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bovine leukemia virus (BLV) A virus found in cattle that is similar in structure to the human t-CELL LEUKEMIA virus.

brachioproctic intercourse Penetration of the rectum with the hand and forearm to induce sexual stimulation. Also called fisting or fist-fucking.

brain cancer Any primary cancerous tumor in the brain. Brain cancer is relatively rare. There are many different types of brain tumors, only some of which are cancerous. A malignant tumor can spread to other parts of the brain; although a benign brain tumor does not spread, it can be equally devastating because the skull cannot expand to accommodate the mass growing inside. Some benign tumors become malignant. Two types of brain cancer affect HIV-infected people: primary CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) LYMPHOMA and metastatic systemic lymphoma in the brain. Other brain cancers are extremely rare in HIV patients. The symptoms of a brain tumor can vary, depending on the part of the brain affected. The most frequent signs of a brain tumor are subtle changes in personality, memory, and intellectual performance that may not be noticed. A common symptom is a headache, not necessarily persistent or severe. Nausea and vomiting unrelated to food consumption occur in about a quarter of people with a brain tumor. Procedures used in the diagnosis of brain cancer are X rays, ct scan, spinal tap, eeg, cerebral angiography, pneumoencephalography, and MRI. Brain cancers are classified according to the types of cell in the tumors and their histologic grade (how different the tumor cell is from the cells that are near it). Treatment depends on cell type, location of the tumor, general state of health of the patient, and other factors. The three types of treatment currently being used are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy; biological therapy is being studied in clinical trials. A 2002 study in Michigan has shown that brain cancers have reduced in occurrence after the beginning of


brain imaging The use of x-ray or nuclear techniques to produce an image representative of the brain.

brain lesion Any abnormality in the brain tissue.

brain scan A form of brain imaging using ct scan or MRI. These tests may be run with or without staining dyes. Radioisotopes are no longer used in brain scans as they were in the past.

brain tumor A growth of tissue in the brain. See BRAIN CANCER.

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