Aerosol pentamidine See pentamidine

AETC See aids education and training centers (AETC) PROGRAM.

AFB isolation A specific type of hospital isolation for persons with acute Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its purpose is to prevent the spread of infection during the infectious phase of the disease. See acid-fast.

AFDC See aid to families with dependent children.

AFDC foster care foster care for children who originated in families receiving benefits under the aid to families with dependent children (AFDC) program. It includes medicaid coverage of the children.

affected community Persons living with HIV and AIDS, and any other related individuals, including their families, friends, and advocates, whose lives are directly influenced by HIV and all of its psychological and physical ramifications.

affective Pertaining to feelings, emotions, or mental states.

affective disorder Any disorder of affect, that is, of the feelings or emotions, characterized by mood swings and depression. It is not caused by, but may accompany, other physical or mental disorders. Affective disorders are common in HIV/AIDS patients.

Africa There were estimated to be 40 million cases of HIV/AIDS in the world as of the end of 2001, according to the United Nations (UN). Of that number, 28.5 million, or 71.25 percent, of the world's cases are in sub-Saharan Africa. Seventeen million Africans have died since the HIV plague began in the early 1980s. The disease in Africa has taken the heart of the populations of these countries. Children are left orphaned, and parents must bury their adult children before caring for their sick grandchildren.

Cultural norms in Africa have made it difficult to openly discuss the problem. Sex is generally not discussed openly in Africa, and leaders are afraid to talk about the issue. Early on in the epidemic, some leaders denied that AIDS existed in their country. In Malawi, where 850,000 people are infected with HIV, it was illegal to publicly discuss AIDS until 1994. In Kenya, a former president said it is improper to discuss usage of condoms, and he asked all Kenyans to stop having sex for two years to stem the tide of the disease. In Swaziland, where 33 percent of the adult population is infected, King Mswati III has ordered young women to abstain from sex until at least 19 years of age and not to wear trousers so they do not encourage attention from young men. They are to wear a "don't touch" tassle that alerts boys to their vow of chastity. The king has also imposed on young women a five-year ban from having sex. However, the king violated his own order, choosing a 17-year-old high

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