Examples of other fluids of the body include bile, chyle, chyme, gastric juice, intestinal juice, lymph, menstrual fluids, pancreatic juice, perspiration, saliva, and urine. These secretions can be external (if the material flows out through a duct) or internal (if it is returned to the blood or lymph). The particles of HIV circulate freely in the blood but mainly live in lymphocytes, which are present in most body fluids, such as semen, blood, cervical and vaginal secretions in women, prostatic secretions in men, saliva, even urine, and tears. Any activity or behavior that results in the sharing of bodily fluids in which the virus is found can transmit HIV. How likely one is to contract the disease depends on the particular fluid and other factors. A sufficient quantity of the virus must be present and the virus must penetrate through the skin and into the body. Blood, semen, prostatic secretions, and vaginal and cervical secretions carry the highest concentrations of the virus; saliva, tears, and urine carry minuscule amounts or no HIV. The virus can also be present in male pre-ejaculate, the clear liquid found on the penis before ejaculation.
genital ulcer An ulcerative lesion on the genitals, usually caused by a sexually transmitted disease such as herpes, syphilis, or chancroid. The presence of genital ulcers may increase the risk of transmitting HIV.
genital wart The name given to warts on the vulva, the vaginal wall, or the cervix in women and on the penis of men and on, around, and in the anus of all sexes. Genital warts result from a sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). In men and women, the warts may be single, occur in clumps, or become florid (a large mass). In HIV-positive people they may respond inadequately to treatment. Warts have been linked to more serious diseases, such as cervical cancer in women and anal neoplasia in men and women. In all cases of genital warts in women, a pap smear and follow-up treatment for HPV infection of the cervix must be conducted. It is now being suggested that men and women also receive anal smears regularly to detect any anal cancers that may develop from lesions caused by HPV. Both cervical and anal cancers are found at higher rates in HIV-positive people. They are also called condylomata acuminata.
genitalia The reproductive organs. Female genitalia consist of the vagina, clitoris, vulva, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and related structures. Male genitalia include the penis, testes and related structures, prostate, seminal vesicles, and bul-bourethral glands.
genitourinary tract The system involved in reproduction and elimination of urine. In women this consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and vagina. In men it is the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, testicles, prostate gland, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles. The genital and the urinary systems are distinct, but they are so closely related develop-mentally and functionally that they are often studied and treated together.
genome The total genetic material within a cell or individual, depending upon context. Specifically, the haploid chromosome complement (the complete set of chromosomes) and thus the total genetic information present in a cell.
Retroviral genomes are composed of at least three genes, designated gag, pol, and env. These genes provide genetic coding for the HIV nucleoside antigens, reverse transcriptase, and surface proteins, respectively. A similar dna sequence of varying length can be found at each end of the proviral DNA. This sequence contains elements that can promote proviral gene integration in the host cell's genome and expression of these genes. See GENETIC VARIABILITY.
genotype The genetic material inherited from parents; not all of it is necessarily expressed in the individual.
genotypic assay A blood test that determines the genetic sequences of a virus or other organism. Usually it is performed in HIV-positive persons to establish whether certain mutations conferring drug resistance are present. A genotypic test generally costs about $500, and results are usually avail
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