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and other current drug therapies in HIV treatment are currently not very successful in crossing the blood-brain barrier, therefore making the brain a sanctuary for the virus.

Sandimmune See cyclosporine a.

saquinavir Saquinavir was the first protease inhibitor approved by the FDA for treatment of HIV. It is currently approved for treatment in combination with nucleoside analogs. Saquinavir should be taken after a full meal. The most common side effects, which occur in very few people, are diarrhea, stomach discomfort, and nausea. The initial formulation of saquinavir was called Invi-rase. Invirase did not have very high anti-HIV activity because of its poor absorption in the intestine and rapid breakdown in the liver. Maintaining sufficient levels of the drug in the blood was difficult. Combining saquinavir with ritonovir increases its blood levels tenfold. Therefore, Invi-rase is usually used in HAART with ritonovir to create a useful drug regimen. The saquinavir formula has been changed to a gel formula that also increases the availability of the drug in the body. As in other HAART regimens, saquinavir is believed to be one cause of lipodystrophy. Liver function test results should be monitored regularly. (The trade names are Fortovase and Invirase.)

sarcoma A malignant tumor of the skin and soft tissue.

scabies A highly contagious skin disease caused by the itch mite. It is transmitted by close contact and is characterized by the eruption of papules, vesicles, and pustules. Eczema may result from scratching.

scapegoating A person or group made to bear the blame for others or to suffer in their place. In the first five years of the epidemic, as AIDS virus evidence mounted, fear also erupted; exposure to Americans of the virus was much higher than had previously been suspected. As fears escalated, so did blaming so-called high risk persons or groups associated with HIV/AIDS (e.g., homosexuals, immigrants, injection drug users) for the continuing spread of the disease.

scat The excrement of an animal or human; also a slang term for sexual fetishes that involve human feces.

scavenger cell one of a diverse group of white blood cells with the capacity to engulf and destroy foreign material and dead tissue and cells.

Schedule 1 drugs On the basis of the Controlled Substances Act, which the U.S. Congress passed in 1970, controlled substances are classified into five "schedules." Schedule 1 drugs have a high potential for abuse and no current accepted medical use in the united States or are not safe to use even under medical supervision. It is not legal to possess these substances under any circumstances. Drugs in this class include opium and heroin, hallucinogenic substances (including LSD, marijuana, MDA, mdma, GHB, mescaline, peyote, and psilocybin), Quaaludes, cocaine (including crack), and a few other substances. use of these substances has been linked to increased risk for infection with HIV. Pharmacies, other than those in facilities that are registered for investigative or research uses, should not have any Schedule 1 controlled substances in inventory. Further, physicians are not authorized to prescribe Schedule 1 controlled substances unless registered to perform investigations or research under approved research protocols. Most of the controlled substance analogs of drugs in other schedules, sometimes called designer drugs, are classified as Schedule 1 controlled substances.

Schedule 2 drugs Drugs that have a high potential for abuse, they have a currently accepted medical use in the United States or a currently accepted use with severe restrictions. Abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence. Morphine, amphetamines, and methamphetamine fall into this schedule, as does PCP, which is legally used as a veterinary anesthetic. other major pain relievers, such as oxycodone (OxyContin, Perco-cet, Roxicodone), hydromorphone (Dilaudid), and meperidine (Demerol), also fall into this schedule. Methylphenidate (Ritalin), a stimulant in this class,

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