Menopause 309

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memories have been obliterated or suppressed psychologically, because there has been organic brain damage by drugs, disease (or age), or because of a temporary interference with normal brain function by drugs or disease. See hiv encephalopathy.

memory cell A cell that remains after the body mounts an immune response to an antigen and is capable of an immediate response to the reappearance of the same antigen. Memory cells can include certain subsets of T cells (CD4 and CD8) and some B cells.

memory T cell A T cell that bears receptors for a specific foreign antigen encountered during a prior infection or vaccination. After an infection or a vaccination, some of the T cells that participated in the response remain as memory T cells, which rapidly mobilize and clone themselves should the same antigen be reencountered during a second infection at a later time. See immunity.

men who have sex with men (MSM) A term created to define MSM who do not identify as gay or bisexual.

meninges The three membranes that ensheathe the brain and spinal cord: the pia mater (internal), the arachnoid (middle), and the dura mater (external).

meningitis An infection of the meninges, the membranes that envelope the brain and the spinal cord. Cryptococcosis is the most common cause of meningitis in people who have AIDS. It is caused by the yeast Crypto coccus neoformans. Development of cryptococcosis usually requires significant impairment of the immune system and generally does not occur until the CD4 count drops below 100 cells per millimeter. Symptoms of cryptococcus include headache, fever, lethargy, nausea, and vomiting. Patients often experience intermittent symptomatic and asymptomatic periods. The infection can occur in the brain itself; there it can mimic the appearance of a brain tumor in diagnostic images produced by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Other sites of infection include the lungs, liver, heart, skin, lymph nodes, adrenal glands, and genitourinary tract. Diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis is important because early treatment of the disease can be very effective. Note that there are also other causes of meningitis in HIV-infected patients. These include the bacterium that causes TB and possibly HIV itself.

meningoencephalitis Inflammation or infection of the brain and its meninges. The usual cause is a bacterial infection, but HIV can also cause menin-goencephalitis.

menopause The period during which menstruation ends permanently; the end of a woman's period of fertility. Diagnosis of menopause is indicated by the absence of menses accompanied by symptomatology and strengthened when serum LH and FSH are found to be elevated, indicating failure of the ovaries to produce estrogen in the presence of adequate hypothalamic/pituitary stimulation. Definitive diagnosis is indicated by the completion of 12 months without menses. Women generally develop some signs of estrogen depletion prior to the cessation of periods. Until the periods have stopped for 12 months, conception is still possible and contraceptive measures should be taken. Menopause usually occurs naturally between ages 45 and 55. It may also be surgically induced, or occur prematurely. Early onset of menopause is not uncommon in HIV-positive women. Compounding a possible association with HIV are factors such as anemia, chronic illness, weight loss, tobacco use, use of street drugs (particularly heroin), and possible effects of antiretrovirals such as AZT or ddi.

Estrogen replacement therapy is generally offered to menopausal women to reduce bothersome or debilitating symptoms (hot flashes, insomnia, decreased sexual functioning, decreased appetite, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, vagini-tis, dysuria, etc.), to prevent demineralization of bones (leading to osteoporosis), and to offset changes in lipid metabolism related to heart disease. Estrogen is supplemented with progestin to offset the documented increase in endometrial cancer and potential increased risk of breast cancer

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Natural Cures For Menopause

Natural Cures For Menopause

Are Menopause Symptoms Playing Havoc With Your Health and Relationships? Are you tired of the mood swings, dryness, hair loss and wrinkles that come with the change of life? Do you want to do something about it but are wary of taking the estrogen or antidepressants usually prescribed for menopause symptoms?

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