Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course
During the nineteenth century, written works on toxicology contributed greatly to the systematic growth of the science. European and American scientists wrote texts which improved the chemical and medical understanding of poisons. Sophisticated methods (for the time) were developed to confirm the presence of toxins. Because arsenic was such a common means of murder, it became the focus of early analytic work. No fewer than three scientists developed methods to test for arsenic. James Marsh, Hugo Reinsch, and Max Gutzeit gave their names to methods some of which are still in use today. At this same time in history, medical science began to explore pharmaceuticals in a more rigid and systematic manner. Great scientists, especially in France and Germany, made contributions to the understanding of human physiology and drug interactions within the body.
Caudal Denoting a position more toward the cauda, or tail, than some specified point of reference same as inferior, in human anatomy. eu Dorsal 1. Pertaining to the back or to any dorsum. 2. Denoting a position more toward the back surface than some other object of reference same as posterior in human anatomy superior in the anatomy of quadrupeds. eu Ventral 1. Pertaining to the belly or to any venter. 2. Denoting a position more toward the belly surface than some other object of reference same as anterior in human anatomy. eu
Studies of human anatomy during this period in history also began to uncover errors in Galen's descriptions (e.g., Vesalius, 1543 1947), opening the way for questions of his methods and of his theory of physiological functioning and symptomatology. Within a century, two additional events occurred that had a profound impact on the nature of inference in psychophysiology. In 1600, William Gilberd (1544-1603) recognized a difference between electricity and magnetism and, more importantly, argued in his book, De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno magnete tellure, that empirical observations and experiments should replace the probable guesses and opinions of the ordinary professors of philosophy. Francis Bacon (1561-1626) took the scientific method a step further in Novum Organum (1620 1855), adding induction to observation and adding verification to inference. Bacon was not a scientist, yet he is regarded as a forerunner of the hypothetico-deductive method (Brazier, 1959 Caws,...
Before you can understand how to treat the things that can go wrong with your sinuses, you have to know what the sinuses are and how healthy sinuses work. We're about to embark on a journey through the human anatomy that will be a little like the 1960s movie Fantastic Voyage, except your destination as a miniaturized traveler is the nasal passages instead of the brain, and I'm sorry to have to say that the actress Raquel Welch is nowhere to be found. In a sense, your sinuses do not even exist. After all, they are just empty spaces in your skull created by the intersection of bony walls surrounding your eyes. Think about it. No medical examiner conducting an autopsy could extract the sinuses from a human body and place them in a jar.
There is no one atlas that covers every structure in the way and in the detail you might require. It is a good idea to go to a school of medicine bookstore and look at each one of these books to see which is most appropriate for your needs. If you buy only one atlas, Netters Atlas of Human Anatomy is probably the best single volume. A recommendation is that you have at least more than one, and over time, acquire several. Comparing the approach and presentation between two or more references will help to build a better understanding of the structures you are studying. Also, there are a number of specialized atlases in areas like cardiology, neurology, urology, and so on (e.g., Netter's Atlas of Human Neuroscience), if you need even more detailed information. It is best to start with a good shelf of the general atlases, and purchase an expensive specialized atlas if you have a specific need for one. Frank Netter and John T. Hansen's Atlas of Human Anatomy, third edition (Icon Learning...
Another area of medical illustration is the production of medical models. There are numerous varieties of medical models, from the purely visual, to those for training, to those purely for engineering. Rapid prototype models have become a common tool for planning complex surgeries. Examples of these are shown in Chapter 6. Training models mimic some features of a surgical procedure, such as the retraction of tissue for an open procedure, the trackabilty of a catheter, or the insertion force of an introducer. SOMSO Models (Marcus Sommer Somso-Modelle) has been manufacturing medical models in Sonnenburg and Coburg, Germany, since 1876, and has been in the Sommer family for five generations. SOMSO makes models of nearly all human anatomy and many zoological and botanical models, and can be purchased in the U.S. from Holt Anatomical (Miami, FL), the Anatomical Chart Company, and many medical college bookstores. Companies like Pacific Research (www.sawbones.com) pro- 20 The International...
Anatomy, physiology, and psychophysiology are all branches of science organized around bodily systems with the collective aim of elucidating the structure and function of the parts of, and interrelated systems in, the human body in transactions with the environment. Anatomy is the science of body structure and the relationships among structures. In the following section, we review some of the major historical developments that have influenced contemporary thinking and research in psychophysiology. As might be expected from the discussion thus far, many of these early developments have stemmed from studies of human anatomy and physiology.
Most pediatricians can recognize when the condition is severe enough to warrant special care, but parents may want to seek a specialist's opinion if they believe their child's feet or legs are not developing normally. bowed legs, flatfeet, knock-knees, pigeon toe, and toe-walking are all examples of normal variations of the human anatomy that rarely require treatment.
In this chapter we have reviewed the perplexing variety of methods that are available for analyzing callosal structure. In view of the controversy over callosal differences and their determinants, probabilistic reference systems based on large human populations may help to identify group-specific patterns of callosal structure, providing a sample size appropriate to investigate subtle effects. Anatomical models can be combined with anatomically driven elastic transformations that associate homologous brain regions in a database of anatomical data. These strategies provide the ability to perform morphometric comparisons and correlations in three dimensions between a given subject's MR scan and a population database or between population subgroups stratified according to relevant clinical and or demographic criteria.
Pediatric nephrologists have a vast understanding of human physiology and the body's shifts in fluids, electrolytes, and acid-base disturbances. They diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases renal artery stenosis, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, diabetes insipidus, and chronic renal failure. From the time they perform the renal biopsy, through the process of peritoneal dialysis, nephrologists build strong relationships with their patients who have chronic disease. During a morning clinic they might see referrals for hematuria or proteinuria that was not explained by the initial workup of the general pediatrician. In the afternoon, they make rounds on the inpatient ward to manage, for example, the high-output renal failure of a child who has just received a new kidney. Residents and at-tendings always seem to be picking their brains during interesting cases at morning report their insight is always quite helpful.
The major psychoanalytic concept for understanding artists is the concept of sublimation. Sublimation occurs when libidinal drives are transformed into socially desirable outlets, including painting. In art, unfulfilled sexual motivation may be expressed symbolically. To many observers, O'Keeffe's paintings of flowers, with their emphasis on concave spaces and openings, look like female genitals, and the hills of her New Mexico landscapes also resemble the female body. One flower painting was similar enough to human anatomy that a father used it to illustrate a sex education lesson for his young daughter. O'Keeffe's paintings of jack-in-the-pulpit flowers show exaggerated phalliclike jacks. In addition, her first individual show contained a single sculpture, an object much resembling a phallus. Her flower paintings were immense by comparison with the size of actual flowers, in order to make the viewer really notice flowers that would otherwise be passed by, she said, but could this be...
Essentials of Human Physiology
This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.