nant women. It is known to prevent congenital birth defects of the neural tube. A standard amount to supplement a pregnant woman's diet is 0.5 to 1 mg folic acid. Inadequate amounts of folic acid lead to anemia. Folic acid is found naturally in green plant tissue, liver, and yeast. Also called folate, vitamin B9, and vitamin M.
folinic acid A derivative of folic acid used to counteract the effects of folic acid antagonists such as pyrimethamine and to treat anemia caused by a deficiency of folic acid. It is also called citrovorum factor, leucovorin, and calcium folinate.
follicle A small sac or cavity for secretion; a sweat gland in the skin that produces skin oil to keep the skin lubricated. It is also a part of a lymph node. Lymph nodes are made up of multiple follicles.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) A hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. It stimulates growth of the follicle in the ovary and spermatoge-nesis in the testes.
follicular dendritic cell (FDC) A dendritic cell found in the spleen and lymph node follicles. It has long tentaclelike arms that retain antigens on their surface for a significantly long period. The cells' major function is to obtain antigen in tissues, migrate to lymphoid organs, and activate T cells and B lymphocytes. B cells, with T-cell help and FDC costimulation, become B memory cells and antibody-producing plasma cells. These cell interactions are responsible for immunity to disease. It is considered part of the macrophage group of cells. In HIV infection the virus becomes trapped along with the antibodies on the FDC and is transported to the lymph areas of the body. This is one reason why lymphoid tissues are among the major areas of HIV infection. Therefore, although these cells themselves are not believed to be infected generally, they assist the virus in its ability to move through the body.
folliculitis A common problem in HIV. It is a bacterial infection that is localized in a hair follicle. It can appear around beards, the back of legs, any where that there is hair. It is commonly due to Staphylococcus aureus, generally called "staph." boils are a deep hair follicle infection by this organism. Recommended treatment includes soap and water, antiseptics, antibiotic ointment, and oral antibiotics, in ascending order. A type of folliculitis that results from unclean warm or hot water, called spa pool folliculitis, is due to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Late in HIV infection some people experience a red, itchy, acnelike skin eruption that appears similar to staph folliculitis but is not caused by bacteria or fungi. The exact cause of eosinophilic folliculitis is in fact still unknown. The eosinophils are known to be involved in allergic reactions, and they are clustered in the areas of these bumps, but what they are reacting to is not understood. The condition is most often seen in persons with a CD4 cell count below 200. Treatment first employs antibiotics; then, if they are not effective, treatments for scabies are tried. It is thought that perhaps the reaction is to the skin mites that live in human hair follicles; for that reason scabies treatment sometimes is effective. occasionally ultraviolet B (UVB) light treatments are also used.
fomites An inanimate object that can harbor pathogenic microorganisms, therefore serving as an agent of transmission of an infection. Coins, computer keyboards, and kitchen sinks can all be considered as fomites.
fomivirsen Also known as fomivirsen sulfate. Manufactured by Novartis. Fomivirsen is used for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV). It is an antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide, a new class of drugs that use a unique antisense mechanism to block the replication of mRNA. mRNA is also referred to as a sense structure; hence the term antisense. Fomivirsen binds to the mRNA and stops the protein synthesis of the virus, thereby preventing replication. In treatment of CMV, it is given in intraocular injections. This process does not cause pain as the eyeball is numbed before the injection. (Trade name is Vitravene.)
Food and Drug Act of 1906 The original legislation giving the federal government regulatory
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