Online Hypnosis Training Course
In hypnosis, an individual (the subject) experiences a highly suggestible state, often called a trance, in which the suggestions of a hypnotist strongly influence what is experienced or recalled. The hypnotist may suggest that the subject's arm will rise in the air automatically, without the subject intending it, or that the subject will be unable to do something that is usually easy to do, like bending an arm. Suggestions can also alter perceptions, causing subjects to see things that are not there, to not see things that are there, or to not feel pain. In the popular mind, hypnosis can be used to compel people to do what they otherwise would not do, including criminal or sexual acts. In fact, the research evidence does not support these claims (Gibson, 1991), but through posthypnotic suggestion, in which the hypnotist suggests that a particular action or experience (sensation) will occur when the hypnotic trance is ended, therapeutic benefits can occur. For example, a hypnotist may...
Mind-body interventions employ a variety of techniques designed to facilitate the mind's capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms. Only a select group of mind-body interventions having well-documented theoretical foundations are considered CAM. For example, patient education and cognitive-behavioral approaches are now considered mainstream. On the other hand, complementary and alternative medicine includes meditation, certain uses of hypnosis, dance, music, and art therapy, as well as prayer and mental healing.
Mind-body therapies Alternative and holistic therapies that focus on the mind, body, and spirit includes meditation, image visualization, biofeedback, hypnosis, expressive therapies (music, art, dance movement), therapeutic healing, touch, and spiritual healing. Many believe such therapies
The prototypical method of investigation in studies of mood-congruence involves exposing the participant to material with an affective valence and probing for memory of it in the same or different mood states. Memory is indexed through the speed and or accuracy of recall recognition. The main finding of interest, with relevance to depression, is that a depressed mood leads to lower levels of recall of positive material and in some cases facilitated recall of negative material relative to the performance of healthy controls, although the latter effect is less common. In a day-to-day situation the to-be-remembered material is most likely to be memories for events in the individual's life. In an attempt to see whether an emotional memory bias could be found under experimental conditions, Teasdale & Fogarty (1979) provided a sample of nondepressed participants with a list of neutral words to act as cues for the recall of positive or negative memories. They then induced an elated mood in...
Silverman's work represents the most elaborate, but not the only, attempt to verify hypotheses derived from psychoanalytic theory through experimental research. Many experimental studies of repression have been conducted, though they often do not correspond precisely to Freud's conceptualization (Geisler, 1985). Other approaches, reviewed by Shulman (1990), include hypnotic induction of unconscious ideas to test their behavioral effects (e.g., Reyher, 1962) and examination of situational effects on Freudian slips (e.g., Motley, Baars, & Camden, 1983). Though others have criticized psychoanalytic concepts for being too vague to verify empirically, Shulman expressed optimism that psychoanalytic theory can be tested with well-controlled experimental studies.
Benzodiazepines Class of drugs that are anxiolytics or hypnotics, widely used in medical practice as CNS depressants. Enhance the inhibitory action of GABA by modulating GABA receptors. Diazepam (Valium) is commonly used for relieving anxiety, and nitrazepam (Mogadon) for inducing hypnosis. Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) is also of this class. Are much more addictive than originally believed.
Mesmer, Franz Anton (1734-1815) An Austrian physician whose system of treatment (known as mesmerism) was the forerunner of modern-day hypnosis. While still a student at the university of Vienna in 1766, Mesmer discovered the work of the Renaissance mystic physician Paracelsus. He tried to uncover a link between astrology and human health as a result of planetary forces transmitted through a subtle invisible fluid. By 1775, Mesmer began to teach that a person may transmit universal forces to others in the form of animal magnetism and based his therapeutic sessions on those beliefs. During these sessions, several people sat around a vat of dilute sulfuric acid while holding hands or touching iron bars sticking out of the solution. mesmerism Also known as animal magnetism, this 18th-century system of treatment was the forerunner of modern-day hypnosis. Mesmerism was named for Austrian physician Franz Anton Mesmer (see mesmer, franz anton) who developed the practice while trying to...
Hypnosis During hypnosis the subject passes into a trance. This is an altered state of consciousness in which the subject's attention is intensely focused while attention to other stimuli is reduced. It is not a deep sleep or unconsciousness. The subject is awake and can respond to the therapist. Perception, memory, behavior, and suggestibility are altered. In therapy the increased suggestibility can be used to influence behavior and feelings. Hypnotherapists claim benefit in chronic pain and chronic fatigue syndrome among many other medical and psychological problems. About 85 percent of the population are hypnotizable. A typical therapeutic hypnosis session will go through six stages 1. An introduction explaining what hypnosis is and is not and answering the patient's questions and concerns 4. The therapeutic work, which may include ego strengthening, addressing a specific problem, and suggestions for behaviors following the hypnosis (posthypnotic suggestion) Hypnosis should not be...
I find in going through the literature that the psychogalvanic reflex has been elicited by the following varieties of stimuli sensations and perceptions of any sense modality (sight, sounds, taste, etc.), associations (words, thoughts, etc.), mental work or effort, attentive movements or attitudes, imagination and ideas, tickling, painful or nocive stimuli, variations in respiratory movements or rate, suggestion and hypnosis, emotional behavior (fighting, crying, etc.), relating dreams, college examinations, and so forth Forty investigators hold that it is specific to, or a measure of, emotion of the affective qualities ten others state that it is not necessarily of an emotional or affective nature twelve men hold that it is somehow to be identified with conation, volition, or attention, while five hold very definitely that it is nonvoluntary twenty-one authorities state that it goes with one or another of the mental processes eight state that it is the concomitant of all sensation...
In challenging the status quo in psychiatry and neurology, Freud experimented freely, trying hypnosis and, later, free association and dream interpretation, despite the fact that neurologists of the time generally viewed hypnosis as a fraudulent technique that endangered the patient (Miller, 1993). He did not let opposition or failure stop his progress. In an age when psychoanalysis was officially held to be of ill repute, Freud participated in establishing leadership within the International Psycho-Analytical Association to advance the cause (Freud, 1935). In addition, although he believed strongly in hypnosis, his own failures in inducing hypnosis in patients led him to turn eventually to dream interpretation and free association as therapeutic alternatives.
The BMA first offered a lengthy history and defence of the traditions of scientific medicine, taking up about one third of the report. Only then did it provide a series of (overwhelmingly disparaging) assessments of a range of alternative therapies, including acupuncture and homeopathy, herbalism and hypnotherapy. It concluded that these and many other therapies had 'little in common between them, except that they pay little regard to the scientific principles of orthodox medicine' (BMA 1986 77). The report emphasised that the 'fundamental division' separating orthodox and alternative approaches was 'the scientific principle which underlies the former, and the testing of theories by systematic observation which that principle implies'
Spiritual and psychological approaches seek to provide a holistic balance to complement other treatment strategies for HIV AIDS. Although benefits are highly individual and subjective, they can contribute to an overall state of health. Treatments include hypnotherapy, meditation, psychotherapy, spiritual healing, stress reduction, and visualization.
Treatment is advisable in cases where people have injured themselves or seem likely to. Behavioral therapies aimed at promoting relaxation often reduce or eliminate episodes. In particular, self-hypnosis a technique that can be learned from a trained counselor in six sessions and then practiced at home before bedtime is often effective.
The idea of mapping cognitive functions to precise areas of the brain dates back to phrenology, the now archaic practice of studying bumps on the head. Positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and other imaging technologies offer a vivid picture of what is happening in the brain as it processes pain. using imaging, investigators can now see that pain activates at least three or four key areas of the brain's cortex-the layer of tissue that covers the brain. Interestingly, when patients undergo hypnosis so that the unpleasantness of a painful stimulus is not experienced, activity in some, but not all, brain areas is reduced. This emphasizes that the experience of pain involves a strong emotional component as well as the sensory experience, namely the intensity of the stimulus.
Many of Freud's patients had physical symptoms for which no organic cause could be found. Influenced by his study of hypnosis under Charcot, Freud argued that cases of conversion hysteria represent the impact of unconscious forces on the body to produce physical symptoms of paralysis, mutism, deafness, blindness, tics, or other maladies that resemble physical diseases but that occur in physically normal, undamaged bodies (Breuer & Freud, 1925 1955). The diagnosis is less often made today (M. M. Jones, 1980), and its appearance is influenced by beliefs about disease, which vaiy across time and culture (Fabrega, 1990).
Hypnosis and self-hypnosis in the treatment of psychogenic dysphonia A case report. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 24, 277-283. Neelman, J., and Mann, A. H. (1993). Treatment of hysterical aphonia with hypnosis and prokaletic therapy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 816-819.
Several types of amnesia belong to a different class of amnesia than those types caused by injury or disease called psychogenic amnesia, they are induced by hypnotic suggestion or occur spontaneously in reaction to acute conflict or stress (usually called hysterical). This type of amnesia may also extend to basic knowledge learned in school (such as mathematics), which is never seen in organic amnesia unless there is an accompanying aphasia or dementia. These types of amnesia are completely reversible, although they have never been fully explained. This type of amnesia usually can be treated successfully by procedures such as hypnosis. A normal mentally healthy person is assumed to be integrated within a unified personality. But under traumatic conditions, memories can become detached from personal identity, making recall impossible. Modern accounts of hysterical amnesia have been heavily influenced by Sigmund Freud, who attributed the problem to a need to repress information...
Amnesia may also occur after hypnosis, either spontaneously or by instruction, making the memory of an hypnotic trance vague and unclear, much the way a person has trouble recalling a dream. If a hypnotized subject is told that he or she will remember nothing after awakening, the subject will experience a much more profound posthyp-notic amnesia. However, if the patient is rehypno-tized and given a countersuggestion, he or she will awaken and remember everything therefore, experts believe this phenomenon is clearly psy-chogenic. The amnesia may include all the events of the trance state or only selected items or it may occur in matters unrelated to the trance. Memory for experiences during the hypnotic state may also return (even after a suggestion to forget) if the subject is persistently questioned after awakening. It was this observation that led Sigmund Freud to search for repressed memories in his patients without the use of hypnosis.
Loosely explained, hypnotherapy is an exercise of therapy which induces a deep relaxation state of body and mind and then uses this state of mind to introduce ideas or images into the consciousness.