Conclusion

The visual-spatial nature of sign languages—the fact that they are articulated with the hands and perceived through the eyes—does not relegate them to the realm of pantomime and gesture. Natural sign languages are as subtle and complex as any spoken language and are structured according to universal linguistic principles. Deaf children exposed to a complete and consistent natural sign language early in childhood acquire the language normally, following the same stages and learning processes as are observed in hearing children acquiring their native spoken language.

—Peter A. de Villiers and Jennie Pyers References

Anderson, D., and Reilly, J. (1997). The puzzle of negation: How children move from communicative to grammatical negation in ASL. Applied Psycholinguistics, 18, 411-429. Bellugi, U., vanHoek, K., Lillo-Martin, D., and O'Grady, L. (1993). The acquisition of syntax and space in young deaf signers. In D. Bishop and K. Mogford (Eds.), Language development in exceptional circumstances. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bonvillian, J. (1999). Sign language development. In M. Barrett (Ed.), The development of language. Hove, U.K.: Psychology Press.

Brown, R. (1973). A first language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard

University Press. Conlin, K., Mirus, G., Mauk, C., and Meier, R. (2000). The acquisition of first signs: Place, handshape and movement. In C. Chamberlain, J. Morford, and R. Mayberry (Eds.), Language acquisition by eye. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Emmory, K., and Reilly, J. (1995). Sign, gesture, and space.

Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Fischer, S. (1998). Critical periods for language acquisition: consequences for deaf education. In A. Weisel (Ed.), Issues unresolved: New perspectives on language and deaf education. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. Goldin-Meadow, S. (2001). The resilience of language. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Gustason, G. (1990). Signing exact English. In H. Bornstein (Ed.), Manual communication: Implications for education. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Hoffmeister, R., de Villiers, P. A., Engen, E., and Topol, D. (1997). English reading achievement and ASL skills in deaf students. In E. Hughes, M. Hughes, and A. Greenhill (Eds.), Proceedings of the 21st Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Hoffmeister, R., and Wilbur, R. (1980). The acquisition of sign language. In H. Lane and F. Grosjean (Eds.), Recent perspectives on American Sign Language. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Humphries, T., Padden, C., and O'Rourke, T. (1980). A basic course in American Sign Language. Silver Springs, MD: T.J. Publishers.

Johnson, R., Liddell, S., and Erting, C. (1989). Unlocking the curriculum: Principles for achieving success in deafeducation (Working Paper 89-3). Washington, DC: Gallaudet Research Institute, Gallaudet University.

Kegl, J., Senghas, A., and Coppola, M. (1999). Creation through contact: Sign language emergence and sign language change in Nicaragua. In M. DeGraff (Ed.), Language creation and language change: Creolization, diachrony, and development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Liddell, S. (1980). American Sign Language syntax. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton.

Marentette, P., and Mayberry, R. (2000). Principles for an emerging phonological system: A case study of early ASL acquisition. In C. Chamberlain, J. Morford, and R. May-berry (Eds.), Language acquisition by eye. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Mayberry, R., and Eichen, E. (1991). The long-lasting advantage of learning sign language in childhood: Another look at the critical period for language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 486-512.

Nelson, K. (1998). Toward a differentiated account of facilitators of literacy development and ASL in deaf children. Topics in Language Disorders, 18, 73-88.

Newport, E. (1991). Contrasting concepts of the critical period for language. In S. Carey and R. Gelman (Eds.), The epigenesis of mind: Essays on biology and cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Newport, E. (1999). Reduced input in the study of signed languages: Contributions to the study of creolization. In M. DeGraff (Ed.), Language creation and language change: Creolization, synchrony, and development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Newport, E., and Ashbrook, E. (1977). The emergence of semantic relations in American Sign Language. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, 13, 16-21.

Newport, E., and Aslin, R. (2000). Innately constrained learning: Blending of old and new approaches to language acquisition. In S. C. Howell, S. Fish, and T. Keith-Lucas (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Newport, E., and Meier, R. (1985). The acquisition of American Sign Language. In D. Slobin (Ed.), The cross-linguistic study of language acquisition. Vol. 1. The data. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Padden, C. (1998). Early bilingual lives of deaf children. In I. Parasnis (Ed.), Cultural and language diversity and the deaf experience. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Padden, C., and Ramsey, C. (1998). Reading ability in signing deaf children. Topics in Language Disorders, 18, 40-46.

Pettito, L. (1987). On the autonomy of language and gesture: Evidence from the acquisition of personal pronouns in American Sign Language. Cognition, 27, 1-52.

Petitto, L. (2000). The acquisition of natural signed languages: Lessons in the nature of human language and its biological functions. In C. Chamberlain, J. Morford, and R. May-berry (Eds.), Language acquisition by eye. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Pettito, L., and Marentette, P. (1991). Babbling in the manual mode: Evidence for the ontogeny of language. Science, 251, 1493-1496.

Reilly, J. (2000). Bringing affective expression into the service of language: Acquiring perspective marking in narratives. In K. Emmory and H. Lane (Eds.), The Signs of Language revisited: An anthology to honor Ursula Bellugi and Edward Klima. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Schick, B. (1990). The effects of morphosyntactic structure on the acquisition of classifier predicates in ASL. In C. Lucas (Ed.), Sign language research: Theoretical issues. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Senghas, A. (2000). The development of early spatial morphology in Nicaraguan Sign Language. In S. C. Howell, S. Fish, and T. Keith-Lucas (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Slobin, D. (1985). Crosslinguistic evidence for the language-making capacity. In D. Slobin (Ed.), The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition. Vol. 2. Theoretical issues. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Strong, M., and Prinz, P. (1997). A study of the relationship between American Sign Language and English literacy. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2, 37-46.

Supalla, S. (1991). Manually coded English: The modality question in signed language development. In P. Siple and S. Fischer (Eds.), Theoretical issues in sign language research. Vol. 2. Psychology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Wilbur, R. (1987). American Sign Language: Linguistics and applied dimensions (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Hearing Aids Inside Out

Hearing Aids Inside Out

Have you recently experienced hearing loss? Most probably you need hearing aids, but don't know much about them. To learn everything you need to know about hearing aids, read the eBook, Hearing Aids Inside Out. The book comprises 113 pages of excellent content utterly free of technical jargon, written in simple language, and in a flowing style that can easily be read and understood by all.

Get My Free Ebook


Responses

  • ailie gray
    How to write a reseach conclusion on a topic hearing impairement?
    3 months ago

Post a comment