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Hair Loss Black Book Summary

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Hair loss

Children with anorexia also can develop osteoporosis, muscle loss and weakness, severe dehydration leading to kidney failure, fainting, fatigue, and overall weakness, hair loss, and growth of a downy layer of hair called lanugo all over the body, including the face. As the girl's weight plummets, vital organs such as the brain and heart can be damaged.

Blood poisoning See septicemia

Boil An inflamed pus-filled section of skin (usually an infected hair follicle) found often on the back of the neck or moist areas such as the armpits and groin. A very large boil is called a carbuncle. Boils are usually caused by infection with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, which invades the body through a break in the skin, where it infects a blocked oil gland or hair follicle. When the body's immune system sends in white blood cells to kill the germs, the resulting inflammation produces pus.

Adverse skin reactions to drugs

Antimalarials are generally well tolerated when compared with other disease-modifying drugs. In terms of cutaneous reactions, antimalarials can induce urticaria, pruritus (Holme et al., 1999), alopecia, hair bleaching, dry skin, pigment changes, rashes, flares of psoriasis, and exfoliating lesions (Vine et al., 1996), as well as a Stevens-Johnsonlike syndrome (Kutz and Bridges, 1995). Most patients continue HCQ therapy in the long term, but 3 discontinue HCQ because of adverse cutaneous reactions (Salido et al., 2002).

Choice of CLE measures 721 Erythema

The CLASI, the PASI, the DSSI and many other clinical instruments depend heavily on the assessment of erythema when activity of the diseases is measured. This is quite reasonable since erythema is a prominent symptom that is easily recognized by patients and physicians alike other symptoms like minor scaling and non-scarring diffuse alopecia may escape notice more easily. Physiologically, erythema is one of the most clear-cut symptoms of disease activity because it is a direct reflection of the hyperemia, which accompanies inflammation, and it can be assessed on black skin. Lahti et al. (1993) correlated the clinical assessment of erythema by the trained eye to assessment determined by a laser Doppler flowmeter, an erythema meter and a chromameter. Their findings indicate that visual assessments correspond well

Definition of Disease

Secondary syphilis is characterized by systemic manifestations of the disease. The presenting feature is usually a rash and lesions on the mucous membranes. The rash is typically rough, red, or brownish red, and found mainly on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.1 Rash may be accompanied by fever, swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, patchy hair loss, headache, weight loss, muscle ache, and fatigue.1 The rash can appear concurrent with a healing chancre or can appear several weeks to years later. The rash will resolve without treatment, but without treatment the risk of developing late or tertiary disease is greater.

Contextual information

We have seen that there are only four types of second messengers, and yet the signals that they set in motion do have specific effects, i.e. they are able to find individual genes among tens of thousands. How this is achieved is still a mystery, but some progress has been made and so far the most illuminating discovery in the field has been the demonstration that signalling molecules have in general more than one function. Epidermal growth factor, for example, stimulates fibroblasts and keratinocytes to proliferate, but has an anti-proliferative effect on hair follicle cells, whereas in the intestine it is a suppressor of gastric acid secretion. Other findings have proved that all growth factors can have three different functions, with proliferative, anti-proliferative, and proliferation-independent effects. They are, in short, multifunctional molecules (Sporn and Roberts, 1988).

Androgen receptor gene mutations 1 60000

In this condition, the androgen receptor (AR) is absent or functionally altered such that testosterone or its more bioactive derivative, dihydrotestosterone, cannot activate target genes. Thus, androgens have little to no effect on tissues as such the development of both internal and external genitalia are affected. Depending on the severity of the AR defect, serum testosterone levels can be low, normal or high. The androgen balance in each individual depends on the functional integrity of AR within the pituitary and hypothalamus. The clinical picture of infertility is also variable (nomenclature includes Reifenstein, Lub and Rosewater syndromes) and ranges from apparent females with testes (complete androgen insensitivity) to normal but infertile males (Shkolny et al., 1999).

Pathways of transdermal delivery

Normally, the contribution of the appendageal permeation to total passive transport is very small and may be negligible. However, the append-ageal route becomes very important during transdermal iontophoretic transport as it provides the shortest shunt pathway to the flow of electric current and ions.17 Laboratory animals such as rats, mice, and rabbits lack sweat glands but have more hair follicles than human skin. Hairless animals are sometimes used in iontophoresis research for this reason, but it should be realized that even these animals may have rudimentary follicles although the shafts are absent. Larger animals have more anatomical features in com mon with humans thus, weanling pigs and the rhesus monkey may be good models for transdermal studies.1819 The pig skin is considered to be morphologically and functionally similar to human skin and has a hair follicle density identical to that of human skin.1420

Clinical Features of Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

PCT is characterized by skin lesions, without neurovisceral acute attacks. Sun exposure prompts the development of vesicles or bullae in sun-exposed skin, which heal slowly with scarring and either hypo- or hyperpigmentation, typically over the backs of the hands and on the face, neck, and legs.1 Skin fragility is common and characteristic, seen as erosions after minimal trauma. Other lesions include milia in sites of previous bullae, hypertrichosis often in a malar distribution, and less commonly alopecia and scleroderma-like hypopigmented lesions.

Nuclear Steroid Receptors

Androgens such as testosterone (T), 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) play important roles in sexual differentiation and development of secondary sex characteristic in male vertebrates. The teleost ovary produces large amounts of androgens, and circulating androgen levels in females are often greater than those of estrogens during ovarian recrudescence. The major ovarian androgen, testosterone, serves as the precursor for estrogen biosynthesis, but studies have shown that androgens are also involved in other physiological functions in female vertebrates, such as bone metabolism, cardiac growth, and regulation of the immune system (Ikeda et al., 2005 Michael et al., 2005 Syed and Khosla, 2005 Ahmadi and McCruden, 2006). However, the identification of androgen-binding activities in ovarian cytosolic extracts of coho salmon and Atlantic croaker characteristic of nuclear androgen receptors (nAR) (Fitzpatrick et al., 1994 Sperry and Thomas, 1999a, b), indicates...

Tat gene inhibitor See tat inhibitor

It has a long list of side effects, the most serious of which is severe and potentially fatal allergic reactions. Bone-marrow toxicity, resulting in a deficiency of white blood cells called neutropenia, is also common but is manageable and reversible. peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological side effect. Neuropathy is generally cumulative with repeated doses, and more likely to occur in people at risk for it, for instance those who have experienced neuropathy as a side effect of other therapy. other side effects include irregular heart rhythm, hair loss, diarrhea, skin rashes, nausea, vomiting, stomach irritation, and seizures. Taxol is available as a solution for intravenous injection. (Brand name is Paclitaxal.)

Sex hormones and the hippocampus

In turn, androgen treatment induces changes in NMDA receptor expression and alters neuronal activity mediated by NMDA receptors in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Electrophysiological , chronic treatment of castrated rats with the potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) increased the action potential duration of CA1 pyramidal neurons and decreased the amplitude of the fast hyperpolarization moreover, DHT treatment promoted recovery of the membrane potential after depolarization with NMDA (Pouliot, Handa, and Beck,

Pivotal Clinical Studies

One major advantage of trastuzumab compared to the majority of chemotherapeutic agents is the safety profile (55). As expected for a targeted agent, toxicities typically associated with chemotherapy, such as myelotoxicity, mucositis, and alopecia, rarely occur in patients treated with trastuzumab as a single agent (7,54,56). The most common treatment-related adverse events occur after the first infusion and consist of chills, fever, and nausea. These events are much less frequent after the second and subsequent infusions. Because of the increased risk of cardiotoxicity of anthracycline-trastuzumab combinations (see Section 3.2.2), trastuzumab-associated cardiac events have been thoroughly investigated. In data pooled from patients included in trastuzumab trials, the incidence of heart failure was 2.7 in patients treated with antibody alone. Notably, patients at risk can often be identified prior to therapy, as the majority had a history of cardiac disease, cardiac risk factors (NYHA...

Partial Autosomal Aneuploidies

Pallister Killian Syndrome

Many patients die shortly after birth, but survival to adulthood is possible. Clinically, a distinct pattern of anomalies is observed in these patients. Growth parameters at birth are usually normal. Profound hypotonia is present in the newborn period, whereas contractures develop later in life. Sparse scalp hair, especially bitemporally, is observed in infancy, with coarsening of facial features over time. Craniofacial dysmorphism includes prominent forehead, large malformed ears, hyper-telorism, epicanthal folds, broad flat nasal bridge, short nose, upturned nares, long philtrum, thin upper lip, and high arched palate. Most patients have a generalized pigmentary dysplasia with areas of hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation. Other abnormalities include short neck, macroglossia, micrognathia progressing to prognathia, accessory nipples, umbilical and inguinal hernias, and urogenital abnormalities. Severe mental retardation and seizure are seen in those who survive.

Differential diagnosis of papulosquamous SCLE

Lupus Rash Forearms

CCLE lesions gradually become infiltrated and extend peripherally with an active erythemato-squamous border, while partially resolving in the central area, with the development of scleroatro-phy, telangiectases, hypo- or hyperpigmentation and cicatricial alopecia. epidermal involvement and patchy lymphocytic infiltrates in the superficial dermis below the dermo-epidermal junction and around hair follicles while tumid LE may be distinguished by the presence of minimal signs of epidermal involvement and the abundant mucin deposition. DIF is negative in Jessner's lymphocytic infiltration and recently immunohistochemical analysis has revealed a predominance of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate (Poenitz et al., 2003). 4.6.1. Lichen ruber planus vs late CCLE The involvement of the scalp is very frequent in a variant of lichen ruber planus called lichen plano-pilaris, and leads to the development of a cicatri-cial alopecia that has to be differentiated from late CCLE of the...

Thallium in the human body

Why does the body accept thallium so easily The reason is that the positively charged thallium ion (Tl+) is almost the same size as the potassium ion (K+) which is essential to living cells. Tl+ is sufficiently similar to that of K+ for it to get into the cell but once inside the cell the slight differences that there are become apparent and the cell's function is impaired. Thallium mimics potassium so effectively that it can displace it at all sites around the body but most damagingly along the central nervous system which soon begins to malfunction. Thallium eventually affects hair follicles and these become unable to produce more hair. The existing hair drops off, and this occurs all over the body. A fatal dose of thallium for an adult is around 800 mg, which is less than a quarter of a teaspoonful, and yet doses of 500 mg of thallium salts were prescribed medically as a pre-treatment for ringworm. J Only when all the hair had been removed was it thought possible to eradicate the...

Moniliasis See thrush

Illness in the animals has included fever, cough, swollen, reddened eyes, and swollen glands followed by a rash and hair loss, although not all of these signs have been present in all animals. Some prairie dogs died and others recovered. The sick rabbit associated with one human case had prior

The Skin as an Immunologic Organ

The skin has many eccrine and sebaceous glands. While eccrine glands produce predominantly a watery type of sweat important for thermoregulation, sebaceous glands secrete a complex mixture of triglycerides, fatty acids, squalene and cholesterol, which forms a film on hair follicles and the epidermal surface. Sebum has several protective functions, including its ability to repel water and protect the surface of the skin from growth and invasion by bacteria and fungi (Nickoloff, 2001). In addition, after exposure to various microorganisms or inflammatory cytokines, keratinocytes secrete several antimicrobial peptides, including defensins and cathelecidins (Bardan et al., 2004). These antibiotics introduce pores in bacterial walls, which can directly kill the infectious microbe in the absence of a specific immune reaction. Moreover, they can attract and activate immature dendritic cells, thus providing an important link between innate and adaptive immunity. strict relationships with the...

Villous tumor See papilloma

Vinblastine An anticancer agent used for the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma, testicular cancer, and breast cancer. In people with HIV, it is used for the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma. Vinblastine belongs to a class of cancer drugs called vinca alkyloids, which are naturally occurring chemicals isolated from the periwinkle plant. Vinca alkyloids stop the growth of tumors by preventing cells from dividing. Although vinblastine can be used by itself to treat cancers, it is used more frequently in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. Vinblastine is available as a solution for intravenous injection. The most common side effect is reduction in the number of white blood cells, which occurs, to some extent, in virtually everyone using the drug. Hair loss occurs commonly. Constipation, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, sore mouth, jaw pain, diarrhea, stomach bleeding, and rectal bleeding may occur. In general, side effects occur most frequently when large...

The medical uses and commercial abuses of thallium

Accidental overdoses of thallium acetate led to several fatalities in the 1920s and 1930s, and as a result thallium treatments were phased out and ceased being used after the 1950s. In one incident a group of boys in Budapest who had ringworm were given 5000 mg doses instead of 500 mg and they all died. The same thing happened at an orphanage in Granada, Spain, when 14 out of 16 children who were given overdoses died in that case the cause was the pharmacist's faulty weighing scales. Of those who died, none showed loss of hair and of the two who survived, the hair loss did not begin until as late as a month after the thallium acetate had been taken.

Food and Drug Act of 1906 187

Folliculitis A common problem in HIV. It is a bacterial infection that is localized in a hair follicle. It can appear around beards, the back of legs, any where that there is hair. It is commonly due to Staphylococcus aureus, generally called staph. boils are a deep hair follicle infection by this organism. Recommended treatment includes soap and water, antiseptics, antibiotic ointment, and oral antibiotics, in ascending order. A type of folliculitis that results from unclean warm or hot water, called spa pool folliculitis, is due to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Late in HIV infection some people experience a red, itchy, acnelike skin eruption that appears similar to staph folliculitis but is not caused by bacteria or fungi. The exact cause of eosinophilic folliculitis is in fact still unknown. The eosinophils are known to be involved in allergic reactions, and they are clustered in the areas of these bumps, but what they are reacting to is not understood. The condition is...

Differential Diagnosis

The diagnosis of APS type 1 is established when at least two of the following three findings are identified in a patient mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison disease adrenal autoantibodies. APS type 1 has also been termed the autoimmune dystrophy (APECED) syndrome because associated disorders include dental enamel hypoplasia and nail dystrophy. Other associated diseases in APS type 1 patients include gonaditis (producing primary gonadal failure in women) and autoimmune hepatitis. Less commonly associated conditions are type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroid disease, vitiligo, alopecia, fat malabsorption, IgA deficiency, pernicious anemia, red cell aplasia, and progressive myopathy. The diagnosis of APS type 2 is confirmed when Addison disease (or adrenal autoanti-bodies) is associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus and or autoimmune thyroid disease. Less often associated disorders include gonaditis, hypophysitis, autoimmune hepatitis, vitiligo, alopecia,...

Thallium as a homicidal agent

Thallium may appear to be an ideal poison but it has two major disadvantages. The first one is that a victim will recover from a less-than-fatal dose and suffer hair loss, which would give the game away. The second is that forensic analysis can reveal its presence after death and even after cremation because some thallium migrates to the bones and is there retained. Nevertheless, unless thallium poisoning is suspected a murderer might well escape detection, and this is what happened in Austria in the 1930s and Australia in the 1950s. Another famous case of thallium murder was that of Mrs Fletcher, who was tried in 1953 in New South Wales, Australia, accused of murdering her husband by feeding him Thalrat rat poison.* He died after 11 days of agony including hair loss and excruciating pain in his arms and legs. His condition was undiagnosed during his lifetime but post-mortem analysis of his remains revealed 100 mg of thallium in his body. Mrs Fletcher's first husband, Mr Bulter, had...

The validation process

Nurses have been involved in the validation of acne-lesion counting (Lucky et al., 1996), patient assessment in many dermatological trials is routinely done by physicians only. This should be especially true for diseases as serious and clinically heterogeneous as cutaneous LE or DM. Additionally, we believe that relevant comorbidity in cutaneous LE or DM may escape untrained observers. Examples are male or female pattern hair loss or fungal infections that can be easily mistaken for LE- or DM-specific skin lesions. least 6 months, are documented. The signs of damage listed are calcinosis, scarring alopecia, cutaneous scarring or atrophy, poikiloderma or lipo-dystrophy. In conclusion, due to its limitation to damage and the 6-month time horizon the index is not useful as an outcome instrument for clinical research but may well be used for baseline comparison.

Separate measurements of disease activity and damage

As described above, the CLASI has two scores. It is designed as a table where the rows denote anatomical areas, while the columns score major clinical symptoms (see Fig. 1). The left side of the instrument describes the activity of the disease, while the right side describes the damage done by the disease. Activity is scored as a summary score of erythema, scale hypertrophy, mucous-membrane involvement, acute hair loss and non-scarring alopecia. Damage is scored in terms of dyspigmentation and scarring, including scarring alopecia. Patients are asked whether dyspigmen-tation due to CLE lesions usually remains visible for more than 12 months, which is taken to be permanent. If so, the dyspigmentation score is doubled. The scores are calculated by simple addition based on the extent of the symptoms. The extent of involvement for each of the skin symptoms is documented according to specific anatomic areas that are scored according to the worst affected lesion within that area for each...

Presenter Abigail Smith

Rodent population densities have been shown to alter a number of normal and experimental parameters. In general, provision of less floor space either had no effect or was beneficial, resulting in enhanced immune responses and reduced mortality and aggression. Our study was designed to reveal how floor space and cage type might influence several parameters in young adult C57BL 6J (B6) male and female mice. The indices we studied were survival, aggressive behavior or injuries, body weight, food and water consumption, cage microenvironment (in-cage ammonia and CO2 levels, temperature, and relative humidity), hair loss (a commonly observed characteristic in B6 mice, particularly females), urinary testosterone concentrations, and microscopic evidence of ammonia damage to nasal passages and eyeballs. We housed the mice in three

Hair Removal Products

Laser hair removal is relatively new. As the laser is moved over the skin, the light passes through and is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair follicles. It is believed that the heat generated by the laser breaks apart the follicle and the hair falls out over a period of approximately two months. The treatment is best suited for fair-skinned people with dark hair. In darker skinned people, the skin pigment can absorb the laser before it reaches the hair follicle, making the treatment less effective. Light-colored hair may not contain enough melanin. Multiple treatments are required to achieve a meaningful reduction in the amount of hair on the area. Adverse effects of laser hair removal include an extreme sensitivity of the treated skin. Rarely, peeling, blistering, and burning of the skin may occur, as well as brown spots or a slight loss of pigment in areas where the laser has been used.

The Basic Somatosensory System

Afferents from the mechanoreceptors in the skin and muscle spindles terminate in a somatotopic pattern (for review, including humans and other primates, see Florence et al., 1989 Coq et al., 2000) in the dorsal column-trigeminal complex in the lower brain stem. Some of the muscle-spindle afferent terminations are segregated in separate subnuclei (the external cuneate nucleus for the forelimb). There is evidence from cats (Dykes et al., 1982) that the rapidly adapting (RA) and slowly adapting (SA) classes of afferents terminate in separate clusters of cells in the dorsal column nuclei. Glaborous skin has two types of slowly adapting afferents (SAI and SAII) associated with Merkel cell and Ruffini endings, respectively, and two types of rapidly adapting afferents (RAI and RAII), associated with Meissner corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles, respectively. Hairy skin also has hair follicle receptors.

Case 3

This 49-year-old woman was referred with a 2-month history of pain in the jaw and ear and tightness in her lower neck with swallowing. She had noted fatigue, heat intolerance, sweating, palpitations, and shakiness for 2 mo, along with slight hair loss. She had no past or family history of thyroid disease. TSH was less than 0.1 (0.4-5), FT4 was 2.6 (0.8-1.8).

Nager Syndrome

This condition features downward slanting eyelids, absent or underdeveloped cheekbones, a severely underdeveloped lower jaw, malformed outer and middle ears, cleft palate, absence of lower eyelashes, scalp hair growing onto the cheeks, and underdeveloped or missing thumbs.

Cytochrome P450 129

120 to 270 mg per kg of body weight, administered over a few days. In a few instances, severe and fatal congestive heart failure has occurred. Nausea, vomiting, and temporary hair loss occur frequently. Bone-marrow toxicity that causes reductions in white blood cell count are common. Reductions in the number of platelets and red blood cells develop occasionally but are reversible after therapy stops. Finally, severe toxicity to the lungs or kidneys also occurs occasionally. Rarely, allergic reactions, and death have been reported.

Dauno Xome 135

Daunorubicin hydrochloride An antineoplastic drug, that is, a drug that controls or inhibits the growth of malignant cells. Daunorubicin is a modified form of an antibiotic isolated from a species of funguslike bacterium called Streptomyces coeruleom-bidus. A potent bone marrow suppressant, the drug inhibits the synthesis of nucleic acids, preventing cancer cells from dividing. Risk of opportunistic infection or bleeding generally increases. When it is used in people taking AZT or ganciclovir, colony stimulating factors are often used as well to limit bone marrow suppression. With standard intravenous administration, fatal congestive heart failure may occur either during therapy or months to years after the drug is used. The risk increases proportionately to the total cumulative dose. Severe myelosup-pression occurs when daunorubicin is used in either its standard intravenous form or when encapsulated by liposomes. Reversible hair loss occurs in most people treated with standard...


Means of fixation have also evolved over the past 10 years. Early endoscopic approaches used bolster dressings, sutures or, more commonly, percutaneous screw fixation.6,11 The percutaneous screw was placed through the lateral endo-brow incision and into the outer table of the skull. A staple was then used behind the screw to maintain forehead elevation, once the scalp and forehead had been pulled posteriorly. Although effective, this approach resulted in traction on the scalp that occasionally caused hair loss. Further, patients were quite averse to the exposed screws in their scalp and were displeased at the idea of having screws in their skulls.

Prozac 415

The general signs include dwarfism, baldness, a pinched nose, small face and jaw relative to head size, delayed tooth formation, aged skin, stiff joints, hip dislocations, generalized atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular problems. The children have a remarkably similar appearance despite racial background, and they tend to have above-average intelligence.

Other Drugs

Cyclosporine and tacrolimus, potent immunosuppressive drugs used in transplantation, can cause abnormalities in glucose metabolism, in addition to other side effects like nephrotoxicity, hirsutism or alopecia, and tacrolimus. Histologically, cytoplasmic swelling, vacuolization, apo-ptosis, and abnormal immunostaining for insulin were reported in biopsies from patients receiving either tacrolimus or cyclosporine islet cell damage was more severe in the group receiving tacrolimus.194 The histological and clinical consequences of the treatment with these drugs were reversible with a reduction or discontinuation of the drug. Reports from clinical studies claimed that pentamidine, an antiprotozoal drug used to treat Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients, was frequently associated with dysglycemia due to its pancreatic p-cell cytotoxicity and has been considered as a new diabetogenic drug.195,196 However, the mechanisms underlying the diabetogenic effect of these drugs...

Forward scatter

Generally a small sac or vesicle. 2. Bot. A kind of fruit formed from a single carpel that splits to release its seeds. 3. Zool. Examples include hair follicle, an invagination of the epidermis into the dermis surrounding the hair root ovarian follicle, an oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of ovarian granulosa cells. As the ovarian follicle develops, a cavity forms and it is then termed a Graafian follicle.

Murder of Fred Biggs

The medical authorities were already worried about the Bovingdon bug and a team of doctors, headed by the local Medical Officer for Health, Dr Robert Hynd, had earlier visited the premises to try and discover the cause of the mysterious illness. A contaminated water supply was one theory, radioactivity was another, and a virus infection was a third possibility. Experiments with radioactive materials were being carried out on the nearby airfield and as radiation is known to cause hair loss this seemed a possible source. Unlikely though this was, the local newspaper thought it was the most probable cause of the Bovingdon bug. He then threw the meeting open for general discussion, at which Young stood up and began to air his superior knowledge about thallium poisoning, saying that he thought this was the most likely cause. He talked about its symptoms and especially its classical symptom of hair loss. When he sat down, he had in fact solved the mystery, but sealed his own fate. After the...

Ritalin 433

The infection usually begins as a small pimple that gets larger and larger, leaving scaly patches of temporary baldness infected hair is brittle and breaks off easily. sometimes there is a yellow cuplike crusty area. The infection usually appears 10 to 14 days after contact.


Before the introduction of Prussian blue, various other treatments were tried such as dimercaprol which in some cases met with apparent success, but it is not now recommended. Dithizone or dithiocarb (see Glossary) were more successful when administered at the daily rate of about 25 mg kg body-weight. This latter compound had been used in mobilizing nickel and copper in the body and thereby facilitating their excretion, and in 1959 it was shown to protect mice against poisoning by thallium sulphate. It was first used in 1962 in a case of a human thallium poisoning and it saved a life. The ability of dithiocarb to increase thallium excretion via the urine was demonstrated in 1967 in the case of an 18-year-old college student who consumed 375 mg of thallium sulphate when she tried to carry out an abortion on herself (in fact it turned out she was not pregnant). Both dithiocarb and dimercaprol were tried as chelating agents. Tests showed that, with no chelating agent, excretion of...


Based on gross measures, the health and well-being of the mice used in these studies were not affected by cage type or housing density. There were no significant differences among mice housed in three cage types, at any of the seven densities, in growth rates or food and water consumption. We did not observe aggressive or injurious behavior, and all mice survived the 8-week period of the first study. The incidence of alopecia among B6 female mice ranged from 0 to 6 in the 8-week study and was not associated with a particular cage type or housing density. The incidence of alopecia in the 4-week study was density dependent, with five of six cages containing affected female mice at the highest density.

Angiogenic Disorders

In other diseases, such as ischaemic heart disease or pre-eclampsia, the angiogenic switch is insufficient, thereby causing EC dysfunction, vessel malformation and regression, or preventing revascularisation, healing and regeneration (Table 2). In the skin, age-dependent reductions in vessel density and maturation cause vessel fragility, leading to hair loss and the development of purpura, telangiectasia, angioma and venous lake formation (Chang et al. 2002). A progressive loss of the microvasculature in elderly people has been implicated in nephropathy (Kang et al. 2001), bone loss (Martinez et al.

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