicinal products. Modern pharmacology has continued this tradition, deriving many of its prophylactic and therapeutic drugs from natural sources. In this sense, the outcomes envisioned under many applications of gene therapy represent nothing fundamentally new. The production and delivery of metabolism-altering drugs will merely be shifted to engineered genes. So, many of the...

Physiology and Metabolism

Basic Energy Metabolism Physiological properties of bacteria are expressions of metabolic pathways present in the respective species. As far as types of overall energy metabolism are concerned, the relation to oxygen and light of a given bacterium will decide whether it performs photosynthesis, fermentation, or respiration as the main energy-yielding process. Whereas high hydrostatic pressure may not affect autochthonous deep-sea bacteria, it slows down the metabolic rates of bacteria that inhabit surface or terrestrial habitats (Jannasch and Wirsen, 1973).

Climate effects on species distributions

Rates contribute strongly to whether a species is likely to persist, go extinct, or shift from a particular area. For many species, potential metabolic constraints on species distribution can be reduced to a simple question can the species elevate its metabolism to a sufficiently high level to sustain itself However, climate impacts on species distributions are not limited to effects on metabolic rates. Freeze tolerance or avoidance present additional mechanisms limiting where species are found and how they will likely respond to shifting climatic conditions. Climatic constraints clearly include more than just the changes in mean annual temperature that are most commonly reported in widely disseminated scientific consensus documents about climate change. The extremes of climate sometimes play a more important role in shaping species distributions than mean annual conditions (e.g. Kukal et al., 1991). For instance, minimum winter temperatures in many areas have changed far more than...

Clinical disorders of bone resorption

Division of Biochemical and Musculoskeletal Medicine, Human Metabolism & Clinical Biochemistry, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX and Institute of Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Headington, Oxford OX3 7LD, UK

Basis For Agerelated Changes In The Proteasome

Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative damage to the proteasome complex may be a mediator of at least some forms of proteasome inhibition in the CNS. Studies from our laboratory demonstrate that dopamine may support ROS-induced impairment of proteasome function in the CNS(23). Several features of the CNS presumably make it very vulnerable to oxidative stress including the fact that the CNS has a high metabolic rate that may produce a higher level of mitochondrial derived ROS, may undergo age-related decreases in antioxidant levels, and has a high content of readily oxidized lipids that are capable of promoting oxidative stress. Post mitotic cells in the CNS, which survive for decades, are particularly susceptible to an age-related accrual and elevation in oxidative damage. Proteasomes can undergo direct oxidative modification by a variety of mechanisms. For example, peroxynitrite and HNE can be generated in the intraceullular environment and directly interact with the pro-teasome...

Viral load test See viral load

Maintenance of the integrity of intercellular cement in many tissues, especially capillary walls. Deficiency leads to scurvy, a disorder of skin and bone that causes capillary bleeding. Except guinea pigs, primates are the only mammals who cannot make it in their bodies. Few nutrients are as active in human metabolism as ascorbic acid. It is known to be the most important water-soluble antioxidant and cofactor in cellular metabolism. Researchers have clearly demonstrated that the immune system is sensitive to intake levels of vitamin C and that numerous immunological functions are dependent on it for their mediation. Vitamin C is possibly the most often used dietary supplement, particularly by immune-suppressed individuals and those suffering from other degenerative illnesses. Vitamin C can be purchased in tablet, capsule, or powdered form. If vitamin C powder is taken dissolved in water or juice, it should be drunk with a straw, as ascorbic acid can, over time, erode tooth enamel....

Energetics of social insect parasites

Varroa destructor invades brood cell ofhoneybees shortly before pupation to feed on the body fluids (hemolymph) of the brood and adults of Apis mellifera L. and causes damage on the latter. Adult bees from Varroa-infected brood cells are severely malformed, and the extent of harm is directly proportional to the degree of infestation. However, the causality between viral, bacterial and fungal infections probably transmitted by Varroa which serves as a vector and the malformation of hatching bees has not been proven 86 . Apart from its role as a disease vector the damage caused by infestations even with a few numbers of mites on the ontogenesis and weight at hatching of the adult bees was demon strated 87 . The weight loss of a bee infested at the brood stage, compared to non-infested bees, is directly proportional to the number of infesting mites. In order to also assess the energetic impact of Varroa mites on their host, the energetics of bee development and metabolic activities of...

Metabolic Interactions with Neurons

Glial cells have long been considered as providers of glucose and other nutrients to neurons (Golgi, 1886). This idea stems from the observation that, in the brain, glycogen granules are normally found in glial cells. Furthermore, because glial processes are interspersed among brain capillaries and neurons, it was thought that they served as a conduit for passage of glucose from capillaries to neurons. Early experimental evidence for metabolic coupling between neurons and glial cells came from the studies of Hyden and Lange (1960, 1962) who used manually isolated cells to demonstrate that neuronal stimulation caused changes in the activities of metabolic enzymes in neighboring glial cells. Subsequent work revealed that in addition to energy metabolism, glial cells participate in many biochemical activities in the nervous system and display complex metabolic interactions with neurons. Indeed, normal glial functioning is essential for neuronal health and survival, and glial cell...

Combination of a bioreactor with a flow microcalorimeter

Kemp and Guan 40 recorded the continuous trace of the heat flow rate and compared it with the numbers of viable cells measured at discrete time intervals during the batch culture of recombinant CHO 320 cells. The important conclusion from these assessments was that the heat flow rate as the indicator of the metabolic rate declined while there were still increases in the cell number concentration (see Fig. 3). The implications were that the heat flow rate could be an even more sensitive reflection of cellular metabolism if it were made specific to biomass, i.e. scalar heat flux. cesses, using it to determine on-line the concentration of CHO cells immobilised on macroporous microcarriers in a stirred bioreactor and in a packed-bed of immobilised hybridoma cells on disk carriers 43 . For the latter, dielectric spectrometry was used as a tool to characterise the packed-bed process, showing for instance the maximum cell concentration that could be reached was 2.0x10n cells per kg of disk...

Orexin Neurons May Integrate Sleepwake Behavior With Other Hypothalamic Functions

For an animal to properly attend to and respond to its environment requires coordination of many physiologic functions. For example, a mouse foraging for food must be alert, hungry, and physically active with relatively high sympathetic tone (blood pressure, heart rate, metabolic rate, and so on). The orexin neurons are well positioned to coordinate these disparate physiologic functions.

Energy consumption for development

Energetically, we can divide the life of a holometaboluous insect in three stages (i) the larval stage, which serves mainly for the acquisition and accumulation of biomass and energy reserves. (ii) The pupal stage where the stored biomass is converted into an adult, and (iii) the adult which reproduces itself. In the adult stage, we can expect very high metabolic rates during activity, and very low rates during rest. The pupa should spent as less energy as possible for metamorphosis as it cannot take up food. The larva should have a highly efficient metabolism for rapid growth. As all three life stages have different lifestyles and serve for different purposes, the relationship between heat production rates and age or body mass cannot expected to be linear. Holometaboluous insects therefore represent an unique taxon for investigations on different aspects of animal growth, activities and reproduction. The typtcal time course of heat production rates during metamorphosis is a U-shaped...

Individual drug review

A few unfavorable metabolic effects of bBs were reported. bBs might exacerbate glucose intolerance 5,45,46 , increase triglycerides, and decrease high-density lipoproteins 47 . These effects on surrogate end points should not prevent us from using bBs in diabetic patients who have hypertension. Caution should be taken when using bBs in diabetic patients who are at risk for severe hypoglycemia, although there is no convincing evidence that b1-selective blockers increase the risk of masking hypoglycemia symptoms 48-50 . High dosages of selective b1-block-ers should be avoided in patients who have asthma or severe obstructive lung diseases. bBs should not be used in patients who have advanced heart block or sinus node disease without a pacemaker.

Regulation Of Pancreatic Secretion

The enteroinsular axis has also been characterized. GIP is also called glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. On absorption of glucose, galactose, sucrose, or fat (corn oil), the duodenum secretes GIP.29-32b GIP has been identified as a possible incretin, which is an endocrine factor from the gut with insulinotropic activity. The direct metabolic effects of GIP include antagonizing the lipolytic action of glucagon in fat cells, reducing glucagon-induced increase of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and reducing hepatic glucose output without a concomitant rise in plasma insulin.33 Incretins are released by nutrients and stimulate insulin secretion in the presence of elevated blood glucose levels. The connection between the gut and the pancreatic islets has been coined the enteroinsular axis. Because the enteroinsular axis acts as a feedback loop for suppression of pancreatic secretion, Isaksson and Ihse34 have proposed its use in the treatment of pain induced by pancreatic...

Roles Of Orexin In The Regulation Of Feeding Behavior And Body Weight Homeostasis

These regulatory mechanisms of orexin neurons by feeding behavior-regulating factors suggest that orexin neurons are activated upon fasting and that orexin is involved in the system that regulates feeding behavior and body weight. Orexin might regulate motivational and emotional aspects of appetite, because orexin neurons interact with dopaminergic neurons and the limbic system, as well as arousal pathways (33). When orexins are administered centrally to rodents, they elevate sympathetic tone, plasma corticosterone levels (34), metabolic rate (35), food intake (4), locomotor activity (33) and wakefulness (34). Most of these effects resemble those observed in fasted animals (36-38). These observations suggest that orexin neurons are activated during fasting and elicit appropriate behaviors, including feeding. Orexin receptor agonists and antagonists might also be useful in novel treatments for obesity, eating disorders, or other autonomic metabolic disorders (10). Regarding body weight...

Colonies of social insects

Thermoregulation in animals is closely connected to energy metabolism. Only few attempts have been published to measure the metabolic rates of wasp colonies 58-60 . The experimental setup of the first two mentioned studies was simple after the end of the season, when all wasps had died, an electrical resistor was placed inside the nest. The energy which was necessary to heat up the nest interior by means of the resistor to those nest temperatures measured during summer was regarded as the metabolic rate of the colony. Colony metabo lism was therefore determined only for very short periods. In some aspects of their social physiology, hornet colonies may be regarded as superorganisms. It is interesting to compare their heat production rates, which represent the energy expenditure of active, and not of resting animals, to field metabolic rates of endotherm organisms like birds or mammals. The maximum heat production rate of a large hornet colony with a weight of 530 g amounts to 12.5 W....

Functions and requirements

Urinary and TKL measurements were abnormal and thiamin intakes of 0.3mg 1000kcal were needed to get these values into the normal range (Sauberlich et al, 1979). From these and other studies the COMA panel accepted that thiamin requirements were linked to energy metabolism, and therefore to energy intake, and hence set the RNI at 0.4mg 4.2MJ for men (Table 3.1) (Department of Health and Social Security, 1979).

Toxins That Attack the Nerve Cell Body

Many agents are found within this category. Some of them are metals such as mercury, lead, manganese, and aluminum. Common agents that have this activity include cyanide. More exotic compounds that are able to attack the neuron cell body include domoic acid and MPTP (methyl-phenyl-tetrahydropyridine). Cyanide is deleterious for the simple reason that neurons have very high metabolic rates. In the presence of cyanide the electron transport system is inhibited and adenosine tri-phosphate energy substrate becomes available only from glycolysis. This supplies an entirely inadequate amount of energy for survival and neurons are among the first cells to suffer from this deprivation.

Body Weight And Food Intake

In 1934, Daniels (2) was the first to suggest that narcolepsy is associated with obesity. He observed that narcoleptic patients with or without cataplexy were more frequently obese than was expected in the general population. He proposed that a reduced basal metabolic rate was involved in the pathogenesis, based on metabolic studies in several of these patients (2). During the next decades interest in this aspect declined. It was generally believed that daytime naps reduce physical activity and energy expenditure in narcoleptic patients. This point of view was challenged by the finding in the late 1980s that most narcoleptic patients do not spend more hours asleep than healthy controls and that their physical activity over 24 h is merely distributed otherwise rather than less (17). As dietary studies are notoriously prone to bias when food intake is not quantified directly, these data were interpreted with caution. If they are true, however, the only way to explain the findings is to...

Neuronal Energy Demands Substrates And Energy Generation

Descriptions of cerebral energy requirements found in the literature may confuse many readers. On one hand, Hawkins (1) states that, Although nervous tissue does not participate in processes that require large amounts of energy, such as mechanical work, osmotic work, or extensive biosynthesis, it has almost as high a rate of oxidative metabolism as some tissues that do. On the other, Clarke and Sokoloff (2) assert that, Although it is sometimes stated that the brain is unique among tissues in its high rate of oxidative metabolism, the overall cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2) is of the same order as the unstressed heart and renal cortex. These two contrasting views are not necessarily contradictory. Whether or not the brain has higher energy requirements than other tissues, the brain is unique, both in its energy-demanding functions and the limitations on the types of fuels it uses and their routes of delivery. The above statements are also indicative of the reason brain-energy...

Neuroendocrine Studies

These findings are in line with earlier papers reporting that leptin levels are low in nar-coleptic humans (23). However, the interpretation of the findings is difficult. As alluded to above, leptin is critically involved in the control of feeding and energy expenditure. Low levels are associated with food craving and reduced basal metabolic rate (24,25). Thus, low circulating leptin levels should increase food intake rather than reduce it in narcoleptics. However, hypocretin peptides are part of the complex neural network that conveys leptin signals to the brain (15,32). In particular, hypocretin levels in the brain rise in response to a reduction of circulating leptin levels, which supposedly stimulates food intake in this physiological context. Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that hypocretin deficiency attenuates the effect of hypoleptinemia on food intake.

Traveling Waves and Structure

Furthermore, if life is a catalytic process, we are closer to understanding how life maintains its organization in dynamic environments with changing thermodynamic conditions, the third problem discussed in the introduction. If we think of life as machine-like, then an organism would be faced with the problem of maintaining its functionality dependent upon the local conditions. Alternatively, from a catalytic perspective, the changing thermody-namic conditions are what determine the metabolic state of the organism. The organism changes its metabolism to a state that can mediate the predominant tendency of the local environment. Of course, an organism cannot mediate any tendency. If we change an environment drastically, then life will die. Thus, I would define the range of thermodynamic conditions in which an organism can mediate transitions as a catalyst to be its environmental sur

The metabolism paradigm

An elegant solution to this problem has been proposed by Freeman Dyson (1985) with the model of a generalised metabolic system, whose (1) A primitive metabolic system had to have a certain initial complexity to start with it cannot contain fewer than 10 000 monomers for its molecules, and the monomers must be of at least ten different types (which means that amino acids are in but nucleic acids are out). This last property is particularly important, because it allows Dyson to make a hypothesis on the origin of nucleic acids. The assumption is that primitive metabolic systems learned to use ATP molecules as energy sources, thus transforming them into AMP molecules that were accumulated as waste products. These packed deposits, in turn, created the conditions for the polymerisation of nucleotides, thus leading to the origin of the first RNAs. At the beginning, the RNA molecules were useless and even potentially dangerous compounds, but the system could tolerate them, and eventually the...

Insulin In Pancreatic Diseases

Insulin is an anabolic hormone with powerful metabolic effects. It is synthesized by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans as a single chain precursor called proinsulin. Insulin consists of 2 dissimilar polypeptide chains, an A chain with 21 amino acids and a B chain with 30 amino acids, which are linked by 2 disulfide bonds. Chain A and Chain B are derived from a 1-chain precursor, proinsulin. Proinsulin is converted to insulin by the enzymatic removal of a segment that connects the amino end of the A chain to the carboxyl end of the B chain. This segment is called the connecting C peptide.16-18 Like other growth factors, insulin uses phosphorylation and the resultant protein-protein interactions as essential tools to transmit and compartmentalize its signal. Insulin initiates its wide variety of growth and metabolic effects by binding to the insulin receptor. The insulin receptor belongs to the large family of growth factor

Parkin In The Genetics Of Parkinsons Disease

An early onset form of PD, AR-JP is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and locus coerulus, usually with the absence of Lewy bodies (11,27,28). While sporadic PD and AR-JP have common characteristics such as dystonia, sufficient response to levodopa, lack of dementia and classic parkinsonism symptoms, the two forms can be separated based on sleep benefit for parkinsonian symptoms, female predominance, retropulsion, dystonia of the feet, hyperreflexia and pathological findings (26). Some PET studies have shown similar patterns of metabolism between sporadic and parkin-liked PD patients (29,30). However, Portman et al performed PET studies on AR-JP patients with mutations in the parkin gene and noted a marked reduction in fluorodopa uptake in the caudate nucleus and cerebellum, indicating a different nigrostriatal dopaminergic pattern from sporadic PD patients and a distinct pathophysiology for AR-JP (31). The same study concluded that the...

Neuronal Energy Deprivation

Brain Reperfusion Images

There are two groups of researchers who study degenerative diseases of the brain. Basic scientists, who attempt to better understand the workings of cerebral energy metabolism and its regulation, and clinical scientists, who delve into the mysteries of these disorders, in an attempt to alleviate their terrible toll. Both groups depend on each other's discoveries to bring them closer to their goals. The basic scientist's approach is the one taken here, keeping the clinical aspects of the major encephalopathies to a necessary minimum. For scientists to study any disorder and its consequences, an experimental model which either mimics or closely resembles this disorder, is a must. An in vivo model usually employs an experimental animal an in vitro one employs any number of subcellular, cellular, tissue, or organ preparations. Slow-wave EEG occurs when glucose blood levels fall to 2 mM. When glucose levels fall to 1 mM or lower, EEG becomes isoelectric (71). Brain tissue in vitro responds...

Through Manipulation Of Hif Activity

Experiments have also been performed in animal models of coronary ischemia to determine whether expression of the constitutively active HIF-1 a VP16 construct would enhance blood flow. In a rat acute myocardial infarction (MI) model, it was found that intramyocardial injection of a plasmid expressing HIF-1a VP16 resulted in decreased infarct size and increased myocardial blood flow 102 . Similarly, the effect of intramyocardial injections of Ad2 HIF-1a VP16 targeted to the central ischemic zone also has been examined in a porcine ameroid constrictor model. Injections of Ad2 HIF-1a VP16 resulted in improvements in both blood flow in the ischemic territory, and myocardial function when compared to a negative control 103 . Studies in transgenic mouse models have further supported the therapeutic potential of HIF-1 a in coronary ischemia. In an acute MI model, overexpression of HIF-1 a from a cardiac specific promoter resulted in increased vessel density in and surrounding the infarcted...

Trivalent Chromium Supplementation Syndrome X And Weight Loss

In similar studies on moderately obese women participating in a 12-week exercise program, the effect of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition, resting metabolic rate, and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women was investigated. In a double-blind study, 44 women (aged 27-51 years) received either 400 g day of elemental chromium as chromium picolinate or a placebo and participated in a supervised weight-training and walking program 2 days per week for 12 weeks. Body composition and resting metabolic rate were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Body composition and resting metabolic rate were not significantly changed by chromium picolinate supplementation. Overall results demonstrated that 12 weeks of chromium picolinate supplementation (400 g elemental chromium day) did not significantly affect body composition, resting metabolic rate, plasma glucose, serum insulin, plasma glucagon, serum C-peptide, and serum lipid concentrations in moderately...

Pharmacological Protection

In view of its typical local anesthetic properties, li-docaine has the potential of a powerful neuroprotective agent. It blocks selectively Na+ channels in neuronal membranes. In animal models high doses of lidocaine induce isoelectric EEG, indicating a pronounced reduction in CMR02. In this respect it mimics the effects of hypothermia, but unlike the barbiturates, lidocaine can further reduce metabolic rate by 15-20 2 . This is mainly attributed to its capacity to reduce ion leaks and energy requirements for the Na+K+-ATPase pumps. In

Mild to Moderate Systemic Hypothermia

Abundant animal and clinical studies have shown that deep hypothermia protects neural tissues from ischemic injury during periods of circulatory arrest 34 . The basis for the protective effect of hypothermia is a combination of various mechanisms including reduced metabolic rate, inhibition of release of excitatory neurotransmitters (particularly glutamate) and reduced production of superoxide anions 64 . Although most of the experimental work on neuronal protection has concerned deep hypothermia, it has also been demonstrated experimentally that mild to moderate degrees of hypothermia 32-35 C) also afford spinal cord protection 65-67 . Moderate hypothermia has been an integral part of our operative strategy to minimize cord injury since the early 1990s, and it is achieved by a combination of permissive hypothermia and active cooling using a cooling blanket and a heat-exchanger in the distal bypass circuit if necessary 8 . Clinical studies comparing systemic hypothermia with...

General Features of the Brain

The brain is protected in a bath of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Circulating CSF is especially important for the birth of new neurons and cushioning the brain. The skull confines the brain in a restricted space and the volume is kept constant. The intracranial space has a conserved mass equalizing inflow and outflow 73 . Blood flow to particular brain regions increases during specific cognitive tasks. By increasing oxygen and glucose delivery to neurons, higher levels of activity can be maintained. Methods such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) take advantage of these changes in local energy metabolism and hemodynamics to pinpoint increases in correlated neural activity.

Thyroid Hormone

Before the cloning of the receptors for T3, thyroid hormone was known to play a major role in various biological processes. Thyroid hormone influences a multiplicity of complex cellular functions with still largely unknown mechanisms. The hormone regulates developmental processes, such as the central nervous system and morphogenesis. It also regulates growth, metabolic rate, body temperature, and myocardial contractility.

Outlook

Taken together, the TRs play multiple roles in a variety of different biological aspects in vertebrates. Brain development, hearing, bone growth, morphogenesis, metabolic rate, and myocardial contractility are the major known biological roles of TR, and gene silencing and activation are the major known functions of TRs and thyroid hormone. Therefore, the functional and biochemical roles of TR are being analyzed using different biological systems. Each system requires a spectrum of methodology. This book covers the major area of TR research divided into several chapters, each chapter covering one topic. Thus, each chapter describes not only one but a set of different methods required for analysis of TR research in a specific topic.

Overdoses of aspirin

The toxicity of aspirin is an interesting example of multiple biochemical abnormalities. The drug is metabolized to salicylic acid which is responsible for both the toxicity and the desirable effects. After an overdose the salicylic acid causes effects on the breathing rate and on metabolic processes in cells, with the result that the temperature rises, the breathing rate increases, and the metabolic rate increases. A further result of some of these initial changes is that the acidity of the blood changes, first falling, then rising, and the level of glucose in the blood goes down (ie. the PH rises then falls). The increase in the acidity of the blood allows more of the drug to enter the brain where the main toxic effects occur. The symptoms are nausea and vomiting a high temperature rapid, deep breathing ringing in the ears (in some people this may occur after normal doses) and headache. Serious overdoses lead to coma and death.

Carotid artery

Catecholamine Any of several compounds found naturally in the body that act as hormones or as neurotransmitters that affect the nervous and cardiovascular systems, the metabolic rate, and body temperature. It is also implicated in the development of depression in some people. The catecholamines include such compounds as epi-nephrine (adrenaline) norepinephrine, and dopamine.

Genetic Maladies

Archibald Garrod elaborated during his career two insightful themes that were apocryphal for the time first, that due to molecular idiosyncrasies, each person displays a chemical individuality or diathesis and that heritable defects in human metabolism evidence molecular malfunctions, often expressed as enzyme deficiencies in crucial metabolic pathways.

Thyroid Dysfunction

The thyroid gland secretes hormones that control your metabolism, the rate at which your body burns energy. When the thyroid doesn't function properly, it can make your metabolism run too quickly or too slowly. Either problem can interfere with learning and memory. Research with animals demonstrates that changes in levels of thyroid hormones cause physiological changes in the hippocampus.

Diazepam

Dopamine A chemical messenger (neurotrans-mitter) in the brain and a member of the class of catecholamines that affect the nervous and cardiovascular systems, metabolic rate, and body temperature. Secreted by neurons in the substantia nigra, the midbrain, and the hypothalamus, dopamine is thought to play a role in controlling movements. Parkinson's disease, a degenerative condition characterized by muscle rigidity and tremors, is due to loss of cells in the substantia nigra that release dopamine. in fact, drugs that mimic dopamine are used to treat parkinson's, and drugs that relieve the symptoms of schizophrenia may also cause Parkinsonlike symptoms.

Primary Insomnia

People who develop primary insomnia seem predisposed to the problem because they have overactive nervous systems. Studies of people with chronic insomnia show they have higher metabolic rates and produce higher levels of stress hormones than others. Some experience they've had triggers difficulty with sleep, though in most cases individuals can't recall a specific event. After experiencing a few sleepless nights, they learn to associate the bedroom with being awake. The usual cues to begin to relax, such as entering the bedroom, putting on pajamas or brushing their teeth, instead elicit anxiousness about whether or not sleep will come easily. This anxiety causes alertness rather than relaxation and can further interfere with sleep.

Control of body mass

Body mass can also be controlled by regulating energy expenditure. In rodents, the basal metabolic rate (BMR) is increased by adaptive thermogenesis, whereby energy expenditure is increased in brown fat, generating heat. Humans have little brown fat, although BMR rises with regular exercise, which may explain how regular exercise improves weight control. However, BMR falls as body weight decreases, counteracting slimmers' efforts to lose weight.

Concluding Remarks

Neuronal energy metabolism has emerged in recent years as an active field of study, with great potential of shedding light on newly explored intrinsic mechanisms supporting special neuronal energy needs. The bulk of the research until now has been done using in vitro systems, laying the foundation on which future in vivo studies will undoubtedly appear. The few in vivo studies already available do not necessarily agree with each other, especially regarding the question of anaerobic vs aerobic glucose utilization during neural activation. Nevertheless, the new information challenges some of the old dogmas of brain cellular energy metabolism both under normal conditions and under conditions of energy deprivation. The next few years promise to be exciting in terms of new knowledge, its understanding, and its practical uses.

Bodies of Evidence

Not only do we look different from other apes, but each human sex also has distinctive body traits shaped by sexual selection. Men are taller and heavier on average than women, with more upper body strength, higher metabolic rates, more hair, deeper voices, and slightly larger brains. Some of these traits may have evolved for sexual competition against other males. But male bodies are also living evidence of the sexual choices made by ancestral females. Men grow beards, and possess penises that are much longer, thicker, and more flexible than those of other primates. These are more likely to reflect female choice than male competition. Women also evolved to incarnate male sexual preferences. Women have enlarged breasts and buttocks, narrower waists, and a greater orgasmic capacity than other apes.

Bernhard Schink

Bacter species make up a significant part of the anaerobic microbial population in sediments and sewage sludge. No Pelobacter-like bacteria have so far been isolated from the rumen. The numerically predominant, syntrophically ethanol-oxidizing Pelobacter species represent new isolates of the metabolic type of the S-strain in the mixed culture Methanobacillus omelianskiF (Bryant et al., 1967). These Pelobocter species have become accessible to pure culture growth in our laboratory by the use of unusual substrates that all can be converted easily into acetalde-hyde, the key intermediate in the energy metabolism of these bacteria (see next section).

Obesity

Mortality and BMI showed increased pancreatic cancer morality rates associated with increasing BMI both for women and for men, and for men and women who had not smoked during the 16 years of follow-up.68 However, in a meta-analysis of data collected in epidemiologic studies of pancreatic cancer, BMI was only weakly associated with pancreatic cancer.69 In two recent studies, increased risk estimates for pancreatic cancer were related to increasing BMI after adjustment for potential confounding factors including smoking, diabetes, physical activity, and total caloric intake.28,29 Although the biologic mechanism to explain this potential relationship is unclear, it has been hypothesized that obesity's association with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and the resultant hyperinsulinemia may be an important factor in the development of pancreatic cancer. In animal studies, peripheral insulin resistance is associated with hyperinsulinemia and islet cell hyperplasia. However, it is...

Physical activity

Physical activity has also been shown to reduce obesity and central fat distribution in short-term clinical studies91. As physical activity patterns in free living populations are complex, so is the assessment of physical activity in epidemiological studies91. Many have used questionnaires to assess leisure-time physical activity, which in many urban populations is the primary determinant of differences in energy expenditure between individuals. This is not the case in rural populations, where a more comprehensive evaluation of work activities is required92,93. More exact measures are needed to account for all components of total energy expenditure (including resting metabolic rate and the thermic effect of food), but these are not feasible in large populations over extended periods of time91. A number of review papers91,93-98 and an NIH consensus statement99 have summarized prior work on physical activity.

Functions of insulin

Prior to summarizing the influence of IR on lipid metabolism, it is instructive to briefly review some of the functions insulin plays in its role as the master metabolic hormone. Insulin has a number of actions beyond the promotion of cellular uptake of glucose. It suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis and shifts the metabolic state of tissues (particularly skeletal muscle) toward the oxidation and storage (as glycogen) of energy from carbohydrate. At the same time, insulin suppresses the activity of hormone-sensitive lipase. This, in turn, reduces the release of free fatty acids (FFAs) from adipose tissues into the circulation and thereby lowers the availability of FFAs as a substrate for oxidation. Insulin also stimulates lipoprotein and hepatic lipases, enhancing the hydrolysis of TGs in circulating lipoproteins and allowing their FFAs to move into cells. In the liver, insulin stimulates the breakdown of apolipoprotein (Apo) B.

Abstract

Social insects (honey- and bumblebees, wasps, hornets, ants and termites) are interesting in many aspects, among them the energetic advantages of social life and conquering of unfavourable territories. Own investigations and data from lit er ature deal with the energy metabolism of these insects (except termites because of experimental difficulties), with locomotor activities, energy balances of foraging, energy saving by insulation of wasp nests compared with the afford to construct the wooden envelope, bee cluster strategy for surviving at low temperatures, and rearing of brood.

Physiology

Ate in ultraviolet irradiated- or heat-killed prey cells (Varon et al., 1969). However, the use of prey is highly organized degradation of the substrate cell leads to precursors that are used directly as building blocks, wh ich drives an efficient coupling between anabolic and catabolic processes. The result is a highly efficient energy metabolism. Energy Metabolism More data are available on uptake routes. As described in energy metabolism, bdellovibrios use phosphate-ester containing molecules obtained from the prey. The molecules are transferred to the parasite, and in the case of phosphate nucleosides, transport seems to involve two different systems, one specific for the growth and the other for the free-living stage (Ruby and McCabe, 1986 Ruby et al., 1985). Inorganic phosphorus transport is low and reflects the lack of need for this element, which is obtained in organic form directly from the prey (Ruby and McCabe, 1986). Sugar transport pathways are similarly lacking (Ruby and...

Drugs and toxins

The most common liver-damaging toxin is alcohol, which causes metabolic damage to hepatocytes, partly by interfering with energy metabolism, resulting in fatty liver, and also by inducing inflammation, when it can cause alcoholic hepatitis. Sustained excess drinking can cause cirrhosis.

Rheumatic fever 431

And maintains a healthy cardiorespiratory system. A respirator may be necessary if breathing becomes too slow the body may be cooled and barbiturates given to slow metabolism and lower intracranial pressure. Small quantities of insulin may be given to increase glucose metabolism, cor-ticosteroids to reduce brain swelling, and diuretics to increase fluid loss.

Renal System

The kidney is a privileged target for toxic agents because of its physiological and pharmacoki-netics properties. It receives the largest amount of blood per gram of tissue among any other organ and therefore it is more exposed to exogenous circulating NCE than many other organs. Moreover, tubular mechanisms of ion transport acts to facilitate drug entry into renal tubular cells. From a pharmacokinetic perspective, the kidney is involved in filtration, excretion, and reabsorption of NCEs. The kidney concentrates urine so that intratubular drug concentration may be much higher than plasma concentration, and finally the kidney has a high metabolic rate. Several drugs drug classes are associated with nephrotoxicity (e.g., antibiotics, nons-teroidal antiinflammatory drugs, immunosuppressors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, chemotherapeutic drugs, and fluorinated anesthetics).178,179 Deterioration of renal function over a period of hours to days results in the failure to excrete...

Buchnera

The complete genome of Buchnera strain APS (640, 681 bp) from the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, has recently been sequenced (Shigenobu et al., 2000). A total of 583 open-reading frames (ORFs) were identified. The chromosome contains genes for the amino acid biosynthesis (his-tidine, serine and branched-chain families), fatty acid biosynthesis and polyamine biosynthesis (Shigenobu et al., 2000). However, it either lacks or is deficient in genes required for the synthesis of cell-surface components, including lipo-polysaccharides and phospholipids, necessitating their symbiotic association with aphids (Shigenobu et al., 2000). Other Buchnera genes detected include those involved in DNA replication, energy metabolism, cell division, chaperons, colicin-related functions and protein translation and modification (Baumann et al., 1998 Shigenobu et al., 2000). An integrated view of Buchnera metabolism can be found in Shigenobu et al. (2000). Another unusual feature of the Buchnera genome is...

Colony defense

An alternative to behavioural field tests are studies on the physiological reaction of provoked insects. Earlier studies demonstrated the dramatic increase of honeybee heat production rates when exposed to alarm phero-mones, which is mainly caused by strongly increased locomotive activities. In most cases, the chosen method was respirometry 82 , but direct calorimetry has also been tested successfully for this purpose 19, 71, 83 . Physiological tests, which investigate the increase in heat production rates, cannot be used as biotests in a narrow sense, because not only alarm pheromones may induce an increase of heat production, but also other pheromones (e.g. sexual pheromones, brood pheromones), and the increase of heat production rates is not always necessarily an aggressive reaction. Nevertheless, such tests can be appropriate to quantify specific parameters of an alarm response when a substance has already been proven to be alarm-inducing. For calorimetric...

Roxithromycin 431

Rosiglitazone A drug used in the treatment of Type II diabetes (noninsulin-dependent). It is a drug that increases the sensitivity of the body to natural insulin. Insulin is the substance the body produces to control and maintain stable blood sugar levels. Drugs that perform this function are called thiazolidinediones. They also have effects on fat metabolism. This drug had been tested in trials recently in HIV patients that are effected by lipodystrophy and other metabolic changes due to treatment with HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTI-VIRAL THERAPY (HAART). Results of these studies have been mixed, with some trial results showing no changes in abnormal body composition and other trials showing a better balance of blood sugar in the body and fewer changes in fat distribution. These studies are ongoing and results will determine the use of this type of drug in managing body composition issues in people taking HAART.

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