Top mentality See top

topical Pertaining to a specific surface area.

topical microbicide An antibacterial or antifun-gal compound that can be applied directly to the lining of the vagina before intercourse to thwart sexually transmitted microbes that cause diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydia, hepatitis B, and HIV infections. Today, the development of safe, effective, female-controlled topical microbicides that will block the transmission of HIV and other STD agents is a global priority and a central focus of the STD research program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The goal is to develop safe antimicrobial products that effectively fight a combination of infectious agents, whether they are viral, bacterial, or protozoan.

The currently available mechanical and chemical products thought to prevent STD/HIV transmission have limitations. A major drawback of the male condom is that it cannot be used at the discretion of a woman without her partner's knowledge or consent, and personal, social, or cultural barriers often interfere with her ability to negotiate its use. Existing spermicides have not been clinically evaluated, and issues of safety and efficacy for STD/HIV prevention remain unresolved.

topoisomerase An enzyme that uncoils the tightly wound dna in cells' nuclei so that cell division and replication can take place.

topotecan An experimental anticancer chemotherapy that inhibits topoisomerase I and blocks cell division. It is a possible therapy for HIV, having been found to inhibit HIV replication in the lab, and


(PML), an opportunistic virus infection of the brain.

torulosis See cryptococcosis.

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