testing See hiv testing; mandatory testing;
testosterone A naturally occurring male hormone, found in both men and women. Testosterone is responsible for the masculinizing and tissue-building (anabolic) changes that occur in males during adolescence, including the growth of the reproductive tract and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. When administered as a drug it can cause gain in lean body mass, increased sex drive, and possibly aggressive behavior. Many men with HIV have low testosterone levels caused by HIV suppression of normal endocrine-gland function or by drugs (like keton-conazole) used to treat opportunistic infections. These deficiencies are associated with the loss of both energy and lean tissue mass in HIV-related weight loss. Testosterone and other anabolic steroids are often prescribed as part of testosterone REPLACEMENT THERAPY.
Oral and injectable testosterone have long been available to treat testosterone deficiencies. Synthetic forms are also available. The advantages of these include lower risk of liver toxicity and fewer of the masculinizing side effects common when injectable testosterone is used. Recently, a daily-wear, no-adhesive transdermal (through the skin) testosterone patch has become available. It is applied to the scrotum and provides serum testosterone levels that mimic the normal daily pattern in healthy adults. This form of delivery also avoids the peaks and troughs in blood levels that occur with testosterone injections. For treatment of HIV-related weight loss, one manufacturer recently started a clinical trial of a rub-on testosterone gel. Testosterone patches are already approved for use in hypogonadal wasting. The rub-on gel must be applied to a shaved scrotum, while the patches can be placed anywhere on the body.
For treatment of HIV-related weight loss, testosterone is effective only for people with abnormally low testosterone levels. For maximum effect against wasting, both adequate nutrition and exercise should be combined with testosterone therapy. The hormone makes cells ready to build tissue but has little effect without the proper building blocks or exercise. Prolonged use of oral testosterone, however, as of other oral anabolic steroids, has been associated with severe liver tox-icity and liver cancer.
Not much is known about how the use of testosterone and other anabolic steroids affects HIV replication, disease progression, or survival. Even less is known about the use of anabolic-steroid therapy in HIV-positive women.
testosterone replacement therapy The therapeutic use of testosterone to substitute for natural testosterone that is either absent or diminished. Also used as an approach to managing weight loss.
tetracycline Any of a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics belonging to certain species of Strepto-myces. They may also be produced semisyntheti-cally. Tetracyclines are effective against a variety of organisms, including gram-negative and grampositive BACTERIA, CHLAMYDIAS, MYCOPLASMAs, rickettsias, and some viruses and protozoa.
Th1 cell A subdivision of the helper T cell involved in cell-mediated immunity and characterized by its production of IFN-y and IL-2. The cytotoxic T cells involved in this response are known as T1.
Th1 response An acquired immune response whose most prominent feature is high cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity relative to the amount of antibody production. The Th1 response is promoted by T4 Th1 T-helper cells.
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