Administration route of

some people. Many types of adenoviruses have been isolated and designated by number. in addition to human adenoviruses there are animal types. Some adenoviruses may induce malignant tumors in experimental animals.

adherence The act or state of adhering; in the context of HIV/AIDS, sticking closely to a prescribed treatment regimen. The importance of maintaining adherence to highly active antiretrovi-ral therapies has received considerable attention since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART). However, if these treatments are not used properly (i.e., doses are repeatedly skipped, taken at lower than prescribed dosages, or not taken at scheduled intervals), drug resistance will develop more rapidly, and the potential benefits of combination therapy can be lost. Moreover, resistance to one drug may also result in decreased effectiveness of other drugs of the same class (cross-resistance). This is particularly true in regard to protease inhibitors.

Adhering to a treatment regimen is difficult under the best of circumstances. The triple combinations used with HIV disease can require that a person take a dozen or more antiviral pills per day, with specific timing and dietary requirements. Some HAART strategies have reduced the pill burden to one or two pills a day. When a person must also use preventive or maintenance doses of drugs for opportunistic infections, the total daily pill count can soar. Keeping track of one's medication becomes a major activity. Maintaining perfect adherence to today's complex treatment regimens is difficult. Studies have shown that there are many possible explanations for failure to adhere to treatment regimens, including forgetting to take a dose, sleeping through a dose, being away from home, changing one's therapy routine, being busy, sickness, experiencing side effects, or being depressed. The degree to which nonadherence is tolerable and the speed with which it contributes to drug failure is unclear. Additionally, it can vary from patient to patient how best to encourage and maintain adherence over time. Key components of these strategies are planning, support, and commitment.

adhesion The binding, or "sticking" of migratory leukocytes to endothelial or structural cells by the interaction of complementary adhesion proteins.

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