Erythrophagocytosis See erythrocytophagy

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erythroplakia A reddened velvety patch that may appear in the mouth. It is a precancerous condition. See oral cancer.

erythropoietin (EPO) A protein, made primarily by the kidney, that stimulates red blood cell production. A genetically engineered version has been approved as a treatment for HIV-related anemia. Anemia, which is frequently seen in people with HIV, can be caused by HIV infection itself or as a side effect of treatment. EPO will not be effective if anemia is caused by iron deficiency, infection, cancer, blood loss, and vitamin deficiency. It is not an appropriate therapy for severe anemia and cannot replace the need for blood transfusions. Early treatment of mild anemia with EPO may prevent the onset of severe anemia and the need for blood transfusions. The recombinant version of EPO is available as a solution for IV injection under the trade names Epogen and Procrit.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) A bacterium in the feces that causes most urinary tract infections.

esophageal candidiasis Serious fungal infection in the conduit between the mouth and the stomach (the esophagus). Esophageal candidiasis is caused by the same yeast infection that can also infect both the mouth and the vagina. It may start with an infection in the mouth (oral thrush) and spread to the esophagus, causing pain when swallowing, weight loss, and vomiting.

esophagitis Disease of the esophagus is very common in patients with AIDS. Its most common physical symptoms are painful swallowing or the sense of food sticking in the throat. Patients sometimes complain of chest pain or hiccups. These symptoms may result in decreased food intake in patients with nor mal appetites, dehydration, weight loss, and mal-nourishment. The diagnostic procedure of choice for esophagitis is upper endoscopy, in which a lighted scope is passed through the mouth into the esophagus. Esophagitis is primarily cause by candidiasis. Other possible causes include herpes simplex, CMV, and aphthous ulcers. In esophagitis related to can-didiasis a biopsy is the general diagnostic tool used.

esophagoscope A flexible or rigid instrument, equipped with an optical system, inserted into the esophagus for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes (obtaining or removing foreign substances).

esophagoscopy An endoscopic examination of the esophagus using an esophagoscope.

esophagus A muscular canal extending from the pharynx to the stomach. The esophagus carries swallowed food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach.

ESR See erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

estrogen Any natural or artificial substance that induces estrogenic activity; more specifically, the estrogenic hormones estradiol and estrone, produced by the ovary; the female sex hormones.

etharnbutol hydrochloride A drug used in treating TUBERCULOSIS and micobacterium avium COMPLEX

(MAC). It is used in combination with other TB and MAC medications. (Trade name is Myambutol.)

ethics A system or set of moral principles. Also, the rules of conduct recognized in respect to a particular class of human actions or governing a particular group, culture, or profession, such as medical ethics. AIDS research and policy development have from the very beginning involved serious ethical issues. Some of the earliest had to do with blood screening policies, the conduct of epidemiological research and surveillance, risk to health care providers, and the duty to warn people with HIV, patient confidentiality, and the conduct of drug trials. Many of these issues are still with us, although in different forms and some with lesser importance. For example, there are no longer debates about screening donated blood, but the questions around clinical trials have broadened, particularly concerning

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