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How To Manage And Live With Herpes

How To Manage And Live With Herpes Shows Herpes Sufferers How To Have Healthy, Happy Relationships Despite This Crippling Disease That Affects Millions Of New People Each Year. With This Simple-to-use Guide They Can Manage Herpes And Enjoy Love. Youre about to: Find out how to get rid of embarrassing sores and blisters and never suffer the embarrassment of looking like a zombie again. Discover how to keep those nasty outbreaks at bay with powerful natural remedies. Discover how to identify the 9 types of herpes and sleep better at night without fear of transmitting herpes. Understand why you have frequent herpes outbreaks. Re-invent your sex life and manage herpes simplex. Stop it from managing you! Learn about the one thing you Must know if you want to have 100% safe sex moving forward. Never feel guilty about infecting a partner again.

How To Manage And Live With Herpes Summary


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Cytomegalovirus CMV disease

Treatment of CMV disease with oral agents is being considered. This will permit home therapy and decrease the dangers of infection due to permanent indwelling catheters. The benefit of oral therapy on quality of life could be enormous. Both agents appear to have problems with absorption via the oral route. Newer agents, such as a precursor of the anti-herpes drug acyclovir, called valacyclovir, are also being studied for treatment and prophylaxis. Valacyclovir is better absorbed than ganciclovir and is completely metabolized to acyclovir, resulting in serum concentrations similar to that achieved by intravenous administration of acyclovir. Another drug called HPMPC is also being studied but appears to be too toxic for routine use. It is associated with severe damage to the kidney, although concurrent use of probenicid may help prevent this. cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease Disease caused by infection with cytomegalovirus. See colitis esophagitis gastritis neurological disease-pneumonia...

Herpes varicella zoster

Cold sores usually heal themselves after a while. Type 1 infections generally do not involve genital areas of the body type 2 infections do. acyclovir applied locally has been an effective form of treatment, with antibiotics often used to treat secondary infections. In persons with AIDS, herpes simplex sores require the intervention of other drugs to heal. Herpes simplex virus persists indefinitely in the body after initial infection and reactivates unpredictably. There is no known cure. Herpes simplex type 1, caused by the herpes simplex virus 1 (HIV-1), commonly produces oral herpes, characterized by cold sores or fever blisters on the lips, in the mouth, or around the eyes. Herpes simplex type 2, caused by the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), is a sexually transmitted herpes virus that causes painful sores in the anus or the genital area. Lesions usually appear two to twelve days after infection. In people with weakened immune systems, lesions may persist for a long period, are more...

Herpes virus See herpes

Herpes zoster An acute infectious disease caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV), characterized by inflammation of the sensory ganglia. Severe neuralgic pain and lesions, or vesicular eruptions on the skin (presented as patches of red spots), occur along the affected nerve. Herpes zoster generally affects or occurs on only one side and is self-limited. It is the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus in individuals who have previously had chicken pox and were rendered partially immune. shingles is the more common name for herpes zoster.

Aphthous Ulcerations and Herpes Simplex Labialis

Many women report a monthly eruption of herpes simplex infections, although relapses are not always strictly cycle dependent. Frequently, herpes simplex labialis can erupt both prior to or during menstruation (28), but there are also reports of eruptions in the preovulatory phase (29). Possibly, decreased IL-2 levels as well as an increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 play a pathogenetic role (30).

Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

Whereas semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease are progressive disorders arising from intrinsic changes in brain cells, herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is an acute, nonprogressive illness. The viral agent attacks principally the frontotemporal regions, and although about one-third of patients make a full recovery, others are left with permanent residual deficits, reflecting damage to the medial temporal lobes, temporal neocortex and or the frontal lobes. Semantic deficits occur in those patients with temporal neocortical damage (Pietrini et al., 1988 Sartori & Job, 1988 Warrington & Shallice, 1984). Those deficits may be relatively selective, although they are more usually accompanied by classical amnesia and or frontal executive and behavioural changes. Hemispheric asymmetry, with greater damage to the left or right temporal lobe, is common. Herpes simplex encephalitis is theoretically important because it may give rise to circumscribed semantic deficits in which certain...

Human herpesvirus 5 See cytomegalovirus

Human herpesvirus 6 Herpesvirus that infects lymphocytes, including CD4 cells. HHV-6 infection generally occurs early in life and may cause fever and exanthem (roseola, a red skin rash) in infants. HHV-6 is associated with neuropathology, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and certain autoimmune diseases. human herpesvirus 7 Herpesvirus that infects human T cells but is not known to cause disease. human herpesvirus 8 See Kaposi's sarcoma-associated HERPESVIRUS.

CMV polyradiculopathy See cytomegalovirus

CMV retinis See cytomegalovirus retinis. CMV viral load The total amount of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in a person's blood. Data suggest that CMV viral load can be a useful tool in tailoring CMV treatment options to fit each individual, just as HIV viral load is. Studies show that HIV viral load has some predictive value of risk of CMV disease progression and death predictive value of CMV viral load is much stronger. CMV viremia The presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the blood. Data indicate that CMV viremia indicates risk of disease. Some researchers caution that not everyone with a positive qualitative test result progresses to active CMV and argue that it is important to learn how to understand and use CMV viral load to make treatment decisions. Other researchers suspect that CMV viremia is only part of the equation and that CD4 count and HIV viral load may need to be considered as well in determining who is at highest risk for development of active disease. Note that still other...

Herpes simplex 219

Herpes A general term for viral infections of herpes simplex I or ii. These infections cause the eruption of painful blisters, usually in the oral or genital area, and can be sexually transmitted. All can be Herpes is a family of large viruses that contain a large amount of dna. Besides herpes simplex i (HSV-1) and herpes simplex II (HSV-2), it contains CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV), EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS (EBV), VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS (VZV), and HUMAN HERPES VIRUS-6 (HHV-6). herpes encephalitis Encephalitis due to infection with herpes simplex virus. Though rare, it is frequently fatal. It has been successfully treated with an antiviral agent. herpes genitalis Infection of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa with herpes simplex virus type 2. It is usually spread by sexual contact and is classed as a sexually transmitted disease. Itching and soreness are usually present before a small patch of erythema develops. Then a vesicle that erodes appears. These are usually painful and heal in about...

Oral herpes

Leukoplakia occurs mainly in people with declining immunity. It is usually not treated with drugs, as there does not seem to be anything that works to control it. Acyclovir in heavy doses can be used to remove it initially, but it will return if the drug is stopped. Heavy doses of acyclovir can be dangerous over a long period. OHL is more common in people who smoke. oral herpes Another name for Herpes simplex virus type 1 that causes cold sores or fever blisters. Cold sores occur when the virus reactivates after being dormant. A person's initial expression of the virus does not take the form of cold sores so many people do not relate these to the virus. The initial effect of the virus is a sore mouth, inflamed lips, then a series of grayish mouth ulcers that blister then heal themselves. oral sex Sexual activity in which the genitals and anus are stimulated with the tongue and or mouth. Contact between the mouth and the genitals is probably the most common form of oral sex (fellatio...

Herpes genital 253

Herpes simplex virus type II causes 85 percent of genital herpes cases. Type I, which causes most herpes infections above the waist, is responsible for the other 15 percent. The infection is spread by contact with the genital secretions of a person with an active lesion. It is possible, however, for a person with no active lesion to shed virus and infect a sex partner. The virus can infect any skin or mucous membrane surface on the body. For example, a person with a cold sore who engages in oral sex can transmit genital herpes to a partner. Neonatal herpes is the term for a herpes infection in newborns that is acquired from an infected mother during birth. Only about 40 percent of patients with herpes ever have symptoms. When they do, the first appearance of herpes lesions is the worst, with many painful lesions lasting up to 10 days it may take two to three weeks to completely recover from this first attack. When the sores fade away, the virus remains behind. The virus is now latent....

Herpes Gestationis

Herpes gestationis (HG) is a rare pruriginous, blister-forming disorder that occurs, in most cases, in the second or third trimester of pregnancy (37). It can also occur in association with a cystic mole or a chorionic carcinoma (37). Both in pregnancy and in the presence of trophoblastic tumors, the immune system is confronted with foreign antigens of the sex partner, which may potentially play an important role in the pathogenesis of HG. In addition to a certain constellation of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antigens in the mother and father, hormonal effects also have an important pathogenetic influence. For example, administering oral contraceptives with a high estrogen level to treat trophoblastic tumors cam exacerbate HG. Furthermore, the ovulation phase of the cycle may cause an exacerbation of HG, possibly because of estrogen's immunostimulating effects at certain concentrations (37). In most patients, however, an exacerbation of HG occurs more frequently in the premenstrual...

Other Herpes Viruses

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) A close cousin of the herpes simplex virus, the varicella-zoster virus is responsible for two other skin blistering disorders first chicken pox, and later shingles (or herpes zoster ), an acute inflammatory infection that produces painful blisters on the skin over the sites of nerves. Although shingles is most common in adults over age 50, it can occur in children who have already had chicken pox. Like the herpes simplex virus, the varicella-zoster virus can affect the eyes or the brain in addition to the skin. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) This herpes virus is associated with acute infectious mononucleosis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Mononucleosis, also known as the kissing disease, is spread by saliva and nasal secretions. Initial symptoms last up to 10 days and include fatigue, lethargy, and slight fever. The acute phase of the illness lasts up to another 10 days and is marked by sore throat, high fever, enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, enlarged spleen...

AIDS Clinical Testing Unit

Candidiasis of the bronchi, trachea, or lungs Candidiasis of the esophagus Cervical carcinoma, invasive Coccidioidomycosis, disseminated or pulmonary Cryptococcoses, extrapulmonary Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal Cytomegalovirus Encephalopathy Herpes simplex, chronic ulcers of longer than

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia all See leukaemia acute myeloblastic leukaemia aml See leukaemia

Alpha-aminoadipylcysteinyl-valine, precursor for isopenicillin synthesis. acyclovir ACV 2-(hydroxyethoxy)methyl guanine zovirax Antiviral agent that is an analogue of guanosine and inhibits DNA replication of viruses. Particularly successful against herpes simplex infections.

Mechanisms of Viral Tumorigenesis

In the case of the HPVs (and other small DNA tumor viruses), the viral oncogene products inactivate both the Rb and the p53 tumor suppressor pathways (Nevins, 2001). Strikingly, these pathways are often crippled during the development of nonviral tumors as well. Inactivation of these tumor suppressor pathways not only provides a proliferative stimulus, but also elicits genetic instability, in part by decreasing the likelihood of growth arrest and or apoptosis in response to DNA damage (zur Hausen, 2002). The ensuing mutations in cellular growth control genes undoubtedly play a role in further carcinogenic progression. However, despite these accumulated mutations, the proliferation of HPV-induced cervical cancer cells requires continued expression of the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes (von Knebel Doeberitz et al., 1988 Hwang et al., 1993). The mechanisms of herpesvirus transformation are more complex and appear to involve modulation of cellular signaling and cell cycle control pathways by...

Immunity and Tumor Viruses

Viruses have adopted many strategies to evade the immune response (Vossen et al., 2002). For example, many viruses down-regulate or inactivate the products of the major histocompatibility antigen class I locus to avoid immune clearance. In addition, herpesviruses such as EBV can enter latent states with limited viral gene expression to hide from the immune system (Klein, 1989). Nevertheless, virally transformed tumor cells often express viral proteins that can serve as tumor rejection antigens. Recognition of such neoantigens on virally induced cancer cells plays an important role in preventing viral tumorigenesis. Accordingly, immuno-suppression can permit the malignant proliferation of virally transformed cells that would be otherwise rejected. It is therefore not surprising that transplant

Host Immune Mechanisms

Both innate and acquired host antimicrobial defense systems are operative on skin. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses derive from Langerhans cells, keratinocytes, and endothelial cells that produce cytokines and lymphocytes. The skin-associated lymphoid tissue forms a protective barrier that can capture virtually any antigen that enters the skin. IgA and IgG antibodies are secreted by the eccrine sweat glands and are spread over the skin surface where they can exhibit antimicrobial effects and interfere with microbial adherence. The immunological factors important in the lower genital tract have been reviewed by Bulmer and Fox (18). Cervical mucus contains antibodies, in particular, secretory IgA, which are bactericidal in the presence of lysozyme and complement and can agglutinate bacteria and opsonize them for phagocytosis. Circulating antibodies to specific microorganisms can be demonstrated to result from many genital infections, but there is scant evidence of any...

P53 protein as a transcription factor

The wild-type p53 phosphoprotein can down-regulate a variety of promoters including actin, hsp 70, c-jun, c-fos, mdrl and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) (Ginsberg et al., 1991 Chin et al, 1992 Deb et al, 1992 Subler et al., 1992 Zastawny et al., 1993). Several promoters, which include SV40 early promoter-enhancer, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) thymidine kinase and UL9, and LTR promoters of Rous sarcoma virus and human immunodeficiency virus, and human T-lymphoblastic virus type 1, are repressed by wild-type p53 (Subler et al., 1992). A mutation of p53 at amino acid 143 resulted in a significant release of inhibition of transcription of reporter genes placed under the control of these cellular and viral promoters. Mutations at amino acid positions 143, 175, 248, 273 and 281 that are commonplace in cancer, were also associated with the release of inhibition of HSV-1 thymidine kinase promoter (Subler et al., 1992). Furthermore, whereas wild-type p53 activates promoters...

Antitoxin An antibody reacting with a toxin eg anticholera toxin antibody

Antiviral drugs Drugs that inhibit viral infection. Two main categories have been developed so far those which inhibit or interfere with the replication of viral nucleic acid (nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir and AZT), and those that interfere with virus-specific enzymes such as proteases (e.g. Saquinavir, Ritonavir, Indinavir) or neu-raminidases (e.g. Relenza, Tamiflu) which are important for processing of viral proteins to produce infective particles.

Child Welfare League of America CWLA A

Chlamydia The most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States, infecting more than 4.5 million people each year. It is a serious but easily cured disease that is three times more common than gonorrhea, six times more common than genital herpes, and 30 times more common than syphilis. Between 1988 and 1992,

Transgene Control Engineering in Mammalian Cells Beat P Kramer and Martin Fussenegger

Capitalizing on the generic design principle of the tetracycline-responsive expression systems (1,2), many various transgene control modalities responsive to strepto-gramins (3), macrolides (4), and butyrolactones (5) have been constructed. All of these gene-regulation systems could be arranged in small-molecule-repressible off-type and small-molecule-inducible on-type configurations. Off-type systems consist of a transactivator and transactivator-dependent promoter. The transactivator is a fusion protein between a bacterial small-molecule-responsive transcription regulator and mammalian transactivation domain, e.g., Herpes simplex-derived VP16 (6). The transactivator-dependent promoter consists of transactivator-specific (tandem) operator modules placed upstream of a minimal eukaryotic promoter, e.g., the minimal version of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter (PhCVMmin). Trans-activator binding to cognate operators in the absence of regulating small molecules initiates...

Optimization of Off Type Gene Regulation Systems

Selection of the minimal promoter strongly influences maximum expression levels and tightness of any off-type system in a cell type-specific manner (17,18). Minimal versions of the thymidine kinase, mouse mammary tumor virus, insect heat shock, and human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoters are among well-established representatives in several off-type gene regulation systems. Alternative minimal promoters may be engineered into existing systems by applying the following steps.

Correlates of immunitycorrelates of protection

Long-term use of corticosteroids has been associated with reactivation of herpes viruses, Pneumo-cystis carinii, tuberculosis, and various fungal infections. Corticosteroid use has also been associated with the development of AIDS-KS, although rarely with the development of KS in other diseases, and it remains unclear if their use increases the risk of developing KS for people with HIV.

Becker muscular dystrophy Benign Xlinked muscular dystrophy with later onset and lower severity than Duchenne muscular

Bell's palsy Sudden paralysis of the muscles of one side of the face, due to impaired conduction in the lower part of the facial nerve. The cause is unknown, although there is speculation that herpes virus infection may be involved the majority of cases recover spontaneously.

Encephalitis lethargica

Encephalitis An often-fatal inflammation of the brain that can cause damage on both sides (especially the medial temporal lobe) and the orbital frontal lobe. Encephalitis may be caused by several different viruses, but the herpes simplex virus is most commonly the cause. Many times, the meninges (membranes that cover and enclose the brain) are also affected. In addition to the herpes virus, encephalitis may be caused by a virus transmitted to humans by mosquito bites, causing St. Louis encephalitis other cases may be caused by infection with HIV virus, the organism responsible for aids. On rare occasions, the condition may follow viral infections such as measles or mumps. The antiviral drug acyclovir is an effective treatment for encephalitis caused by the herpes simplex virus. However, there is no treatment for the disease caused by other viruses. Some patients die, and others have brain damage, behavioral problems, and persistent epilepsy.

Safe Sex Tips For Sperm

Hurst explains this by raising once again the matter of disease.2* Organelles are not the only genetic rebels inside cells bacteria and viruses are there as well. And exactly the same logic applies to them as to organelles. When cells fuse, the rival bacteria in each engage in a struggle to the death. If a bacterium living happily inside an egg suddenly finds its patch invaded by a rival carried by a sperm, it will have to compete, and that might well mean abandoning its latency and manifesting itself as disease. There is ample evidence that diseases are reawakened by other rival infections. For example, the virus that causes AIDS, known as HIV, infects human brain cells but lies dormant there If, however, cytomegalovirus, an entirely different kind of virus, infects a brain cell already infected with HIV, then the effect is to reawaken the HIV virus, which proliferates rapidly. This is one of the reasons HIV seems more likely to go on to cause AIDS if the infected person gets a...

Dermatology Is Both Medicine And Surgery

Not all of the procedures are necessarily therapeutic, however. Dermatologists use their hands diagnostically as well. At the bedside or in the office, they conduct simple tests to confirm suspected clinical diagnoses. This includes skin biopsies of suspicious lesions, potassium hydroxide ( if it scales, scrape it ) stains of fungal infections, gram stains for identifying bacterial causes of skin infections like cellulitis or impetigo, Tzanck preparation smears for isolating herpes infections, and oil preparations to rule out scabies in patients presenting with itchy rashes.

Location Of The Lesions That Cause Anterograde Amnesia

Of this knowledge is extrapolated from monkey studies, the precise interpretation of which is controversial. It is agreed that amygdala lesions do not cause a general impairment of recognition and recall for postmorbidly encountered facts and events (Zola-Morgan et al., 1989a). However, amygdala damage does reduce the usual advantage in later memory that is found for information that is associated with emotional arousal at input (Phelps et al., 1998). In monkeys, selective lesions of the parahippocampal and perirhinal cortices cause severe object recognition deficits (Zola-Morgan et al., 1989b), and human patients with Herpes simplex encephalitis, who have large lesions to these two cortices, show very impaired recall and recognition. The effect of hippocampal damage is less severe, and these lesions may only minimally affect item recognition, although this is controversial, as is discussed in the next section.

Fosamprenavir See amprenavir

Foscarnet A broad-spectrum antiviral (trisodium phosphonoformate). It is used in treatment of cytomegalovirus that has proved resistant to ganciclovir and against herpes simplex virus that is resistant to acyclovir. Possible adverse side effects include kidney toxicity. There are always changes in kidney functions, which therefore must be monitored. Electrolyte imbalance must also be watched for, and it is not unusual for patients to receive supplements of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium while on foscarnet. Electrolyte imbalance can lead to seizures. other side effects include anemia and nausea. Foscarnet concentrates in the urine people taking this drug are strongly advised to wipe and wash themselves thoroughly after urination to prevent skin ulcers, which can be caused by high concentrations of the drug. uncircumcised men and women especially need to follow these guidelines. Drinking plenty of water can help alleviate the concentration in the urine somewhat. There...

Gastric anacidity See achlorhydria

Gastritis The stomach is susceptible to the same disease processes as the esophagus, including infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV). Gastritis, or inflammation of the stomach, may be asymptomatic but often results in severe continuous upper abdominal pain, fever, hemorrhage, or obstruction. CMV infection of the small intestine may result in similar symptoms as well as weight loss and diarrhea. Although CMV may infect any part of the small intestine, it rarely does so without involvement of other gastrointestinal organs.

Highrisk behavior 221

HHV-1, HHV-2 See herpes simplex virus. HHV-5 See cytomegalovirus. HHV-6 See human herpesvirus 6. HHV-7 See human herpesvirus 7. HHV-8 (KSHV, Kaposi's sarcoma KS herpes-virus) A herpesvirus thought to trigger the development of Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. HHV-8's mode of transmission has not been determined. See KAPOSI'S SARCOMA.

Definition of the Disease

Epstein-Barr virus is a human herpesvirus that is cytotropic for B lymphocytes. This virus occurs worldwide, and most people ( 90 ) become infected at some point during their lifetime.1 Primary infection tends to occur at an early age, especially in lower socioeconomic groups and developing countries. When infection occurs during early childhood, there are usually only very mild symptoms or no symptoms at all. However, if a primary EBV infection occurs during adolescence or adulthood, then infectious mononucleosis (IM) often arises. In a typical case of IM, a prodromal period consisting of malaise, anorexia, and or myalgias usually precedes the onset of the syndrome by a few days to a week. The syndrome is typically characterized by fever to 102- 104 F (39 -40 C) (90 of patients), cervical lym-phadenopathy (90 ), diffuse and exudative pharyngitis (33 ), and or rash (5 ). Splenomegaly is found in about half of IM patients, and usually occurs during the second or third week of illness....

Differential Diagnosis

In patients where classical IM is suspected, the first test that is typically performed is one for heterophile antibodies (also referred to as the Monospot test).3 This tests for antibodies against Paul Bunnell antigens on sheep, horse, or cow erythrocytes that are present in 40 of IM patients during the first week, and in 80-90 during the third week. These antibodies rapidly disappear after the first month, making them a useful marker for acute infection. When this test is positive in the setting of appropriate signs and symptoms, it is highly suggestive of EBV-associated IM (EBV-IM). However, a nonreactive test in this setting cannot rule out EBV-IM, as some patients do not develop these antibodies, and they can be found only after 2-3 weeks in others. This is especially true when testing young children. In addition to heterophile antibodies, the presence of atypical lymphocytes along with an absolute lymphocytosis is also suggestive of EBV-IM. In the majority of patients with...

Rash on the Soles of the Feet

His past medical history is significant for HIV, which was diagnosed 24 years earlier, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura resulting in a splenectomy 16 years earlier, and bipolar disorder diagnosed 18 years earlier with a suicide attempt 5 years ago. He has been on intermittent HAART therapy and his infectious disease history is positive for hepatitis B, gonorrhea, HPV (human papilloma virus) with anal warts, and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. His most recent PPD skin test (purified protein derivative) for tuberculosis was negative.

Influenza vaccine 255

Infectious mononucleosis An acute infectious disease that primarily affects lymphoid tissue and is characterized by enlarged lymph nodes and spleen with an increase in abnormal mononuclear leukocytes in the blood. An abnormal functioning liver will be found in about 90 percent of cases. Clinical manifestations are highly variable. The disease is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, a herpes virus. The incubation period may be as long as four to seven weeks. There is no specific treatment, but for

Major histocompatibility complex MHC A

Cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are particularly prone to damage during HIV infection, and this results in reduced absorption of nutrients. The HIV virus itself, intestinal parasites, and colitis induced by cytomegalovirus (cmv) are the main sources of tissue damage. The diarrhea connected with these conditions may also result in malabsorption. Fat, carbohydrate, protein, and micronu-trient (vitamin and mineral) malabsorption can occur. Malabsorption may also be present before infection with HIV. Infection by intestinal parasites triggers diarrhea and malabsorption in persons with AIDS by causing atrophy of the villi, the small threadlike projections (on the interior of the small intestines) that absorb nutrients when working properly. The protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum, the most commonly identified parasite in people with AIDS, causes massive secretory diarrhea.

The Neural Basis For Semantic Memory

The strong association between disorders of the temporal lobes and semantic memory impairments emphasizes the critical role of temporal neocortex in semantic memory. There is converging evidence to implicate the anterior temporal lobes in particular, and the inferior temporal gyri specifically. In semantic dementia, brain imaging shows atrophy of the temporal pole (e.g. Mummery et al., 2000) and particularly involvement of the inferior temporal gyrus (Breedin et al., 1994 Cardebat et al., 1996 Mummery et al., 2000). Autopsy examination (Snowden et al., 1992 Snowden et al., 1996b) has shown atrophy of the inferior and middle temporal gyri with notable sparing of the superior temporal gyri, including Wernicke's area, and medial temporal structures. In herpes simplex encephalitis patients, there is evidence of damage to the inferior temporal neocortex (Pietrini et al., 1988 Sartori & Job, 1988 Silveri & Gainotti, 1988 Sartori et al., 1993a). In a patient with semantic impairment...

Neuropathology Type of Patient

Confabulation also has been reported in association with other etiologies, such as traumatic brain injury (Baddeley& Wilson, 1988 Berlyne, 1972 Box etal., 1999 Moscovitch & Melo, 1997), multiple sclerosis (Feinstein et al., 2000), rupture of a PCoA aneurysm (Dalla Barba et al., 1997a Mercer et al., 1977), fronto-temporal dementia (Nedjam et al., 2000 Moscovitch & Melo, 1997), herpes simplex encephalitis (Moscovitch & Melo, 1997) and other disorders. Some have reported confabulation in dementia of the Alzheimer type (Nedjam et al., 2000 Kern et al., 1992 Kopelman, 1987 Tallberg & Almkvist, 2001 Dalla-Barba et al., 1999). However, at least in the early stages of the disease, these reports seem to stretch the definition of confabulation to include various types of intrusions, and only rarely is a full-blown confabulatory syndrome seen in these patients (DeLuca, 2000a).

Proteasome Inhibitors in Tissue Culture

It is important to keep in mind that pharmacological inhibitors of the pro-teasome should be used with caution in cell studies in which proteins are expressed from a heterologous promoter. As expected, the proteasome inhibitors MG132, ALLN and lactacystin induced the accumulation of transfected parkin or a-synu-clein driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter in PC12 cells. However, the high levels of parkin or a-synuclein detected upon treatment with proteasome inhibitors was found to be associated with increased protein synthesis rather than degradation (23). These data suggest that the proteasome inhibitors increase CMV-driven transcription in a non-specific manner. Proteasome inhibitors may stabilize transcription and translation factors or activate transcription pathways regulating the CMV promoter (23).

Neurologic dysfunction

Cytomegalovirus causes another infection that a majority of people in the United States already have in their body but that a healthy immune system can keep in check. The most common illness caused by CMV is retinitis. This is the death of cells in the retinas, leading to blindness. Advanced cases can spread to many parts of the body and cause problems. This does not occur until late-stage HIV disease. HAART has brought most cases of CMV under control, and CMV infection has dropped in occurrence.

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Exquisitely painful sensory radiculopathy in the presence of vesicular lesions anywhere on the body is the hallmark of herpes zoster. Typically this occurs in one or more thoracic dermatomes of elderly individuals, but it may occur in younger individuals, particularly if they are im-munosuppressed. The profoundly painful paresthesias and hyperesthesia usually subside after the vesicles clear. However, depending on the severity of the insult to the affected dorsal root ganglia, various degrees of numbness, pain, and hyperpathia can persist for months after the vesicles clear. The pain of postherpetic neuralgia is very difficult to treat. Often the most disabling feature of this syndrome is hyperpathia, in which affected patients are unable to tolerate even innocuous pressure from clothing or bed sheets.

Inflammatory bowel disease

Intestinal infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Yersinia species can strikingly resemble ileocaecal Crohn's disease. Similarly, bacterial and amoebic dysentery, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus infection can cause bloody diarrhoea, abdominal pain and intestinal ulceration that can be confused with UC.

Role Of The Virus In Aids Pathogenesis

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS, SIDA in French and Spanish-speaking countries) was defined in the early 1980s, biologically by a profound defect of cellular immunity associated with a deep shortage of CD4+ T lymphocytes and clinically by the occurrence of opportunistic infections and cancers. In Western countries, the most frequent infections are those of the lungs by Pneumocystis carinii and of the brain by toxoplasmas, followed by visceral and retinal infections by cytomegalovirus (CMV). Tuberculosis is frequent in tropical areas (Africa, Asia, South America). Among cancers, the most frequent are disseminated and aggressive Kaposi's sarcoma caused by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and B-lymphomas, often caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

Postexposure prophylaxis 385

Condom use is considered only possibly safe and not absolutely safe, as they are often used incorrectly. To correctly use a condom, always use new condoms. Keep a ready supply of condoms where they cannot be damaged by moisture or heat. Never test a condom by blowing it up. Put a dab of lubricant into the tip of the condom to increase sensation. Prevent any air bubbles from forming that could cause the condom to break. Put the condom on the fully erect penis and roll it down all the way to the bottom of the shaft. Generally, lubricate the vaginal entrance or the anus before entry. Use only a water-soluble lubricant. Upon withdrawal, hold tightly onto the base of the condom. After use, throw the condom away. Use a lubricant that contains nonoxynol-9, a mild detergent that kills not only sperm cells but also all kinds of other organisms, such as amoebas, the herpes virus, bacteria that could cause gonorrhea and syphilis, as well as the AIDS virus.

Personalized Medicine for a Renal Transplant Patient

Initial predialysis laboratory tests included a chemistry profile, complete blood count, prothrombin time, hepatitis panel, HIV, cytomegalovirus antibody, and syphilis. Results are shown below After a thorough medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests (including HLA typing), the patient was placed on the national kidney waiting list. A renal cadaveric transplant was performed, and the patient was placed on immunosuppressive cyclosporine A (CsA) 700 mg bid, prednisone 25 mg qd, and mycophenalate mofetil 1500 mg bid , antibiotic (sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim-1 qd), antiviral (acyclovir 200 mg qid) (because of the negative CMV titers), and antifungal (fluconazole 100 mg) therapy. Follow-up laboratory testing was performed

Sexually transmitted disease 447

At the minimum, these diseases cause discomfort. Left untreated, some STDs can cause serious long-term health problems. For example, gonorrhea and chlamydial infections can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Several common STDs adversely affect pregnancy, resulting in spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and premature delivery. Genital infections due to human papillomavirus are associated with cervical cancer, one of the most common cancers in women throughout the world today. Moreover a pregnant woman can pass an infection to her baby. Infections in newborns include syphilis, herpes, gonococcal conjunctivitis (an eye disease that can lead to blindness), and chlamydial pneumonia, an infection of the lungs that can develop into a chronic respiratory disease.

Social Security Act Section 1619 453

Some studies point to increased risks for certain opportunistic infections in HIV-infected smokers, especially pcp. However, the only infections in which this association has been proved are anogenital abnormalities and cancers. other studies have shown that current smokers are more likely to develop oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia, but less likely to develop cytomegalovirus disease. Heavy smokers (more than one pack a day) have been shown to be more likely to develop bacterial pneumonia compared with light smokers, nonsmokers, or ex-smokers. Finally, studies have shown that ex-smokers are more likely to develop Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) than nonsmokers. Despite the long time it takes many smoking-related problems to develop, smoking is by no means without health risks for the immunocompromised person.

Destabilization ofpRB pl07 andpl30

Binding of the high-risk HPV E7 proteins results in destabilization of pRB, p107, and p130 (Berezutskaya et al., 1997 Boyer et al., 1996 Giarre et al., 2001 Gonzalez et al., 2001 Helt and Galloway, 2001 Jones et al., 1997b Smith-McCune et al., 1999) via a proteasome-dependent pathway (Boyer et al., 1996 Gonzalez et al., 2001). Interestingly, the pp71 protein of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3c (EBV EBNA 3C) also induce degradation of pRB family members (Kalejta and Shenk, 2003 Knight et al., 2005). Association of E7 with pRB is necessary but not sufficient for pRB degradation since transformation-defective amino terminal CR1 homology domain E7 mutants efficiently associate with pRB but are defective for pRB degradation (Edmonds and Vousden, 1989 Gonzalez et al., 2001 Helt and Galloway, 2001 Jones et al., 1997b Phelps et al., 1992) and maintenance of HPV episomes in keratinocytes (Thomas et al., 1999). Similarly, the low-risk HPV1 E7 protein...

Flavoridin See disintegrin

FLIP FLICE-inhibitory protein Family of proteins that inhibit the caspase FLICE and thus protect cells from apoptotic death. Viral FLIPs (v-FLIPs) contain two death-effector domains that interact with FADD and have been shown to be produced by various herpes viruses and mol-luscipox virus.

Thiazide diuretic 477

After introduction of new foreign proteins (antigen) to the body, naive cD4 cells sensitive to portions of that protein eventually are activated and multiply to construct new immune defenses. The therapeutic vaccine concept is to improve on the immune defense against a particular already-existing infection by inoculating pieces of the infectious agent's protein presented in a way to trigger new naive cell activation. An immune-enhancing adjutant is frequently used to help this process along. In 1996 investigators presented evidence that therapeutic vaccines can reduce the extent and duration of genital herpes outbreaks in people with frequent eruptions and in infected guinea pigs.

Top mentality See top

Topical microbicide An antibacterial or antifun-gal compound that can be applied directly to the lining of the vagina before intercourse to thwart sexually transmitted microbes that cause diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydia, hepatitis B, and HIV infections. Today, the development of safe, effective, female-controlled topical microbicides that will block the transmission of HIV and other STD agents is a global priority and a central focus of the STD research program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The goal is to develop safe antimicrobial products that effectively fight a combination of infectious agents, whether they are viral, bacterial, or protozoan.

Vaginal candidiasis See candidiasis

Color change from what is normal for an individual occurs, a doctor should perform an examination to determine the cause. Any abnormal aromas of the vaginal area also need to be investigated by a doctor. Abnormal discharge can be due to infection and is frequently associated with pain, burning, itching, and painful urination. pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), herpes genitalis, other STDs, infection of the inside of the uterus, and inflammation of the vagina due to lack of estrogen are other possible causes of vaginal discharge.

Viatical settlements See life insurance

Vidarabine An antiviral agent that inhibits dna synthesis and is effective in the treatment of HERpes simplex and herpes varicella zoster virus. It has also been shown to be effective against HERPES SIMPLEX ENCEPHALITIS. Also called ADENINE ARABI-noside and ARA-A. (Trade name is Vira-A.)

HPVIndependent Effects of the E2 Protein

P53-independent apoptosis in the absence of E2 DNA binding in HPV-positive or HPV-negative cells, effects which appeared to require high-level E2 expression (Desaintes et al., 1997, 1999). Expression of an ectopic HPV16 E2 gene by induction from a metallothionein promoter by treatment with heavy metals or by transfection induced p53-dependent apoptosis in the absence of serum growth factors, even in cells lacking endogenous HPV genomes (Sanchez-Perez et al., 1997 Webster et al., 2000). Finally, fusion of the HPV16E2 protein to the herpes simplex virus VP22 delivery domain generated a protein that caused apoptosis in a variety of p53-positive cells, including those that lacked HPV DNA (Roeder et al., 2004).

Mesencephalon See midbrain

Prenatal infections Microcephaly can be caused by a prenatal infection with certain viruses and parasites which are able to cross the placenta. often the symptoms of these infections may be very mild or even totally absent as far as the mother is concerned. Infections known to cause microcephaly include rubella (German measles), toxoplasmosis (a parasitic infection) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Infections in early infancy Meningitis (inflammation of the membranes that line the brain and spinal cord) and genital herpes are possible cause of

Erythrophagocytosis See erythrocytophagy

Mal appetites, dehydration, weight loss, and mal-nourishment. The diagnostic procedure of choice for esophagitis is upper endoscopy, in which a lighted scope is passed through the mouth into the esophagus. Esophagitis is primarily cause by candidiasis. Other possible causes include herpes simplex, CMV, and aphthous ulcers. In esophagitis related to can-didiasis a biopsy is the general diagnostic tool used.

Trifluorothymidine See trifluridine

Trifluridine An antiviral used for topical treatment of infections caused by herpes simplex virus. In people infected with HIV, it has been used topically to treat skin, genital, and perianal HSV infections resistant to acyclovir. Trifluridine works by interfering with DNA synthesis in infected cells. It has been shown to be effective for treatment, but not prevention, of herpes virus infections. It is not effective against bacterial, fungal, or chlamydial infections. Available as a sterile solution for administration into the eyes. The most common effect of the optical solution is mild, transient burning when dropping it into the eye. Also called trifluo-rothymidine. (Trade name is Viroptic.)

Cervicovaginal lavage

It often bleeds when touched with a cotton applicator or cervical spatula. A purulent exudate is often observed. cervical cancer can also give this appearance. Most infectious cervicitis is due to sexually transmitted infection, often chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomonas. In HIVpositive women, viral infections may be isolated from cervical secretions and may cause local infections including cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and even HIV itself. All vaginal infections should be treated and followed up. exudate, purulent secretion. The incubation period is approximately three to five days. Chancroids may affect the penis, urethra, vulva, or anus. Multiple lesions may develop by autoinoculation. Types include transient, phagedenic, giant, and serpiginous. Chancroids usually present as painful ulcers accompanied by tenderness and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Women with cervical chancroid tend to have multiple ulcers, with an average of four. Diagnosis based only on history...

Moniliasis See thrush

Mononucleosis An acute herpesvirus infection caused by the Epstein-Barr (EBV) virus and characterized by sore throat, fever, swollen lymph glands, and bruising. Transmitted in saliva, young people are most often infected. In childhood the disease is often mild the older the patient, the

Targeting TLRs with specific ligands

Herpes Genitalis Discharge

Synthetic low molecular weight compounds of the imidazoquinoline family, imiquimod (Aldara, R-837, S-26308), resiquimod (R-848), S-27609, and guano-sine analogues such as loxoribine and bropirimine have been shown to activate TLR7. Both imiquimod and resiquimod were unable to induce dendritic cell maturation or TNF-a, IL-12, or IFN-y production in TLR7-deficient mice 43 . It was further demonstrated that imiquimod and resiquimod induce NF-kB activation in HEK293 cells transfected with human or mouse TLR7 44 . However, resiquimod only activated NF-kB in HEK293 cells transfected with human TLR8 and not in those transfected with mouse TLR8 45 . Many studies have indicated that the imidazoquinoline family compounds have potent antiviral and antitumor properties in multiple animal models of infection. Imiquimod was also shown to be effective against arbovirus and cytomegalovirus in humans 46 . The activity of imiquimod is mediated predominantly through the induction of cytokines includ ing...

Hypocretin Status In Hypersomnia In Various Neurological Conditions


Yamato et al. (personal communication) reported on a patient with non-paraneoplastic immune-mediated limbic encephalitis exhibiting low hypocretin-1 concentrations (87 pg mL). A 65-yr-old man developed chronic progressive hypersomnia. MRI of the brain showed bilateral signal abnormalities in the medial temporal lobes and the hypothalamus, but systemic examinations for malignant tumors were negative. Acyclovir treatment failed to amend his condition. Subsequent steroid treatment improved his hypersomnia and reduced the extent of abnormal signals on MRI. The CSF hypocretin concentration increased to 148 pg mL at 23 d after treatment.

Principles of Human Tumor Virology

Viruses containing either RNA or DNA genomes can cause tumors, and studies of tumor viruses have provided important insights into basic molecular and cellular processes. Retroviruses are the only class of RNA viruses that are known to cause tumors in animals, whereas several different families of DNA viruses can cause tumors. Four DNA viruses are known to cause or contribute to the development of cancer in humans Epstein-Barr virus, high-risk types of human papillomaviruses, hepatitis B virus, and human herpesvirus-8, which is also known as Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV). Two RNA viruses are etiologically involved in human cancer human T lymphotropic virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus. The identification of human tumor viruses has generated optimism that it will be possible to develop improved methods to prevent and treat certain cancers in humans. Vaccination and other public health measures that prevent infection or transmission can be expected to reduce the incidence of the...

Acquired Amnesia In Children

A further case of acquired amnesia is described in a 9-year-old child, T.C., who had acute encephalopathy, possibly as a result of herpes simplex encephalitis, resulting in diffuse cerebral injury (Wood et al., 1982, 1989). T.C. had severely impaired semantic memory in relation to facts about the world and severely impaired episodic memory impairment affecting both story recall and autobiographical day-to-day memory. However, Woods et al. (1987) argued that their case did not conform to the procedural-declarative distinction of the Ostergaard case, since T.C. made some scholastic progress through the school years, although a dense amnesia remained in both clinical and psychometric terms. However, Ostergaard & Squires (1990) argued, in response, that some scholastic progress would be expected in the absence of declarative memory on the basis of automated procedures or conceptual development. They also emphasized that the distinction they had proposed was based upon relative rather than...

Food and Drug Act of 1906 187

Fomivirsen Also known as fomivirsen sulfate. Manufactured by Novartis. Fomivirsen is used for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV). It is an antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide, a new class of drugs that use a unique antisense mechanism to block the replication of mRNA. mRNA is also referred to as a sense structure hence the term antisense. Fomivirsen binds to the mRNA and stops the protein synthesis of the virus, thereby preventing replication. In treatment of CMV, it is given in intraocular injections. This process does not cause pain as the eyeball is numbed before the injection. (Trade name is Vitravene.)

Neurological Conditions Associated With Amnesia

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) occurs as a result of virus-induced hemorrhagic lesions in the brain. In the early stages of the infectious process, patients experience a flu-like illness that is often associated with fever, headaches and lethargy. Profound confusion and disorientation may follow and patients often develop other neurocognitive problems,

Baby with Petechiae and Bruises

A well-appearing, term infant was born by vaginal delivery to a healthy 27-year-old mother with a benign prenatal and postpartum course. Within an hour of birth he developed generalized petechiae and bruising over his trunk and left arm. His CBC was normal for a term newborn WBC 10 x 103 mL, hemoglobin 18.4 g dL, and platelets 173 x 103 mL. An extensive evaluation for sepsis was begun, and he was treated empirically with antibiotics and an antiviral agent until cultures of spinal fluid, urine, and blood were negative at 72 hours. A herpes simplex virus PCR was negative on blood and spinal fluid as well. The CSF was described as bloody, and he bled from the puncture site for over an hour. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were normal for age. At 6 days of life, he had a generalized seizure. MRI of his head showed a hemorrhagic infarction of the left centrum ovale region. The baby was begun on an anticonvulsant. After discharge to home, his mother...

Conclusions And Prospects

Markkula, M., Hamalainen, T., Loune, E., Huhtaniemi, I. The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) beta- and common alpha-subunits are expressed in mouse testis, as determined in wild-type mice and those transgenic for the FSH beta-subunit herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase fusion gene. Endocrinology 136 4769-4775 (1995). Markkula, M., Kananen, K., Klemi, P., Huhtaniemi, I. Pituitary and ovarian expression of the endogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) subunit genes and an FSH beta-subunit promoter-driven herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene in transgenic mice specific partial ablation of FSH-producing cells by antiherpes treatment. J. Endocrinol. 150 265-273 (1996).

Circulating immune complexes 103

Cidofovir is approved as a systemic treatment for new or relapsing cytomegalovirus (cMV) retinitis. cidofovir is not approved to treat other types of cMV infection or cMV in non-HIV-infected people. cidofovir interferes with the multiplication of cMV, thereby slowing the destruction of the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye) and loss of vision. Note too that it slows, but does not permanently stop, the progression to cMV retinitis. people taking the drug may continue to lose their vision and should have regular eye examinations at least every six weeks to determine whether a change in treatment is required. It may also act against CMV disease in other parts of the body, but there is less clinical evidence to support its use in these cases. Its primary advantage over ganciclovir and foscarnet is that cid-ofovir is administered intravenously on a weekly or a biweekly basis instead of daily, eliminating the need for an in-dwelling...

Genetic Rescue Of Narcolepsy In Orexin Neuronablated Mice

Herpes Other Parts Body

To examine whether the narcolepsy-cataplexy phenotype of orexin neuron-ablated mice could be rescued by ectopic production of orexin peptides, we produced transgenic mice that overexpress a prepro-orexin transgene under the control of a P-actin cytomegalovirus hybrid promoter, which is an ubiquitous promoter (CAG orexin transgenic mice) (16,17). Several stable transgenic lines overexpressed orexin, as determined by Northern blots, radioim-munoassays, and anti-orexin-A immunohistochemistry. In this study, we utilized one line in which the whole-brain levels of orexin-A and -B peptides were increased by nearly 30- and 80-fold, respectively. Mice of this line were crossed to orexin ataxin-3 transgenic mice to produce offspring that carry both transgenes (double hemizygous mice). Littermate pairs carrying either one transgene (CAG orexin or orexin ataxin-3 transgenic mice), both transgenes (orexin ataxin-3 CAG orexin double transgenic mice), or neither transgene (wild-type mice) were...

Hepatitis D Virus HDV

Herpes Any of a variety of inflammatory skin conditions characterized by spreading or creeping small clustered blisters caused by the herpes simplex virus. Forms of the virus cause cold sores and the sexually transmitted disease genital herpes (see herpes, genital) characterized by blisters on the sex organs. The virus also causes many other conditions affecting the skin. More than 80 known viruses exist within the herpes family. of these, eight are known to cause disease in humans, the most common being herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. Hsv1 and Hsv2 look identical under the microscope, and either type can infect the mouth or genitals. Usually, however, Hsv1 occurs above the waist, and Hsv2 below the waist. In children, Hsv2 is usually associated with infections of babies who acquire the disease during birth. However, there is a certain amount of overlap between the two, and conditions usually caused by Hsv2 may be caused by Hsv1, and vice versa. Both types are highly infectious, spread...

Side Effects Comments

Acyclovir 10-12 mg (x ky iV i iilined m I ICuilnixh illusion ol trji-ctose aey uv (2 itX 625 urits. mnmn doso is 125 i* ts) is tocixnmcndod for posl-expostxe prophylaxis si strscctittifcr porsore. .il great* risk, lor ccnphcaticins ( nmunucompfomised such ns HV. mofcgnanciec. prognancy. and steroid rxj as sopn as possible after exposuro I 96 las) It win-'-il.uVjvolofis imti.iti'i ij.i *ly (c24 lirr. of tasti) witti acyclovir au t low Some would rx presumptively with .uiy* .-vn n t 'insk .'. 2nd, susceptible adults houklhe vaccinated Chrck .inlitxxty m odulti wtf negative or uncertain hx ot varicella (10 30 wli be Abrxxt and vacrinaie it-. . .if Alii ) 3rd. usceptiitocfuklren shouldriy-aeva . ui.it ,n Recommendedt in-et tieture.ige 12-18n ,t X .it . -, j. Acyclovir 800 mg po 5 tarie* i lay times 7 10 days Prednisone 30 run 1 1*1 itiy. 1 7. 15 n t l ddays 8 4 and 7 5 my 1*1 da,'. 15-21 also recommendod by some aiitxxrtios in pts 50 yi* ol age tKEJU 335 32. 1996) andespeo.i0yuAx i (4 has...

Exogenous TLR ligands implicated in the progression of atherosclerosis

A number of infectious agents have been associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disorders, including Chlamydia pneumoniae 47 , Helicobacter pylori 48 , cytomegalovirus (CMV) 49 , Epstein-Barr virus 50 , human immunodeficiency virus 51 , herpes simplex viruses (HSV)1 52 , HSV2 53 , and hepatitis B 54 and C 55 . More recent models emphasize the relationship of atherosclerosis to total infectious burden rather than specific pathogens 56 . The above mentioned infectious agents or derived PAMPs have been shown to signal through one or more TLRs (Fig. 2). Furthermore, the recently identified cytoplasmatic PRR NOD1 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain) has been proposed to be involved in Chlamydia and Helicobacter induced signal transduction 57, 58 . It is intriguing to

Vulvar Dermatitis Irritant Contact Dermatitis

A survey of German family physicians, gynecologists, and dermatologists in 1998 revealed that 24 to 38 of patients with noninfectious genital complaints had a diagnosis of vulvar dermatitis, while the incidence was 20 to 30 in Oxford, U.K., in 2000 (2,18). There are three prototypic clinical responses to irritants acute irritant dermatitis, chronic (cumulative) irritant dermatitis, and sensory irritation. The acute type develops as a result of exposure to a potent irritant and is equivalent to a chemical burn. The cumulative, chronic type results from repeated exposures to weak irritants and can be confused with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Sensory irritation is characterized by stinging and burning caused by chemical exposure with no detectable skin changes. All three types can affect the vulva, and some chemicals, such as propylene glycol, can cause irritation as well as sensitization (18,19). The antiviral medication acyclovir, imiquimod, and podophyllotoxin can cause acute...

Immune system abnormality

Immune-based therapies Treatments intended to have their effect by enhancing the general activity of the immune system or by specifically modulating the activity of some of its components. They may be used to help restore a person's general immune responsiveness, suppress specific viral infections, or counteract the bone marrow toxicity of some of the drugs used for HIV-related conditions. Hope is placed in these substances because they promise to reduce the pill burden of HIV patients. Drugs used in such therapies include preparations of antibodies and drugs that stimulate production of red and white blood cells, cytokines, and other immune modulators. Vaccines are also immune therapy drugs. Specific drugs used in immune-based therapies include cyclosporine, cytomegalovirus immune globulin, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, interleukin-2 (IL-2 or Proleukin), HIV-1 immunogen (Salk Vaccine or

Through Manipulation Of Hif Activity

A therapeutic transgene expressing a constitutively active form of HIF-1 a (HIF-a VP16) has been constructed by truncating HIF-1a at amino acid 390, thereby removing the oxygen-dependent degradation domain as well as the endogenous HIF-1 activation domains, and replacing them with a constitutively active herpes virus VP16 transactivation domain. The resulting construct, HIF-1a VP16, initiates expression of a number of genes involved in angiogenesis and possibly arteriogenesis 72, 92-95 . Using a similar approach, Semenza and colleagues 96 have generated an adenoviral HIF-1a construct termed AdCA5 the HIF-1 a gene within AdCA5 has been modified via deletion and point mutations within the ODD domain that result in constitutive HIF activity. Gene expression profiling using either SAGE in the case of a recombinant adenovirus expressing HIF-1 a VP16 97 or microarray analysis in the case of AdCA5 98 yielded a similar spectrum of expression of genes involved in angiogenesis, such as marked...

Child care centers and infectious disease since

The common cold, fifth disease, influenza, meningitis, and tuberculosis. Germs can be transmitted by direct contact to cause cold sores, cytomegalovirus, head lice, scabies, and streptococcal infections. Germs can be spread via the fecal-oral route to cause diarrheal diseases or hepatitis a.

Structural Brain Pathology And Retrograde Amnesia

There is little doubt that large temporal lobe lesions produce an extensive RA (e.g. Cermak &O'Connor, 1983 Wilson &Wearing, 1995). Cermak&O'Connor (1983) studied a patient, S.S., who had suffered herpes encephalitis resulting in bitemporal pathology and a severe anterograde amnesia. On a test of famous faces (Albert et al., 1979), he showed a marked impairment in performance but relative sparing of early memories (a temporal gradient ). During follow-up over a number of years, there was substantial improvement. Asked about events from his past life (1930s-1970s) on a questionnaire, he showed impairment for the two most recent decades only. Given cue-words, and asked to describe specific episodes from his past relating to those words (the so-called Crovitz test ), S.S. seemed to display only a personal pool of generalized knowledge about himself, i.e. his own semantic memory . On the other hand, his past knowledge about physics and laser technology (his profession) appeared to be...

Vaginal yeast infection See candidiasis

Vaginitis An inflammation or infection of the vagina. Vaginitis occurs when the normal environment of the vulva and vagina is disturbed, usually by common bacteria. Although the vagina resists disease as well as the rest of the body, vaginal imbalance and lowered resistance to infection can be caused by poor diet lack of sleep, exercise or cleanliness and stress. Causes of vaginitis include trichomona virus, candida, bacterial vaginosis, and several other possibilities. The presence of vaginal pathogens may predispose women to increased frequency of herpes outbreaks or recurrences of valaciclovir A medication used in the treatment of herpes zoster (shingles) and herpes simplex (genital herpes). It inhibits the replication of viral DNA that is necessary for viruses to reproduce themselves. Valaciclovir is actually a prodrug, meaning that it is not active itself against the virus. Rather, in the body it is converted to acyclovir, which is active against the viruses. It has been shown to...

Progesterone implant 399

Probenecid A drug that enhances the kidney's excretory functions. Patients who receive cidofovir for cytomegalovirus must take probenecid and intravenous hydration with saline solution in order to protect the kidneys from damage caused by cidofovir buildup within kidney cells. (Trade names include Benemial and Probalan.)

For Multicistronic and Multiregulated Gene Expression

Fig. 3. (opposite page) Modular setup of generic pTRIDENT (A), autoregulated bidirectional expression (pBiRex5, B) and dual-autoregulated (pAutoRex4, C) vectors. (A) The pTRIDENT vector family consists of a constitutive or regulated promoter that enables transcription of a multicistronic mRNA. Three different transgenes can be inserted into the three MCS. The IRES enable cap-independent transcription-initiation of 3'-encoded cistrons. All pTRIDENT vectors contain a high-copy number pBluescript-based backbone, including the ori and P-lactamase-encoding gene for amplification in E. coli. The identical modular setup of all pTRIDENT vectors enables swapping of promoters and expression cassettes. In this context, the rare-cutting homing endonucleases (I-CewI, I-SceI, I-PpoI, and PI-PspI) are of particular interest for module swapping. (B) pBiRex5 harbors a bidirectional asymmetric streptogramin-responsive promoter-driving expression of the streptogramin-dependent transactivator (PIT) via a...

Safe sex and good sex See bad sex

Safer sex A term sometimes preferred to safe sex, because it does not imply that sexual contact can be made 100 percent safe. The term recognizes the likelihood of human error, the inexactness of human knowledge, and the fact that people will engage in activities that may not be 100 percent safe. Latex, polyurethane, or other plastic barriers for oral and anal-oral sex between lesbians and gay men are often recommended by safer sex educators. These educators note that lesbians are definitely at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases because exchange of bodily fluids and possibly blood is often involved in lesbian sex. Viruses such as herpes simplex and human papillomavirus (which causes genital warts) can be transmitted by oral-genital contact, which is considered a medium to low risk on the spectrum of HIV transmission. Several different products can be used by lesbians as barriers for oral sex. Unlubricated latex condoms can be cut into flat barriers by cutting off the...

Addisons disease

Stinging skin may become hypersensitive with subsequent use. Combined use with the drug probenecid increases the half-life of acyclovir by decreasing its excretion from the body. Increased antiviral activity has been seen in combination with alpha-interferon in vitro. Combination with NEPHROTOXIC drugs increases the risk of nephrotox-icity. High IV doses in combination with other bone marrow suppressant agents (i.e., high-dose trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole) may induce blood dyscrasias. Acyclovir is available for oral (considered most effective), intravenous, and topical administration. it is marketed under the trade name Zovirax. it has been supplanted by many doctors in herpes treatment with valaciclovir, which does not require as many daily doses to do the same amount of work.


A number of drugs are available to help treat opportunistic infections to which children with HIV are especially prone. These drugs include fos-carnet and ganciclovir to treat cytomegalovirus eye infections, fluconazole to treat yeast and other fungal infections, and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMP SMX) or pentamidine to treat Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP).

Human Tumor Viruses

Despite these difficulties, six viruses are now widely recognized as playing an etiologic role in human cancers. Four of these viruses, human papillomaviruses (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), contain DNA genomes, and the remaining two, human T lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), contain RNA genomes. Epstein-Barr virus is a herpesvirus that infects virtually all adult humans (Henle et al., 1969). Unlike the viruses mentioned above, EBV is a large, complex virus that encodes more than 100 proteins. In the developed world, EBV causes infectious mononucleosis, a benign and self-limiting proliferation of B lymphocytes, in about one-half of primarily infected adolescents 1.3.4. Human Herpesvirus-8 HHV-8, also known as Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, is distantly related to EBV. This virus was first identified in the tumor DNA of a patient with Kaposi's sarcoma (Chang et al., 1994), a tumor of endothelial cells....


The neurobiology of memory at systems level moved into the center stage of neuropsychology and neuroscience about four decades ago, when the now-famous case of H.M. was first described (Scoville & Milner, 1957). Following a bilateral resection of the mesial temporal lobes that was done to control his seizures, H.M. developed a profound inability to learn new factual (declarative) knowledge (Corkin, 1984 Milner, 1972 Milner et al., 1998). Another important case was the patient known as Boswell (Damasio et al., 1985). Following herpes simplex encephalitis that damaged nearly all of the mesial and anterolateral parts of his temporal lobes, Boswell developed one of the most profound amnesic syndromes that has ever been described. Not only could Boswell not learn any new factual knowledge, but he was also incapable of retrieving factual knowledge from his past. This latter feature distinguishes Boswell from patient H.M., whose retrieval of knowledge acquired prior to the time of his...

The tongue

The tongue may be affected by squamous cell carcinoma and herpes simplex infection (see Chapter 1). Occasionally the tongue may be pigmented, which is not pathological. Glossitis, manifest by a smooth, red, swollen, painful tongue occurs for example, with B-vitamin deficiencies.

The Genus

In order to overcome these inconsistencies, the working group on PV taxonomy of the ICTV (consisting of E.M. de Villiers, H. zur Hausen, H. U. Bernard, and T. Broker) agreed with the ICTV on the term genus for higherorder associations that were originally referred to as supergroups or major branches. It was decided that Greek letters should be used to name such genera, as shown in Figure 3.1. A complete list of all PV types and their has taxonomic order has recently been published (de Villiers et al., 2004), and a short form is shown in Table 3.2. To give examples of the consequences of this agreement, all genital PVs are referred to as alpha-papillomaviruses, and those PV types most often associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis as beta-PVs. The working group and the ICTV took a cue to introduce the Greek alphabet for this taxonomy from the generally accepted taxonomy of herpesviruses. The parties involved in this decision are aware that it will be problematic to assure that...


Major health scares rarely appear without advance warning, as they have usually been developing gradually over a period of some years. In some cases there is what appears in retrospect as an anticipatory phase thus the herpes scare of the early 1980s in many ways foreshadowed the Aids panic. Among the few beneficiaries of Aids (apart from those in the booming business of health promotion) were people with herpes, for whom all manner of grim consequences had been predicted as a result of life-long infection and frequent recurrences, all of which were forgotten when the more potent menace of HIV emerged. In relation to other scares there were earlier minor outbreaks such as the links between the Pill and breast cancer which prepared the way for the big one. Rumbling anxieties about childhood immunisations had continued since the whooping cough scare of the 1970s, despite studies which failed to confirm the alleged link to brain damage. Yet a vague popular awareness of these...


The location of Candida infection indicates the state of the immune system. Vaginal candidiasis may precede oral candidiasis (thrush) and may be the first sign of immune dysfunction. As immune suppression becomes worse, the primary site of the Candida infection may change from the vagina to the mouth and pharynx and later to the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract in severely immunocom-promised women. Vaginal candidiasis may be accompanied by generalized lymphadenopathy, localized herpes simplex, depletion of t-helper cells, and anergy.


Note that HIV-infected children are subject to most of the opportunistic infections that can occur in adults. Some that are particularly notable in HIV-infected children are bacterial infections, can-didiasis and other fungal infections (oral candidia-sis, esophageal candidiasis, other fungal infections such as ringworm and athlete's foot), herpesvirus infections, measles virus, Mycobacterium avium complex, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and tuberculosis. Diarrhea, lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis, and HIV encephalopathy are other important conditions in children with HIV disease.

Cold sore

Cold sores are caused by the contagious herpes simplex virus. The viral strain usually responsible for cold sores is herpes simplex Type I (HSVI) up to 90 percent of all people around the world carry this virus. This strain usually appears on the mouth, lips, and face. The virus is highly contagious when the blisters are present it is often transmitted by kissing. The virus can also be spread by children who touch their blisters and then touch other children. About 10 percent of oral herpes cases in adults are acquired by oral-genital sex with a person with active genital herpes. There is no cure for recurrent fever blisters. For mild symptoms, the sore should be kept clean and dry and it will heal itself. For particularly virulent outbreaks, the antiviral drug acyclovir or idoxuridine paint may relieve symptoms. otherwise, there are a range of nonprescription drugs available containing some numbing agent (such as camphor or phenol) that also contain an emollient to reduce cracking....


Circumcision The surgical removal of the end of the prepuce, of foreskin, of the penis. Circumcision is a social or religious custom, usually performed on newborn babies at the request of the parents. The issue of circumcision as it relates to HIV transmission is hardly trivial. It has been suggested that there is a relationship between absence of circumcision and HIV. Studies seem to support such an association but must be interpreted cautiously because evidence may be unavoidably confounded with other factors. Since the late 1800s, it has repeatedly been found that men with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are more likely to be uncircumcised than are men without STDs. Modern investigators have reported that uncircumcised men were more likely than circumcised men to be infected with gonorrhea or syphilis, less likely to have genital warts, and equally likely to have herpesvirus infection. Recently several investigators have reported that uncircumcised men may be more susceptible...

Cohort studies 111

Cofactor A factor other than the basic causative agent of a disease that activates or furthers the action of a disease-causing agent, thereby increasing the likelihood of developing that disease. Cofactors may also increase the progression of a particular disease. Cofactors may include the presence of other microbes, proteins, hormones, genes, genetic predispositions, psychosocial factors such as stress, or environmental issues. With HIV infection, cofactors are only suspected but may include other viruses (like cytomegalovirus), age, genetic resistance, or predisposition and certain hormone-like substances called cytokines, released

Retrograde Amnesia

Larger lesions of the medial temporal lobe also spare remote memory for factual knowledge. E.P. became amnesic in 1992 at the age of 70, after an episode of herpes simplex encephalitis. He has extensive, virtually complete bilateral damage to the hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex and perirhinal cortex, as well as damage to the anterior parahip-pocampal cortex and anterior fusiform gyrus (Stefanacci et al., 2000). E.P. grew up in the Hayward-Castro Valley area of California during the 1930s and 1940s, moved away at the age of 28, and has returned only occasionally. E.P. was age-matched to five controls who attended his high school, lived in the area about as long as he did, and also moved away at about the age that he did. All six individuals were given four tests of topographical memory to assess their spatial knowledge of the region where they grew up (Teng & Squire, 1999). They were asked to describe how they would navigate from their homes to different locations in the area...

RNAi In Mammals

Its versatily, its high specificity, and the minute amounts required to inhibit gene function render RNAi a highly promising technique to combat diseases. Because RNA silencing serves as a defense against retroviruses in plants and invertebrates it appears only challenging to reintroduce RNAi to fight viruses in mammals and humans. Many studies have been performed to treat HIV-1, herpes simplex virus, and hepatitis B and C by dsRNA-based approaches. Moreover, the high sensitivity toward point mutations qualifies RNAi as a potential tool for the cure ofcancers and inherited diseases. In a study ofthe Ras oncogene, it was possible to target mutated Ras without affecting unmutated Ras, demonstrating the exquisite specificity of RNAi as a therapeutic tool. However, the same specificity could pose problems for therapeutics against viral infection. Viral escape from RNAi selection in poliovirus by mutation of the target sequence has already been demonstrated. The high specificity is already...

Infectious Diseases

So far, many groups have been successful in activating the pathway against viral targets with diverse replication strategies, including HIV (136,152-162), hepatitis B and C (HBV HCV) (163-170), human papilloma virus (HPV) (171-173), polio virus (174,175), herpes virus (176), human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (177), respiratory syncytial virus (178), influenza (179), Epstein-Barr virus (180), and, finally, corona viruses such as SARS (181-185).

Cytochrome P450 129

Cytarabine A drug compound (cytosine arabi-noside) originally developed as an antileukemic agent and now being used in treating herpes virus hominis infections that cause either keratitis or encephalitis. The first well-controlled clinical trial found that treatment offers no benefit to patients


The technique was first tried medically in 1928, although scientists have known since the 1800s that it was possible to record electrical impulses from animal brains. Supplanted today by imaging studies in detecting brain pathology, the EEG is now used primarily to detect abnormal cerebral function that cannot be otherwise identified. It is therefore best used to evaluate transient states, such as seizures evolving conditions, such as herpes simplex encephalitis global disorders, such as dementia. Only a few EEG patterns can be used to diagnose a particular disease, but the tracings can be helpful in deciding among several disease alternatives.


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) A virus belonging to the herpes family, and a major pathogen in people with AIDS. Before the appearance of AIDS, it was most commonly associated with severe congenital infection in infants and with life-threatening infections in patients who had undergone bone marrow transplants and other procedures requiring suppression of the immune system. CMV's most common target is the retina the light-sensitive-tissue at the back of the eyes. If left untreated, cmv retinitis causes blindness in the affected eye 90 percent of the time. CMV also infects the gastrointestinal tract, and may involve the entire tract, from mouth to anus, including the liver and pancreas. Most cases of CMV gastrointestinal disease involve the esophagus or colon. CMV can also cause pneumonia or cervicitis in women. There have also been reports of CNS and adrenal disease, although the frequency and significance of these conditions are unclear. As a result of these infections, CMV produces...

Dyspareunia 161

Dysesthesia (dysaesthesia) An impairment or a distortion in the senses, especially that of touch. Dysesthesia may be any unusual or unpleasant feeling associated with any area of the body that is generated by touch. In HIV it is most often in relation to peripheral neuropathy. Affected individuals often report burning feelings or sharp stabs of pain from simple walking or touching of objects with their feet or hands. Some medications may also cause symptoms that can be labeled as dysesthesia. Herpes simplex often causes local dysesthesia for a day or two before the outbreak of a rash occurs.