Nonsyncytiuminducing NSI virus

Steroids do, hence the name they are given. Aspirin is a commonly known NSAID. Other common NSAIDs are ibuprofen (Advil) and naproxen (Aleve). Acetaminophen is not a NSAID but a nonopioid analgesic. NSAIDs work by blocking the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), which helps the body form chemicals called prostaglandins. There are two types of COX in the body. The first, COX-1, is a chemical that lines the stomach. When this chemical is blocked by an NSAID, people may sometimes experience stomach upset...

Thymic humoral factor gamma 2 THF g2 A

Thymic peptide that has been developed as an immune-modulating treatment for HIV. The hope is that it will stimulate an infected person's immune system to fight HIV and diseases associated with it. thymic peptide Peptide produced in the thymus gland. Although the importance of thymic peptides remains in dispute, several investigators have reported that they can assist development of immature precursor cells into fully competent T cells. They also regulate the functioning of T-cells once they...

CMV polyradiculopathy See cytomegalovirus

CMV retinis See cytomegalovirus retinis. CMV viral load The total amount of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in a person's blood. Data suggest that CMV viral load can be a useful tool in tailoring CMV treatment options to fit each individual, just as HIV viral load is. Studies show that HIV viral load has some predictive value of risk of CMV disease progression and death predictive value of CMV viral load is much stronger. CMV viremia The presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the blood. Data indicate that...

AIDS classification

Example, federal and state funds are often allocated on the basis of the CDC-defined AIDS cases reported. At issue, therefore, are when an HIV infection becomes AIDS and when AIDS becomes disabling. In 1987 the CDC added three more illnesses to their list of defining conditions extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB outside the lungs), wasting syndrome, and HIV effects on the central nervous system (encephalopathy or dementia). These three additions resulted in a one-quarter increase in reported AIDS...

Progesterone implant 399

Privacy to both individuals and society. It is understood that, occasionally, this respect may bring them into conflict with legal rules and regulations. PRN A term used on prescriptions to mean take as needed, from the Latin phrase pro re nata. PRO-542 A fusion protein that functions similarly to human antibodies. It is in phase ii development by Progenics, Inc. It appears to be well tolerated and has been shown to work well in children. It works by binding to the gp120 protein of the outer...

Metabolic toxicity 311

Current standards of care for HIV-positive women neither approve nor forbid the use of hormone therapies or oral contraceptives for birth control or menstrual regulation. There is no present information that would alter treatment strategies for amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, premature or natural menopause, or premenstrual syndrome in immunocompromised clients. Research into the etiology as well as the effect of absent menstruation on the immune and endocrine health of women is needed. Menstrual...

Branched chain DNA bDNA assay

Branched DNA assay (bDNA test) A blood test developed by the Chiron Corporation that measures the amount of HIV, or other viruses, in blood plasma. The result is called the viral load. The test uses a signal amplification technique. This means the test creates a glowing signal that shows brightness depending on the amount of viral rna present. The test results are stated as virus particles per milliliter of plasma (number ml). The result of the bDNA test is generally about half the number...

Blood donation

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis or cryptococcal blood The fluid that circulates through the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries, carrying nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues, and taking away waste matter and carbon dioxide. Human blood is composed of fluid (plasma) in which are suspended red blood cells (erythrocytes), which carry oxygen white blood cells (leukocytes), which help make up the immune system platelets (thrombocytes),...

Distal symmetric polyneuropathy DSPN A

Disease of the nerves that manifests as subacute onset of numbness or tingling in the fingers or toes. Early clinical signs are bilaterally depressed ankle reflex and impaired sensation in the toes. distraction The cognitive strategy of focusing the attention on other body or local stimuli to distract the mind from pain and negative emotions that accompany pain. disulfiram An orally administered drug used in the treatment of alcoholism. Ingestion of alcohol after taking this drug causes severe...

Retrovirus 425

Respiratory burst The process by which neutrophils and monocytes kill certain microbial pathogens by conversion of oxygen to toxic oxygen products. respiratory infection An infection in the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs. respiratory syncytial virus A virus that induces formation of syncytial (of the nature of the syn-cytium, a multinucleated mass of protoplasm such as striated muscle fiber) masses in infected cell cultures. It is a major cause of acute respiratory disease in...

Oral candidiasis See candidiasis

Oral contraceptive A method of birth control (known as the pill) in which a synthetic hormone pill is taken regularly by mouth to prevent conception. The pill interferes with ovulation, fertilization, and implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. oral contraceptives were first made available and became popular during the early 1960s. The formulation has changed since its introduction, and newer versions provide a significantly lower dose of hormones than the original. The major advantages...

Prostaglandin 401

Which only infects and replicates in activated cells. See tumor necrosis factor interleukin-2. project inform Founded in 1985, a San Francisco-based project that is the nation's leading and most respected community-based AIDS treatment information and advocacy organization. Services include a toll-free Treatment Information Hotline, free publications (PI Perspective, a quarterly HIV treatment journal, fact sheets on therapies and diseases, and position papers on complex and timely issues about...

Mutually monogamous sexual relationship A

Relationship in which each partner agrees to be myalgia Tenderness or pain in a muscle or muscles. mycobacteriosis An infection caused by any mycobacterium. Mycobacterium A genus of acid-fast organisms of the Mycobacteriaceae family, which includes the causative organisms of tuberculosis, leprosy, and mac. The term acid-fast refers to a property of mycobacteria on staining done in microbiology labs, namely, that these bacteria do not decolorize when dilute acid is applied to the slide....

Heartburn

People with ischemic heart disease than in the general population. These may be divided into those that are not reversible, aging, male sex, and genetic factors those that are reversible, use of tobacco, hypertension, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and stress and others that may not be reversible hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus, decreased levels of high-density lipoproteins, and behavior patterns. In the late 1990s, reports noting an increase in the incidence of heart attacks,...

Institutional review board

Self-help measures are also recommended to induce sleep. institutional review board (IRB) A committee that is formally designated by an institution to review and approve biomedical research that involves humans as subjects. Such committees are mandated and governed by the Department of Health and Human Services (see Federal Register, 46(17) (Jan. 27, 1981 8,942-8,980). The overriding purpose of institutional review boards is to protect the human subjects of research...

Vaginal yeast infection See candidiasis

Vaginitis An inflammation or infection of the vagina. Vaginitis occurs when the normal environment of the vulva and vagina is disturbed, usually by common bacteria. Although the vagina resists disease as well as the rest of the body, vaginal imbalance and lowered resistance to infection can be caused by poor diet lack of sleep, exercise or cleanliness and stress. Causes of vaginitis include trichomona virus, candida, bacterial vaginosis, and several other possibilities. The presence of vaginal...

Baseline CD4 count

Well to drugs could have the virus change to a drug-resistant one introduced by a sexual partner. AIDS educators fear that unsafe behavior may have an effect on HIV-negative men as well, by eroding their negative views about being HIVpositive. For men who prefer to return to condom-less intimacy, this trend only accentuates that attitude. Some argue, however, that some unsafe sex has been occurring all along and that the availability of protease inhibitors and combination therapies may simply...

Baculovirus

Baculovirus An insect, arachnid (spiders), and crustacean (shellfish) virus used in the production of some Hiv vaccines that are being designed. it does not infect higher life forms such as monkeys or humans. See vaccine vaccine development. bad debt in the medical industry, unpaid hospital bills, which may include in-house charity care, Hill-Burton cases, and balances in which a hospital charges more than medicare, medicaid, or insurance contracts allow. bad sex cultural analysis fueled by the...

Blood giving

Infected with HIV recipients of a blood transfusion or a blood component those with tattoos, ear piercing, or acupuncture performed with a nonsterile needle persons stuck with a needle in a health care setting persons who have had sexual contact with a prostitute. All blood is tested in most Western countries before being used in medical settings, so the probability of contracting any illness from blood or blood products in North America or Western Europe these days is almost zero. A frequently...

Genital ulcer

Examples of other fluids of the body include bile, chyle, chyme, gastric juice, intestinal juice, lymph, menstrual fluids, pancreatic juice, perspiration, saliva, and urine. These secretions can be external (if the material flows out through a duct) or internal (if it is returned to the blood or lymph). The particles of HIV circulate freely in the blood but mainly live in lymphocytes, which are present in most body fluids, such as semen, blood, cervical and vaginal secretions in women,...

Lung inflammation Pneumonia

Lupus anticoagulant An acquired coagulation inhibitor first noticed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus but since found in association with other immune disorders, including HIV. It is typically silent, meaning it does not effect illnesses at all, but it may on occasion, paradoxically, cause excessive clotting. luteinizing hormone A hormone, secreted by the anterior lobe of the hypophysis (the pituitary gland), that stimulates the development of the corpus luteum (the temporary...

Pelvic mass 371

When sexually transmitted pathogens ascend from the vagina into the upper pelvic organs, the resulting infection is generally polymicrobial in nature. At this point, cervical and vaginal cultures are not useful in determining therapy. often the outcome of a pelvic infection, or pelvic inflammatory disease, is recurrent infections, tubal infertility, formation of tubo-ovarian abscesses, and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Any serious...

Gummatous syphilis Late benign syphilis

GVH reaction See graft-versus-host reaction. GW420867X A nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) made by Glaxo-SmithKline. Despite early successes with this medication and phase III trials, all work was stopped on the drug in 2002. Research studies showed the drug caused protease inhibitor levels to drop significantly in the body. GW-433908 Also known as VX-175. A protease inhibitor jointly under development by Glaxo Welcome and Vertex. It is water-soluble and therefore is...

Immune system abnormality

To antigen and interfering with the antigen's role before encouraging phagocytes to enter the area. memory cells are T cells and B cells that are held in storage by the body to attack antigen that has already entered. They recognize and recall the antigen and induce a quick response to it. There are also suppressor t cells. They are used to shut off the immune system when the antigen has been eliminated from the body. Their role is not fully understood. The final lymphocyte is the natural...

Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 One of

Two federal statues that address the issue of employment of people with disabilities (the other is the americans with disabilities act). Congress passed the Rehabilitation Act to promote the hiring of the disabled and to prohibit employers who receive funds under the act from discriminating against disabled workers who are otherwise able to perform their duties. Following a case brought by an employee with tuberculosis against a Florida school board Arline v. School Bd. of Nassau County, 480...

Protease paunch

Quency, food requirements, convenience, toxicity, and drug interaction profile when compared with other regimens. Note that the possibility of drug interactions is particularly a problem in persons who are being treated with multiple drugs, and it can influence the choice of drugs to be used in combination. For example, protease inhibitors affect the metabolism of the drug rifampin, which is sometimes given for active tuberculosis. At the same time, rifampin lowers the blood level of protease...

Testicular cancer Cancer of the testicles

Testing See hiv testing mandatory testing testosterone A naturally occurring male hormone, found in both men and women. Testosterone is responsible for the masculinizing and tissue-building (anabolic) changes that occur in males during adolescence, including the growth of the reproductive tract and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. When administered as a drug it can cause gain in lean body mass, increased sex drive, and possibly aggressive behavior. Many men with HIV have low...

Universal precautions In 1985 the centers for

DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDC) developed the strategy of universal blood and body fluid precautions to address concerns regarding transmission of HIV in the health care setting. Now referred to simply as universal precautions, the concept stresses that all patients should be assumed to be infectious for HIV, HBV, and other blood-borne pathogens. In hospitals and other health care settings, universal precautions should be followed when workers are exposed to blood, certain other body...

Decubitus ulcer See bedsore

Deductible The medical costs a patient must incur before medicare or health insurance coverage begins, usually on an annual basis. deeming income and assets The procedure of lumping together the income of separate nuclear family members who live together in common households (even if they claim not to be sharing income), in determining the eligibility of one of them for a needs-based program. For example, the incomes of spouses, or parent and child, living together are mandatorily combined and...

AZT failure

Patients tolerant of AZT generally develop a mild macro-CYTOSis with or without anemia in two months. This is not a reason to discontinue treatment with AZT. Normocytic anemia may develop and is of greater concern because it may precede severe anemia. In cases of severe anemia, AZT is reduced or discontinued, and transfusions given as needed. Severe persistent anemia may respond to erythropoietin. There may also be other causes of anemia, particularly infections. Patients with persistent or...

Anion gap

Anion gap A concept used to estimate electrolyte (anion and cation) levels in the serum and conditions that influence them. The anion gap ranges from eight to 18 mEq L in normal patients. If the anion gap is high, one possibility is that the individual has lactic acidosis of some kind. anogenital wart Raised skin in the anal or genital region occurring as a response to infection with PAPILLOMA virus. anomanual intercourse Sexual contact involving placing a hand in a partner's anus. After...

HIV wasting syndrome See wasting syndrome

HIV-associated adipose redistribution syndrome (HARS) A general term referring to the variety of body fat composition changes associated with anti-retroviral therapy. The natural history and cause (or causes) is not clearly understood. There are a number of different theories about how HARS might evolve. There are a large number of pharmaceutical treatments for high cholesterol level and other lipid disorders however, there is concern about using some of these drugs for people on HAART because...

Artemisia

To find what is successful for individual patients. thalidomide is an experimental drug proven helpful in a number of severe cases, although a topical corticosteroid is generally used. apoplexy See cerebrovascular accident-stroke. apoptosis A metabolic process driven by cellular enzymes, in which a cell's chromosomes and then the cell itself breaks down into fragments a part of cellular suicide. In the immune system, apoptosis is a process that eliminates unneeded cells. Some researchers...

Isolate

May never fully understand the health hazards of poppers. Evidence does strongly suggest that poppers are certainly not safe and probably do cause damage to health, especially to persons with HIV. isolation In medical institutions, procedure that keeps patients with contagious infections separated from others who are sick but do not have the same disease. Specifically, it is the limitation of movement and social contacts of a patient suffering from or a known carrier of a communicable disease....

T4 lymphocyte See T4 cell

T4-cell count A measure of the immune system the number of T4 lymphocytes present in a microliter of blood. A normal range is anywhere from 500 to 1,500. T4 counts are the best known and most widely used surrogate markers. Since HIV attacks T4 cells, comparing the number of existing T4 cells to the normal range (and to previous counts) is commonly used to predict progression of disease T4 counts have been correlated with survival. T4 levels can be reported in the following ways absolute number...

Roxithromycin 431

For public health, preventive purposes in the early years of the epidemic. In the media and in political debate, the epidemiological category of risk group has been used to stereotype and stigmatize people already seen as outside the moral and economic parameters of the general population. risk practice This concept, that has replaced risk group for all but surveillance purposes by the National Academy of Sciences, shifts the emphasis away from characterizing and stigmatizing people as members...

Karnofsky index

Sold in many health food stores under the name kava. It is used by naturopaths as a treatment for anxiety, nervousness, insomnia, pain, and muscle tension. The U.S. food and drug administration issued a warning in 2002 that the use of this supplement has led to liver failure in people that previously had reported no problems with liver function. Liver abnormalities in patients were also noted in several other countries that issued warnings regarding the herb. It is not known whether excessive...

Sepsis 441

Disclosure individuals commit to living in the world as HIV-positive individuals, being involved with others who are HIV-positive, and helping other HIV-positive individuals do the same in their life. It also helps to make an individual aware of the many times disclosure can protect him or her from passing the virus to another person. Self-disclosure applies not just to HIV but to many other areas of life that may be affected by acknowledging personal issues in public spaces. self-insemination...

Schizophrenia

In general, these disturbances are present for six months before the diagnosis of schizophrenia is accepted. Prognosis is usually poor, but over a 25- to 30-year period about one-third of patients show recovery or remission. Schizophrenia occurs equally in males and females and at any age, but the usual age of admission to a hospital is 28 to 34. The relation of safe sex and first-episode schizophrenia (as compared with more chronic schizophrenia) has been the subject...

Human herpesvirus 5 See cytomegalovirus

Human herpesvirus 6 Herpesvirus that infects lymphocytes, including CD4 cells. HHV-6 infection generally occurs early in life and may cause fever and exanthem (roseola, a red skin rash) in infants. HHV-6 is associated with neuropathology, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and certain autoimmune diseases. human herpesvirus 7 Herpesvirus that infects human T cells but is not known to cause disease. human herpesvirus 8 See Kaposi's sarcoma-associated HERPESVIRUS.

Germanium

To date, the geographical distribution of AIDS has reflected the progression of the pandemic to the developing world. Projections of AIDS continue this trend geographic variations are important. The range of proportional increases varies significantly by geographic area of affinity. germanium Discovered in 1886, the mineral germanium, which has an atomic weight of 32 on the periodic table of elements, is not known to be essential to human health. It is a rare element that is never...

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug 341

Including delavirdine, efavirenz, and nevirapine, that act directly to combine with and block the action of hiv's reverse transcriptase. In early clinical trials of these drugs, it was found that HIV developed resistance in as little as two to seven weeks when the drugs were used alone. Therefore, NNRTIs are used only in conjunction with other types of HIV drugs. They are considered a first line of therapy in HIV treatment. The nonnucleoside drugs are similar to nucleoside analogs they both...

Antiviral therapy See antiviral

Antivirogram A trademarked name for a particular phenotypic assay. It measures the quantitative ability of a particular drug to inhibit growth of the patient's virus, as compared to a sample of wildtype virus. It is the only phenotypic assay that works in all GROUP M subtypes of the virus and provides a full report on all genetic sequences of the virus in the patient. Results are given in fold resistance measures. anus Terminal opening of the alimentary tube for the elimination of feces. Also...

Alveolar proteinosis See pulmonary alveolar

Alveolus (pl. alveoli) Any small, saclike cavity in the body, such as an air cell of the lung or an erosion or ulcer in the gastric mucous membrane. Also, the socket of a tooth. Alzheimer's disease A chronic, organic mental disorder a form of presenile dementia due to atrophy of the frontal and occipital lobes of the brain. Onset is usually between age 40 and 60. Its effects include progressive irreversible loss of memory, deterioration of intellectual functions, apathy, speech and gait...

Sandimmune

And other current drug therapies in HIV treatment are currently not very successful in crossing the blood-brain barrier, therefore making the brain a sanctuary for the virus. saquinavir Saquinavir was the first protease inhibitor approved by the FDA for treatment of HIV. It is currently approved for treatment in combination with nucleoside analogs. Saquinavir should be taken after a full meal. The most common side effects, which occur in very few people, are diarrhea, stomach discomfort, and...

Antiprotozoal

This is a part of an approach to illness known as orthomolecular medicine. Antioxidants have been used to reduce stress, to treat Alzheimer's and cancer, for lens functioning, macular degeneration, and to reduce heart disease. Oxygen free radicals are produced by several unavoidable factors in our environment. Toxins, highly processed foods, large amounts of saturated fats in our diets, and, significantly, stress, can cause oxygen in the blood to degenerate from its stable and...

Circulating immune complexes 103

What fatty material that forms a thick sheath around the core of myelinated nerve fiber. patients show progressive, usually symmetric weakness in the upper and lower extremities. patients with clinical progression of the syndrome after four to six weeks by definition have cIpD. Treatment in most centers consists of giving IV immune globulin for four to five days or using plasmapheresis (five to six exchanges over two weeks). chronically infected cells HIV cells that carry the blueprints of the...

Civil Rights Act of 1991 105

Infection progresses to cirrhosis in 20 percent of patients. In some persons with chronic HCV infection liver cancer develops. The effect of HIV on HCV is a two to three times more rapid progression to cirrhosis than in HIV-negative individuals. More HIV-positive persons also have cirrhosis and higher mortality rates than their HIV-negative counterparts. The ability to lower HIV viral load to undetectable levels has no effect on HCV, and protease inhibitors are not active against HCV. Treatment...

Bitter melon

The centers for disease control and prevention claims that no cases of HIV transmission are clearly attributable only to saliva, and states that there has been a number of reports of bites from people infected with HIV that did not spread the infection. Officials at the CDC do not keep statistics on such bites, as they do on cases in which people are stuck by needles that have been used by someone infected or presumed to be infected with HIV. If bites and saliva...

Asymptomatic infection

Asymptomatic infection An early stage of an infection in which the patient has no physical symptoms. Long-term asymptomatic HIV infection has been associated with high levels of antibodies to HIV core proteins and the absence of hepatitis b markers. No association with unsafe sex has been found. Additionally, no association between psychological coping skills and slower disease progression has been found. ataxia A lack of muscular coordination, causing a stumbling walk, speech problems,...

Epistaxis 173

These tests are generally offered free of charge by most health departments. Tests may be anonymous, meaning that the person being tested is not identified, or confidential, meaning that privacy is honored but a record is kept identifying by name the test result. The ELISA is easily performed, but the western blot is more complicated and often done only by reference laboratories or on certain days of the week. For this reason, the combined results may not be available for several days or even...

Food and Drug Act of 1906 187

It is known to prevent congenital birth defects of the neural tube. A standard amount to supplement a pregnant woman's diet is 0.5 to 1 mg folic acid. Inadequate amounts of folic acid lead to anemia. Folic acid is found naturally in green plant tissue, liver, and yeast. Also called folate, vitamin B9, and vitamin M. folinic acid A derivative of folic acid used to counteract the effects of folic acid antagonists such as pyrimethamine and to treat anemia caused by a deficiency of...

Glucosidase

Variety, and another variety is predominantly found in people of Asian Indian, Mediterranean, and Southeast Asian descent. This second variety can in some people be life-threatening and precludes the use of oxidant drugs, whereas the first variety discussed may not preclude the use of these drugs. There are degrees of deficiency, and not all people from the same areas of the world are affected in the same way. An estimated 200 to 400 million people are affected by glucose-6-phosphate...

Antidepressant

The infected cells that are the source of infection, but only temporarily controls cell-free or cell-surface (extracellular, exogenous) pathogens. Flu, colds, and many common viral and other infections are controlled by antibody-mediated immunity. See cell-mediated immunity. antibody-negative Not having been infected with a particular antigen, such as HIV, at any time and therefore not having developed antibodies to it a blood test result showing this to be the case. See antibody...

Oral herpes

Leukoplakia occurs mainly in people with declining immunity. It is usually not treated with drugs, as there does not seem to be anything that works to control it. Acyclovir in heavy doses can be used to remove it initially, but it will return if the drug is stopped. Heavy doses of acyclovir can be dangerous over a long period. OHL is more common in people who smoke. oral herpes Another name for Herpes simplex virus type 1 that causes cold sores or fever blisters. Cold sores occur when the virus...

Thymosin 479

Cation for nonbleeding patients is recommended. zidovudine, if tolerated, should be initiated because it has been found to increase platelet production in HIV-infected patients with and without thrombocytopenia. Patients with dangerously low platelet counts (< 10,000) or significant bleeding should be hospitalized. In hospitalized patients, IV gamma globulin followed by platelet transfusion generally results in rapid correction. Prednisone is then begun, and the patient is discharged....

Villous tumor See papilloma

Vinblastine An anticancer agent used for the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma, testicular cancer, and breast cancer. In people with HIV, it is used for the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma. Vinblastine belongs to a class of cancer drugs called vinca alkyloids, which are naturally occurring chemicals isolated from the periwinkle plant. Vinca alkyloids stop the growth of tumors by preventing cells from dividing. Although vinblastine can be used by itself to treat cancers, it is used more...

Hyperkaliemia See hyperkalemia

Hyperlipidemia High levels of blood lipids. hyperpathia Hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli. hyperplasia Excessive proliferation of normal cells in a tissue or organ. hyperreactivity A state of increased reactivity to a provoking stimulus, for instance bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma. Specifically, a greater-than-normal magnitude of response to a given concentration of stimulus. hypersensitivity An abnormally exaggerated immune response to an agent, such as a drug or an antigen....

Antibiotic therapy

Worms, such as tapeworm, trichinella, hookworm, or pin worm. The drugs work by stopping reproduction by the worms and encouraging their expulsion through the intestinal tract. Studies indicate that from 4 percent to 15 percent of the population in the southeastern United States is infected with hookworm. Worldwide many hundreds of millions of people are infected with various helminths. anthrax An acute infectious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthacis. It generally attacks cattle, goats,...

Amyl nitrite inhalant See isobutyl nitrite

Amylase A starch-splitting enzyme secreted by the salivary glands and the pancreas to aid digestion of food. An increase in amylase serum levels may indicate pancreatitis, a possible life-threatening consequence of ddl. anabolic A metabolic process that builds new tissue in the body. See catabolic. anabolic steroids Anabolic steroids are testosterone derivatives designed to increase strength and muscle mass. Testosterone performs these functions in the body, but its masculinizing effects make...

Skin rash

But this defense depends on a functional immune system. when the immune system is suppressed, disorders of the skin may appear. organ transplantation and cancer patients who undergo immunosuppressive therapies may experience skin disorders such as Kaposi's sarcoma or herpes outbreaks. In HIV, lesions, dry skin, and blisters are common early in the course of the infection and may recur or become chronic. Skin diseases in HIV infection include molluscum contagiosum, herpes SIMPLEX VIRUS...

Viral load test See viral load

Viral suppression Viral suppression is a goal of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), as well as other medical therapy in HIV. Suppression is measured differently for different people. viral load is usually given in virions per milliliter of blood. So a count of 100,000 means 100,000 virions mL of blood. Changes in viral load are stated in terms of logarithmic (log) changes. Log is a mathematical term that represents a large number measured by a factor of 10. So if you have a viral...

Glucose6phosphate dehydrogenase G6PD deficiency 201

China for treatment of various disorders. There are three different families of ginseng the oriental and American ginsengs (Panax schinseng), the Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) and the desert ginseng (Rumex hymenosepalus). For thousands of years, ginseng has been the most prized of herbal remedies, with a host of alleged benefits, including relief of fatigue, relief of stress, and other systemic benefits. It has been suggested that Panax ginseng may increase natural killer cell...

Impetigo

Impetigo A contagious, inflammatory skin disease caused by direct inoculation of group A streptococci or staphylococcus aureus into superficial cutaneous abrasions or compromised skin. It is marked by isolated pustules that rupture to discharge an amber-colored fluid (composed of serum and pus) that dries to form a thick yellowish crust. The pustules may spread peripherally, but they are usually found around the nose and the mouth. impotence Weakness the inability of the male to achieve or...

Cervicovaginal lavage

It often bleeds when touched with a cotton applicator or cervical spatula. A purulent exudate is often observed. cervical cancer can also give this appearance. Most infectious cervicitis is due to sexually transmitted infection, often chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomonas. In HIVpositive women, viral infections may be isolated from cervical secretions and may cause local infections including cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and even HIV itself. All vaginal infections should be...

Trifluorothymidine See trifluridine

Trifluridine An antiviral used for topical treatment of infections caused by herpes simplex virus. In people infected with HIV, it has been used topically to treat skin, genital, and perianal HSV infections resistant to acyclovir. Trifluridine works by interfering with DNA synthesis in infected cells. It has been shown to be effective for treatment, but not prevention, of herpes virus infections. It is not effective against bacterial, fungal, or chlamydial infections. Available as a sterile...

Erythrophagocytosis See erythrocytophagy

Erythroplakia A reddened velvety patch that may appear in the mouth. It is a precancerous condition. See oral cancer. erythropoietin (EPO) A protein, made primarily by the kidney, that stimulates red blood cell production. A genetically engineered version has been approved as a treatment for HIV-related anemia. Anemia, which is frequently seen in people with HIV, can be caused by HIV infection itself or as a side effect of treatment. EPO will not be effective if anemia is caused by iron...

Liver function tests 287

Suggested that the liver is an important site of HIV replication, too. There have been well-documented cases of liver inflammation during primary HIV infection, the initial flulike syndrome that often precedes seroconversion, and this is a strong indication that HIV attacks liver cells directly. Liver cancer is not commonly found in any population, but it is increased in HIV positive people. Particularly with the advent of haart, people are living longer and they must also handle the infections...

Pubic hair

Pubic hair Hair growth around the genitals. Pubic hair first appears during puberty, when adult sexual characteristics develop. pubic louse (pl. lice) A parasitic insect that may infest the pubic area. See crab louse. pubis Another term for the pubic area. public accommodation Since the enactment of the Civil Rights Acts of 1964, discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, and national origin has been unlawful in places of public accommodation. The concept of public accommodation has...

Peripherally inserted central catheter PICC line

A catheter inserted into an arm vein and used for periods of up to three months. This catheter does not need to be surgically implanted and can be inserted at home by a trained nurse. peritoneal cavity A space between layers of the parietal and visceral peritoneum, containing a small amount of fluid. The fluid minimizes friction as the viscera move against each other or the wall of the abdominal cavity. peritoneal dialysis Dialysis (passing solute through a membrane) in which the lining of the...

Chloromycetin See chloramphenicol

Chlorpheniramine An antihistamine used to treat allergic reactions such as hay fever, hives, and inflammation of the eye, among others. It is also taken to prevent or treat allergic reactions to blood transfusions or compounds taken to enhance x-ray images. occasionally it is used as a supplementary therapy to epinephrine for the treatment of anaphylactic shock. In people with HIV, the drug is used to reduce certain drug-induced allergic side effects, including skin rashes, redness, swelling,...

Can You Treat Hiv With Macrobiotic Diets

MAC disease See Mycobacterium avium complex. macaque A family of monkey species i.e., rhesus, pigtail, and cynomolgus often used in scientific research. Macaques can be infected with simian immunodeficiency virus SIV and are used as an animal model for AIDS. macrobiotics A way of life according to the macroscopic, or largest possible, view. Translated literally, macro is Greek for large or great, and bios is the word for life. The practice of macrobiotics...

G

GAA See geographic areas of affinity. GAG gene A gene of HIV that codes for the core protein p55. p55 is the precursor of HIV proteins p17, p24, p7, and p6. GAG is the gene for group-specific antigens proteins that make up the viral nucleocapsid, the inner protein shell surrounding HIV's strand of RNA. A virus commandeers a cell's reproductive apparatus to make more of itself. New-minted particles migrate to the cell wall and push through it, pinching off to freedom in a process called budding....

J

Jack-off party A group sex event in which people masturbate either themselves or each other. It can be a safe-sex technique. jaundice A condition characterized by yellowness of skin, whites of eyes, mucous membranes, and body fluids that is due to deposition of bile pigment that results from excess bilirubin in the blood. It may be caused by obstruction of bile passageways, excess destruction of red blood cells, or disturbances in functioning of liver cells. Jaundice is typically seen in...

Can Hiv Destroy Your Speech

VA See department of veterans affairs. vaccination The act of receiving or administering a vaccine, for the purpose of provoking active immunity against a specific infection or disease. vaccine A suspension of infectious agents, or some part of them, given for the purpose of establishing resistance to an infectious disease. Vaccines stimulate an immune response in the body by creating antibodies or activated T lymphocytes see t cell capable of controlling the organism. The result is more or...

H

HAART See highly active antiretroviral hair pie Slang term for VuLVA, with reference to CUNNILINGUS. See ORAL SEX. hairy leukoplakia A white lesion seen in the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals, most commonly on the lateral margins of the tongue. It may be flat or raised with vertical corrugations and is not removable. Acyclovir is an antimicrobial, antiviral agent used to treat hairy leukoplakia as well as Herpes simplex virus, Varicella-zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus. Trade name...

F

Fab fragment antigen binding A part of the antibody molecule that contains the antigen-binding site. It is obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the antibody. facilitated DNA inoculation A means of delivering non-infectious HIV genes into a patient's blood by direct injection into a muscle, along with an agent that promotes uptake of the genes into the host cells. The rationale behind this strategy is to induce production of hiv proteins by the patient's own cells, which in turn may prompt his or...