Functional Hearing Loss in Children

Functional hearing loss (FHL) is frequently forgotten or misdiagnosed in the pediatric population, despite the fact that it is well documented (Bowdler and Rogers, 1989). The diagnosis is often missed in children because of lack of awareness of its manifestations (Pracy et al., 1996), its incidence (Barr, 1963), and its multiple causes (Broad, 1980). Functional hearing loss is one of several terms used to describe a hearing loss that cannot be ascribed to an organic cause (Aplin and Rowson,...

Natural Sign Language Versus Artificial Signed Versions of Spoken Language

In several countries, signed versions of the native spoken language have been created by educators. Unlike natural sign languages, they are typically signed simultaneously with the spoken language as a form of sign-supported speech. In the United States there are several versions of manually coded English (MCE). The most widely used of these are Signed English, Signed Exact English, and Seeing Essential English. These all use lexical signs from ASL and English word order, but they vary in the...

Speech Disfluency and Stuttering in Children

Childhood stuttering (also called developmental stuttering) is a communication disorder that is generally characterized by interruptions, or speech disfluencies, in the smooth forward flow of speech. Speech disfluencies can take many forms, and not all are considered to be atypical. Disfluencies such as interjections (um, er), phrase repetitions (''I want I want that), and revisions (I want I need that), which are relatively common in the speech of normally developing children, represent normal...

Speech Disorders in Children A Psycholinguistic Perspective

Psycholinguistic Model Repetition

The terminology used to describe speech problems is rooted in classificatory systems derived from different academic disciplines. In order to understand the rationale behind the psycholinguistic approach, it is helpful to examine other approaches and compare how speech problems have been classified from different perspectives. Three perspectives that have been particularly influential are the medical, linguistic, and psycholinguistic perspectives. In a medical perspective, speech and language...

Characteristics of American Sign Language and Other Natural Sign Languages

This entry focuses on American Sign Language (ASL) because it is the natural sign language used in the United States and it has been the most extensively studied. However, many of the issues raised here about the unique properties of natural sign languages and the normal pattern of acquisition of those languages by deaf children exposed to complete and early input apply to all natural sign languages. ASL and other natural sign languages are formally structured at different levels and follow the...

Speech Sound Disorders in Children Description and Classification

Children with speech sound disorders form a heterogeneous group whose problems differ in severity, scope, etiology, course of recovery, and social consequences. Beyond manifest problems with speech production and use, their problems can include reduced intelligibility, risk for broader communication disorders, and academic difficulties, as well as social stigma. Because of the heterogeneity of children's speech sound disorders, the description and classification of these disorders have been...