Whole Body Healing

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Brainstorms Healer Epilepsy in Our Experience

Summary The Brainstorms Healer Epilepsy in Our Experience is the fourth in a series of books about the personal aspects of seizures and epilepsy. The book presents the perspectives of health care professionals from around the world who help patients with epilepsy or who experience seizures themselves. The book is intended to strengthen communication and understanding between patients with epilepsy and providers of care. The book's anecdotes reveal an array of emotions, among them frustration in failing to control seizures, inspiration, the sadness of loss, gratitude for lessons learned on the meaning of life, and the elation that marks the achievement of one's potential. Practitioners who have epilepsy share how they have come to understand firsthand the perspectives of patients who struggle similarly. The book begins with a tribute to the late Kiffin Penry, M.D., who established the Antiepileptic Drug Development Program and inspired scores of professionals and patients alike. An...

Energy Therapies

Energy therapies focus on energy fields originating within the body (biofields) or those from other sources (electromagnetic fields). Biofield therapies are intended to affect energy fields (the existence of which is not yet experimentally proven) that surround and penetrate the human body. Some forms of energy therapy manipulate biofields by applying pressure and or manipulating the body by placing the hands in or through these fields. Examples include qi gong, reiki and therapeutic touch. Qi gong is a component of traditional oriental medicine that combines movement, meditation, and regulation of breathing to enhance the flow of vital energy (qi) in the body, improve blood circulation, and enhance immune function. Reiki, the Japanese word representing Universal Life Energy, is based on the belief that, by channeling spiritual energy through the practitioner, the spirit is healed and, in turn, heals the physical body. Therapeutic Touch is derived from the ancient technique of...

Introduction and Acknowledgments

A entered the program, she told her psychiatrist that she did not believe that medication could help with her depression, her delusions of being persecuted, and her auditory hallucinations of voices of children. She believed that another woman, who was jealous of Ms. A's relationship with that woman's husband, had caused her illness. Ms. A believed that she needed a santero (Cuban folk healer) to rid her of the jealous woman's evil eye. The case of Ms. A illustrates the importance of understanding cultural factors in the treatment of Latino patients. Ms. A needed treatment that was based on her cultural perception of her illness (going to the folk healer) in addition to more traditional interventions such as medication and case management services. Previous clinicians had not explored the patient's under-

Alternative treatment

Spiritual and psychological approaches seek to provide a holistic balance to complement other treatment strategies for HIV AIDS. Although benefits are highly individual and subjective, they can contribute to an overall state of health. Treatments include hypnotherapy, meditation, psychotherapy, spiritual healing, stress reduction, and visualization.

Hoanalysis as a Scientific Theory

Many therapists are indifferent to, or even antagonistic to, scientific research (Williams & living, 1999), unless that research is specifically targeted to clinical practice (Williams & Hill, 2001). As therapists, psychoanalysts listen intuitively, prepared to synthesize diverse, vague clues into a picture of the client's personality. However, science does not tolerate such loosely defined methods. Science demands verifiability. That is, science predicts what obseivations would confirm its hypotheses and also what observations would constitute disconfirmation. In contrast, an intuitive therapist may be able to explain any obseivation. For example, either optimism or pessimism can be interpreted as evidence of an oral personality. Even a middle level between these two opposites is consistent with the diagnosis of oral fixation since both extremes may be present but in equal proportions. Such a flexible theory cannot be disconfirmed and so is not science. Instead, critics...

Mercury pollution and poisoning

The substance mercury has been described in many ways, but the following description is appropriate here 'the hottest, the coldest, a true healer, a wicked murderer, a precious medicine and deadly poison, a friend that can flatter and lie'.1 Named after the planet Mercury, it is a metal but, unlike all other metals, it is liquid at normal temperatures (that is, at room temperature or 2i C). Its Latin name is hydrogyrum (hence its chemical symbol Hg), meaning liquid silver, a name given to it by Aristotle.

Managing Emotion and the Need to Establish Common Ground

The use of complementary and alternative medicine has mushroomed in recent years. Patients may insist that they want to try an alternative therapy (for example, acupuncture, herbal remedies, or shamanic healing) in place of or in conjunction with a traditional therapy that their physician has prescribed. Some patients may forgo more proven therapies for this type of treatment, leaving physicians with ethical dilemmas related to the

Speech and Language Issues in Children from Asian Pacific Backgrounds

Attitudes Toward Disability and Treatment Methods. What constitutes a disability depends on the values of the cultural group. In general, Eastern cultures may view a disabling condition as the result of wrongdoing of the individual's ancestors, resulting in guilt and shame. Disabilities may be explained by a variety of spiritual or cultural beliefs, such as an imbalance in inner forces, bad wind, spoiled foods, gods, demons, or spirits, hot or cold forces, or fright. Some believe disability is caused by karma (fate) or a curse. All over the world, people use different methods to treat illnesses and diseases, including consulting with priests, healers, herbalists, Qi-Gong specialists, clansmen, shamans, elders, and physicians. Among the Hmong, for example, surgical intervention is viewed as invasive and harmful.

Inborn Gifts of Metabolism

The genetic gods may take away our health, but so too can they provide. For many of us, especially in our youth, health is an accustomed state interrupted occasionally by illnesses or injuries that send us scurrying to doctors, shamans, or faith healers. This genetic birthright among the most wonderful of gifts must seem terribly unfair to those to whom it has been denied and who must struggle with disabilities that the rest of us may never experience. Several steps in the catabolic cycles of TCA and b-oxidation result in the release of hydrogen and carbon dioxide from organic foodstuff. The hydrogen then is burned with oxygen, and the energy released charges the mitochondrial membrane, thereby creating a capacitor that helps drive the synthesis of adenosine triphos-phate (ATP). This ATP synthesis takes place on the mitochondrial inner membrane in a complicated molecular process known as oxidative phosphorylation, conducted under the auspices of numerous structural and enzymatic...

Deadly Drugs For Euthanasia

Greek physicians advised treating persons who were suicidal or who had self-inflicted wounds. Epidemic V reported, The woman who cut her throat she choked. She was later given much purgative medicine . .21 Places in Man offered this advice, To those who are troubled and ill and want to hang themselves, give mandrake root to drink in the morning, an amount less than would make them delirious.22 Unlike the discussions of abortion by midwives, the medical treatises do not describe physicians, other healers, or lay people helping sick people commit suicide.25

Representations Of Material Origin Or The Genetic Codes

Compared with that in the forward direction as letting it be suppressed infinites-imally small in external measurement in comparison to the former. The present absence of reversibility in projections may certainly be the case if temperature dynamics in the presence of temperature gradients is put in place. When there are two alternatives of the closure of projections, the clockwise and anti-clockwise circulation, the closure to be fixed will be the one that can mitigate the temperature gradients faster (Matsuno and Swenson, 1999). In any case, all biological phenomena proceed in the presence of temperature gradients in one form or another otherwise the fate of ending up with heat death in thermal equilibrium would have to be unavoidable. In particular, the closure facilitating the mitigation of the available temperature gradients faster turns out to have the larger amplitude of composite projections between the two alternatives. The closure of composite projections to be met in...

Federal Rehabilitation Act 181

Physicians suggest that individuals be encouraged to develop their own methods of coping with fatigue, including pacing their daily lives, altering activity-rest patterns, taking frequent rest breaks, and delegating activities to others. Working out at the gym or jogging is a form of natural psychological and physical stimulation, but more moderate exercise such as walking can be helpful, too. People have found such meditative exercise forms as yoga, tai chi, or chi gong very restorative even when their physical capacity is limited by disease. Massage, therapeutic touch, acupuncture, and other alternative therapies that claim to restore the body's energy balance also may have a role to play, if only for their meditative aspects, which may relieve mental tension and depression. Finally, psychosocial counseling and support groups can be important for helping the individual to cope with emotional stress or anxiety. occupational therapy can also be a valuable strategy for

Attitudes Toward Mental Health

Dentiality, Colombians tend to avoid participation in group treatment. The use of folk healers is still common in some areas of Colombia, as well as in the United States. The services of the different types of Colombians and other Hispanic healers that exist in most American major cities are used more frequently by immigrants with low income and low levels of education (Rojano 1993).

Jennifer Lamb and Ian Tong

Internists take care of the general medical problems of adults. In a single day, they can act as a diagnostician, an educator, a director, an advocate, a motivator, a healer, and a comforter. In the clinic, they treat their patients' aches, pains, and sniffles. They also come to their bedsides in the hospital and manage their inpatient care. Some internists spend their time providing acute and chronic primary care others become subspecialists in cardiology, gastroenterology, endocrinology, and more. Whether focusing on one organ system or taking care of the whole patient, internists approach everything with great intellectual curiosity. Sick patients with complex medical problems turn to internists for high quality care.

In A Pure And Holy

Von Staden cites an inscription on an Asclepian temple from 300 BCE as illustrating the relationship between pure and holy for healers, Pure must the person be who goes inside the fragrant temple. And purity is to think holy thoughts.10 It may be objected that Von Staden is overreaching in that the inscription may have been directed to sick persons to wit, that an illness could be cured only when the person was purified and living in a holy way. Socrates noted, however, that the purifications which doctors and diviners use, and their fumigations with drugs magical or medicinal, as well as their washings and lustral sprinklings, have all one and the same object, which is to make a man pure both in body and soul.11 In this view, physicians, like patients, would have to be pure in order to employ the tools of healing. It seems plausible that Hippocratic healers, like temple healers, would have had some words or rituals of purification as they entered patients' houses. Perhaps this...

Why Consider A Career In Internal Medicine

Internists are knowledgeable in many aspects of medical care. They treat acute and chronic conditions, not to mention common and rare disease entities. Even if you choose another specialty, no physician can avoid the basics of internal medicine. For instance, orthopedic surgeons have to treat hypokalemia, obstetricians-gynecologists need to be well versed in the management of hypertension, and psychiatrists must be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. Internal medicine is, in a way, the foundation for all fields of medicine. If you are excited by the prospect of providing care for adults as a diagnostician, healer, motivator, and patient advocate, you would certainly find a career in internal medicine rewarding.

What Are the Domains of Alternative Medicine44

The list of CAM practices changes continually. The reason being is that these new practices and therapies are often proved to be safe and effective, and therefore become generally accepted as mainstream healthcare practices. Today, CAM practices may be grouped within five major domains (1) alternative medical systems, (2) mind-body interventions, (3) biologically-based treatments, (4) manipulative and body-based methods, and (5) energy therapies. The individual systems and treatments comprising these categories are too numerous to list in this sourcebook. Thus, only limited examples are provided within each.

Alternative Medical Systems

Traditional oriental medicine emphasizes the balance or disturbances of qi (pronounced chi) or vital energy in health and disease, respectively. Traditional oriental medicine consists of a group of techniques and methods including acupuncture, herbal medicine, oriental massage, and qi gong (a form of energy therapy). Acupuncture involves stimulating specific anatomic points in the body for therapeutic purposes, usually by puncturing the skin with a thin needle. Other traditional healing systems have been developed by the world's indigenous populations. These populations include Native American, Aboriginal, African, Middle Eastern, Tibetan, and Central and South American cultures. Homeopathy and naturopathy are also examples of complete alternative medicine systems.

Milk thistle See silymarin

Mind-body therapies Alternative and holistic therapies that focus on the mind, body, and spirit includes meditation, image visualization, biofeedback, hypnosis, expressive therapies (music, art, dance movement), therapeutic healing, touch, and spiritual healing. Many believe such therapies

Traditional Health Beliefs

Many Mexicans and Mexican Americans continue to adhere to traditional beliefs and practices about health and illnesses. Martinez (1977) described these beliefs and their relevance to psychiatric diagnosis. It is important that clinicians have some awareness of the existence of these beliefs, particularly mal puesto (hex), because of its common occurrence and potential for influencing the clinical process. Some Mexican American patients and or their families may conclude that a mental disorder was caused by a hex placed on the patient by another person who has reason to be jealous of the patient. Although it is not known how often this belief occurs in relation to mental illness, some studies reported a 66 rate of knowledge of the condition and a 30 rate of having either experienced the condition personally or had it occur in an immediate family member (Martinez and Martin 1966). It is important to determine whether any elements of this belief complex are actively held by the patient...

Disclosing The Prognosis

The medical records of ancient Greece do not show paternalistic physicians. Patients, or at least the heads of households, chose the physician from among many healers in an intensely competitive environment. The physician did a complete medical history that could only be done with the patient's coopera

Mental Health Training

Critics of the current status of medical and psychiatric education in Latin American countries such as Peru emphasize the lack of integration between existing curricula and the sociocultural realities and actual mental health needs of the population. Research is not a priority in these programs, and the poverty of resources to sustain systematic efforts (both preclinical and clinical) makes for very limited accomplishments, with the exception of some countries and clinical areas such as epidemiology, sociocultural studies, and syndromic descriptions. Finally, the competition between psychiatrists and other mental health professionals and between mental health professionals and native healers may become an important component of the future evolution of mental health in Peru and the Latin American continent as a whole (Miguez 1995).

Changes in Body Perception

This theme, which drew from the theories of energy conservation in physics of the mid-19th century, entailed that each person was invested with a finite quantity of energy and its misuse would lead to physical degeneration and mental depravity (35). This energy model of the body would be instrumental in the creation of a new spermatic economy, in which sperm like money and labor force had to be used optimally (36).

Afterword The Oath For Our Time

Roles of healers and the ethics of healing. Humankind has rejected slavery and is slowly turning from the subordination of women, institutions that the Oath accepted. Western thought engendered a new intellectual endeavor called medical ethics. Today the Oath is one medical ethic in a world of contending and diverse moral systems. If the Oath merely memorializes the postulates of ancient Greek medicine (that medicine is a natural science and that being a physician is a moral enterprise), it would be still be a noteworthy relic. I held this minimalist view of its value when I began this exploration. As I came to understand how the Oath might have spoken to its own culture, it became easier to see what it might have to say to ours.

The safety of microwaveheated food

The practical and achievable limit of 10mW cm2 is justified because the microwaves that are used are identical with those used in therapy. (For therapeutic effects the energy density must be well above a level of 100mW cm2.) There are numerous studies to determine damage thresholds and it has been observed that no permanent effects occur at levels below 100mW cm2. For a critical organ, the eye, it was observed that cataract formation may occur at 150mW cm2 when the microwaves are applied for more than 90 minutes. Within certain limits the body can absorb energy including microwaves and compensate for the temperature increase easily by removing excessive heat by means of blood flow. There are certain avascular structures in the body that may have a relatively poor heat exchange this is possibly true for testicles and temporary sterility has been reported after microwave exposure. The energy flow from the sun may be considered for comparison on a sunny day in summer the infrared portion...

Influence On Community

Although, as mentioned earlier, religious beliefs may become harmful if rigid and punitive, they more often act as a resource for families and may be integral to the well-being of patients and carers. A number of studies have shown that religious orientation plays an important role as a coping strategy in the lives of carers from many ethnic groups (Atkin & Ahmad, 1998 Mir et al., 2000 Mir & Tovey, 2003). In addition, religious factors are associated with beneficial effects on health and well-being in patients with blood pressure and those needing long-term haemodialysis (Selway & Ashman, 1998). Faith, prayer and spiritual rituals, especially at sites of high spiritual energy such as places of pilgrimage or worship, have also been shown to aid healing by triggering emotions that influence the immune and cardiovascular systems (Walsh, 1998).

To What Are You Committed

The medical ethics of the Oath are centered on two principles, beneficence and justice, that are anchored in and lived through the integrity of the physician. It offers four examples of the application of these principles for medical practice the disavowals of deadly drugs, destructive pessaries, sexual relations in the course of clinical care, and indiscreet speech. By this structure, the Oath suggests that the form of medical ethics should include principles and topics that are arranged to address the societal and clinical roles of the healer. In taking this lead from the Oath, we can move to consider what it specifically offers us as we fashion a medical ethics for our time. Today, all economically developed nations whose healers claim descent from the Hippocratic tradition view universal access to affordable health care as a moral obligation of their health care system every developed nation except the United States. Many U.S. physicians argue that universal access to basic health...

Thelper to Tsuppressor ratio See tcell homeostasis Tcell Ratio

Therapeutic touch popularized by nursing professor Dolores Krieger, therapeutic touch is practiced by registered nurses and others to relieve pain and stress. The practitioner assesses where the person's energy field is weak or congested and then uses his or her hands to direct energy into the field to balance it.

Psychiatric Clinical Considerations

As with other Hispanic groups, it is important to consider that Cuban Americans often do not distinguish between illness and disease. Disease is generally perceived as a malfunction of the biological-physiological process, whereas illness encompasses personal, interpersonal, and environmental reactions and functions (Ruiz 1994). Perhaps this is one of the reasons why many Cuban Americans seek treatment for their mental illness among spiritual healers. Generally, folk and spiritual healers emphasize illness and thus give their patients a more acceptable explanation of psychiatric problems and conditions. Folk-healing traditions combining African religious beliefs with Catholicism remain prominent in certain sectors of the Cuban American population as well as in Cuba. These unorthodox religious beliefs are manifested in the practice of Santeria, spiritism, and brujeria (Bernal and Gutierrez 1988 Ruiz 1982, 1994). Santeria is a folk religion in which Yoruba deities originally from Africa...

Appendix B Researching Alternative Medicine

People use CAM treatments and therapies in a variety of ways. Therapies are used alone (often referred to as alternative), in combination with other alternative therapies, or in addition to conventional treatment (sometimes referred to as complementary). Complementary and alternative medicine, or integrative medicine, includes a broad range of healing philosophies, approaches, and therapies. Some approaches are consistent with physiological principles of Western medicine, while others constitute healing systems with non-Western origins. While some therapies are far outside the realm of accepted Western medical theory and practice, others are becoming established in mainstream medicine. The list of CAM practices changes continually. The reason being is that these new practices and therapies are often proved to be safe and effective, and therefore become generally accepted as mainstream healthcare practices. Today, CAM practices may be grouped within five major domains (1) alternative...

Manipulative and Body Based Methods

Energy Therapies Energy therapies focus on energy fields originating within the body (biofields) or those from other sources (electromagnetic fields). Biofield therapies are intended to affect energy fields (the existence of which is not yet experimentally proven) that surround and penetrate the human body. Some forms of energy therapy manipulate biofields by applying pressure and or manipulating the body by placing the hands in or through these fields. Examples include Qi gong, Reiki and Therapeutic Touch. Qi gong is a component of traditional oriental medicine that combines movement, meditation, and regulation of breathing to enhance the flow of vital energy (qi) in the body, improve blood circulation, and enhance immune function. Reiki, the Japanese word representing universal Life Energy, is based on the belief that, by channeling spiritual energy through the practitioner, the spirit is healed and, in turn, heals the physical body. Therapeutic Touch is derived from the ancient...

What Are the Domains of Alternative Medicine87

The list of CAM practices changes continually. The reason being is that these new practices and therapies are often proved to be safe and effective, and therefore become generally accepted as mainstream healthcare practices. Today, CAM practices may be grouped within five major domains (1) alternative medical systems, (2) mind-body interventions, (3) biologically-based treatments, (4) manipulative and body-based methods, and (5) energy therapies. The individual systems and treatments comprising these categories are too numerous to list in this sourcebook. Thus, only limited examples are provided within each. Traditional oriental medicine emphasizes the balance or disturbances of qi (pronounced chi) or vital energy in health and disease, respectively. Traditional oriental medicine consists of a group of techniques and methods including acupuncture, herbal medicine, oriental massage, and qi gong (a form of energy therapy). Acupuncture involves stimulating specific anatomic points in the...

Microtubules and Quantum Entanglement A Possible Basis for Memory and Consciousness

Entanglement can occur over long distances when there is a classical channel of information and a pre-existing entanglement. Qubits performing local operations can even send information to entangled qubits via classical channels49. This kind of long-range quantum entanglement relies on a physical connection between the brain regions, for example, axonal connectivity between cortical areas or electromagnetic energy flow from one brain region to another. Microtubules binding to nCAMs that traverse the synapse may provide a physical link between the cytoskeleton in sending and receiving neurons.50 This degree of entanglement might be expected to be medium to strong because of possible nCAM linkages between microtubules, but also limited to couplings between small groups of subsynaptic zones in widely different brain regions because of the limited nature of point-to-point connections.

General Beliefs About Mental Illness

As previously mentioned, popular religious practices play a central role in Dominican life. Religiosidad popular Dominicana includes a mixture of mystical African values and Catholicism, including spiritism such as Dominican voodoo, curanderismo, and the messianic movement. Manifestations of this mixture of religious beliefs are seen in such practices such as el santiguo (blessings by the sign of the cross), curaciones (healings of all illnesses, including mental illness), and other magical rituals (Zaglul 1993) involved in taking a mental patient to a cuandera (healer). The cuandera may offer special prayers recommend baths with herbs, perfume, and or flowers to purify the person and in some special cases provide some type of exorcism. Another magical ritual is the toque de manos, a practice that was used by the kings of England and France. The toque de manos may include also the santiguo (blessing) and consist of rubbing the hands until they get hot and then placing them on the part...

Why Swear By Apollo

Asclepius married Epione, a noted healer in her own right. She was a daughter of Heracles, and their children signify the diverse branches of health and healing. Two daughters are mentioned in the Oath Hygieia (goddess of health or preventive health care) and Panacea (All-Heal, goddess of remedies). There were three other divine offspring Iaso (goddess of medicine, from which the word iatros, meaning physician, comes), Aigle (radiance), and a deified son, Telesphorus (god of convalescence). Asclepius and Epione also had two human sons, Machaon and Podalirius. Homer names Asclepius as a historical lord who sent his sons Podalirius and Machaon, both skilled healers, to lead troops in the Trojan War.5 Machaon was killed as part of the force that entered Troy in the Wooden Horse.6 Podalirius survived the war and traveled south to settle on the Ionian coast of the Mediterranean Sea, an area that is now part of Turkey. His descendents sailed to the nearby island of Cos, which is still part...

Hippocrates

Admirers have diligently searched for information about the historical Hippocrates.3 It is certain that he was an actual person who was born in 460 BCE on the Greek island of Cos. His immediate forebears were prominent healers. Nothing is known of his childhood or medical training, though the latter presumably included a medical apprenticeship in the family. It is said that he married well, though his wife's name is unknown. His two sons and a son-in-law, Polybus, became physicians. After his parents died, he moved to Thessaly on the Greek mainland, possibly leaving the medical center in Cos under the leadership of Polybus. Some say he moved because of a dispute with a competing medical school on a nearby island, Cnidos. Some say that he set fire to its library. Some say that a dream sent him to Thessaly. Some say that he left Cos to broaden his knowledge of medicine or to study the relationship between various environments and health. Academic quarrels, scandal, dreams, whim, and the...

Committees

Committees are the lifeblood of oligarchic management, but as any haematologist will tell you, too much blood is a bad thing, it slows the circulation and can lead to thrombosis. To you, as a manager, committees will sometimes seem to have a life of their own, a malevolent alien life force sucking the energies of the organisation. However, if they are managed well by the chairperson and participants, they can move the process of management ahead speedily and effectively, but if they are managed badly they are one of the most frustrating wastes of time that you are likely to experience. I am saddened by the waste of time, talent and money reflected in getting together the people who attend those meetings meetings in which multidisciplinary, well-behaved worthies sit about exchanging platitudes, bemoaning the difficulties, pledging cooperative working after in-depth reappraisals where sharp-nosed chairs call everyone by their Christian names and make a point of not leaving out the...

Providential Enigmas

The nature of this mitochondrial-nuclear collaboration is both a source of wonderment and a striking testimonial to the history-laden, nonsensical design motifs of molecular associations. Many biochemical interactions between products of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are intensely intimate. For example, within the oxidative phosphorylation oval pictured in Figure 4.2 (p. 86) exists a series of molecular protein complexes (respiratory units I-V, not shown) that govern the flow of hydrogen electrons and protons necessary to produce most of the 120 watts of power that energize a man, woman, or child. Each respiratory complex itself is a joint venture of mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Seven of the more than twenty-five polypeptides in complex I are specified by mitochondrial genes, the remainder by nuclear genes three among the thirteen subunits in complex IV are mtDNA encoded, and so on. As Doug Wallace explains, the mitochondrial symbiont ensures its own survival by keeping...

Reductionism

To statements of belief there is no scientific response, but if we can agree on the physical basis of life and mind, the scope of the discussion narrows. Let us agree, therefore, that all biological and mental phenomena supervene on the physical in the following sense. If the constituent matter is removed, the phenomenon in question disappears, or as philosopher Jaegwon Kim puts it in the context of cognitive phenomena 20 Any two things that are exact physical duplicates are exact psychological duplicates as well. This position is called physicalism, and among biologists it is now widely accepted for the phenomenon of life. In other words, there is no Bergsonian life force or elan vital that exists independent of the molecules comprising a living organism. Simarly, most neuroscientists believe that a person's mind (or consciousness) would not survive removal of the molecules of his or her brain. Under this assumption, two questions arise.

Harm reduction

Healing touch Healing touch is believed by some to accelerate wound healing, relieve pain, promote relaxation, prevent illness, and ease the dying process. The practitioner uses light touch or works with his or her hands near the client's body in an effort to restore the client's energy system.

Herpes simplex 219

Herbs A flowering plant whose stem above ground does not become woody and persistent. Today more and more facts are being reported in prestigious medical journals about their preventa-tive and healing benefits. The exact reasons for the positive effect herbs exert on the human body is not always known. It is evident, however, that the nutrient and nonnutrient chemicals stored within a plant's cellular structure are in forms that are easily metabolized by the gastric juices, enzymes, and hormones of the body. The therapeutic action of herbs comes from alkaloids, organic nitrogenous compounds that cause certain chemical reactions within the body. Herbs may also contain minerals, vitamins, and salts that help the body resist disease, strengthen tissues, and improve the nervous system.

Aesthetic Needs

People with strong aesthetic needs desire beautiful and orderly surroundings, and when these needs are not met, they become sick in the same way that they become sick when their conative needs are frustrated. People prefer beauty to ugliness, and they may even become physically and spiritually ill when forced to live in squalid disorderly environments (Maslow, 1970).

The primitive Earth

Of the many extraordinary results of these experiments, one of the most illuminating is the fact that, among the intermediate products, there were hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and formaldehyde (CH2O). Hydrogen cyanide can lead to adenine, which can be regarded as a HCN polymer (Figure 5.2), whilst formaldehyde can be turned into ribose (Figure 5.3). Together with phosphates, furthermore, these two compounds can form ATP, the molecule that cells use as a universal energy source. Formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, moreover, allow the synthesis of many amino acids such as glycine (Figure 5.4).

Energy Changes

Some toxins affect cardiac activity by reducing the availability of energy by means of modifying mitochondrial function. In this context it should be mentioned that the heart is especially vulnerable to energy perturbations because it has very limited storage of energy and, conversely, has a great need for uninterrupted energy flow. Some toxins impair energy flow by attacking the mitochondrion of myocytes. Various outcomes result, including depletion of high energy phosphates, reduction in the cell's ability to deal with oxidative damage, and calcium overload within the cell. One agent that may inhibit intracellular energy flow is calcium. When calcium is present in high amounts in the heart cell, it accumulates in the mitochondria. One of its effects at that location is the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Cyanide and carbon monoxide affect the energy currency of every cell but, as mentioned earlier, the heart is especially involved because of its high energy demands.

Persuasion

Greek physicians had to persuade patients to seek them out, to accept recommendations, and to pay for services.11 They faced competition from herbalists, traditional healers, and temple healers. Temple healers had a competitive advantage in being able to explain their failures as due to an overpowering curse, while physicians could only explain their failures by pleading the imperfec They denounced quackery, as in this acid comment about healers who built reputations by dropping suspended persons from ladders to straighten curved spines

Membrane Changes

Some cardiotoxins derive their deleterious effects by specific actions on the myocyte membrane. These actions are multi-targeted and may include some directed at mitochondria, plasma membranes, lysosomes, or sarcoplasmic reticulum. Within those particular structures the specific type of membrane action may involve disruption of energy flow, intracellular calcium accumulation, activation of hydrolytic enzymes, or altered contractility of heart muscle. This topic is expanded under the discussion of specific cardiotoxins (see below).

Managing Emotion

Although we will probably never succeed in eliminating weekend work schedules from the health care environment, we can use this example as a starting point for other situations more relevant to nursing. Emotion management and problem solving have similarities they both require assessment of a situation and thoughtful efforts to correct it. A shortfall occurs when we as leaders fail to recognize the emotion that a problem is generating or we fail to consider the emotional element in solving it. The success of emotion management is demonstrated in the ability to process negative energies into positive outcomes (Staring, 1999).

Pain threshold

Other interventions include general comfort measures, radiation or chemotherapy, nerve blocks, and complementary therapy believed by some to offer relief, such as aromatherapy, therapeutic touch, and relaxation and imagery techniques. Massage, acupuncture, physical therapy, heat, ice, music, and topical mentholated products may also provide additional comfort.

Thermodynamics

Energy is conserved and remains constant, but it changes and flows from state to state. This set up the need for the second law, which provided the motive force for energy flow. An early observer, Sadi Carnot, compared a steam engine to a mill wheel the fall of heat from higher to lower temperatures drove the steam engine, just as the falling of the water turned the mill wheel. If the energy in the system remained constant, what explained the change in the system Something had to be driving the change in energy from one system to another and physicists called that force entropy. In Carnot's mechanical systems, entropy was dissipated potential. If there is an imbalance between states of energy, something called a field is set up. The potential difference of that field generates entropy the need to equalize and de-organize that potential difference. Natural processes occur because of the need to dissipate the potential difference of energy (and of matter, which Einstein showed us was...

Who Are Physicians

This ethics question looks at the moral underpinnings of the profession, the identities of its practitioners, and their duties to secure the profession's future. The Oath's Apollonian opening refers to a rich set of moral stories about the foundation of medicine. These stories say that being a healer is a heroic enterprise. They tell of how the passion to heal is grounded on love and grief and teach that physicians must not pretend to contest the fact of human mortality. Asclepius, Unceasingly gentle, and Epione, Soothing, passed a common spirit to the diverse branches of healing. Physicians swore by the entire family of Asclepius and Epione. The Oath explicitly mentioned Hygieia (goddess of health or preventive health care) and Panacea (All-Heal, goddess of remedies) and called on their siblings, all the gods as well as goddesses as well. In this way, physicians embraced Iaso (goddess of medicine), Aigle (radiance) and Telesphorus (god of convalescence). In opening medical...

Mass suicide

In 1978 about 900 people, members of a religious sect called the People's Temple, died in Guyana, South America. Founded in California by Jim Jones, a faith-healing preacher, the sect comprised a motley group including drug addicts, the maladjusted, mentally afflicted, and some ex-convicts. When a group of relatives arrived determined to investigate the activities of the sect, the founder managed to convince his followers to drink a potion prepared by the medical officer, which contained potassium cyanide and was highly effective. Jones then shot himself.

Reiki 101

Reiki 101

Looked upon as a mysterious practice, reiki originated from Japan, around 1922. Started by a Japanese Buddhist, this practice of purported healing basically uses the palm of an individual to emit positive healing energy unto the patient. Sometimes reiki is referred to as oriental style treatment by professional medical bodies.

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