China for treatment of various disorders. There are three different families of ginseng: the oriental and American ginsengs (Panax schinseng), the Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) and the desert ginseng (Rumex hymenosepalus). For thousands of years, ginseng has been the most prized of herbal remedies, with a host of alleged benefits, including relief of fatigue, relief of stress, and other systemic benefits.
It has been suggested that Panax ginseng may increase natural killer cell activity. Panax and Eleutherococcus can produce insomnia, diarrhea, nervousness, depression, and skin rash. Ginseng can amplify the effect of certain antidepressant medications and, due to the small amount of estrogens in the plant, can affect menstruation in women.
gland A group of cells that removes materials from the blood, alters them to produce a specialized substance (such as a hormone), and then releases that substance back into the bloodstream to act in the body.
glans The head of the penis, the area covered by the foreskin in uncircumcised men.
glial cells Nonconducting nerve cells, which perform supportive and protective roles for neurones, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, microglia, and ependyma cells. Glial cells are believed to become infected with HIV and may be one cause of hiv encephalopathy.
glitazones Being studied for the treatment of lipodystrophy, glitazones belong to a class of drugs called the thiazolidinediones and are best known for their ability to make cells more sensitive to insulin. Glitazones have also been shown to help correct the function of adipocytes (fat cells).
globulins Simple proteins found in the blood serum that contain various molecules central to immune system function. Immune globulins (IGs) make up preparations used for passive immunization vaccines for the prevention of several illnesses, including chicken pox (varicella zoster), hepatitis a, hepatitis b, rabies, tetanus, and measles. HIV
and other viruses cannot be transmitted through immune globulin vaccines, as the process of extracting IG from the blood inactivates the virus.
glory hole A hole in a wall or partition through which a man sticks his penis. The person on the other side then anonymously fellates, masturbates, or otherwise stimulates the penis. This activity can take place in rest rooms, at gay sex clubs, or in other places where partitions exist.
glove In medical care gloves are used to prevent the contamination of an operative site with organisms from the person wearing the glove and to prevent pathogens from the patient from contaminating the health care worker. These factors are particularly important when the patient has a disease such as hepatitis b or AIDS. Medical gloves are generally made of latex. For those allergic to latex, gloves made of polyurethane are also manufactured for these purposes.
glucose Also sometimes called blood sugar. A form of sugar that is the body's primary fuel. Glucose broken down from food can be converted into energy or stored. Abnormally low (hypoglycemia) or high (hyperglycemia) levels of glucose in the blood often indicate metabolic problems such as diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus occurs when the body cannot use glucose for fuel either because the pancreas is not able to make enough insulin or because the insulin that is available is not effective. As a result, glucose accumulates in the blood instead of entering body cells.
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency An inherited enzyme deficiency that can lead to hemolysis of red blood cells when an affected individual is exposed to drugs with oxi-dant properties. The drugs most commonly used by HIV patients that can lead to hemolysis in G-6-PD-deficient patients are dapsone, primaquine, and sulfonamides. There are a number of variants of G-6-PD deficiency; approximately 10 percent of men of sub-Saharan African descent and 2 percent of women of sub-Saharan African descent have one
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